DEPARTMENT OF PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION
A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND


Food is one of the essential of life. So it should...
for human consumption;
(g)
if the article is obtained from the diseased animal;

(h) if the article contains any poisonous...
the limits of variability prescribed under this Act;
(g) if the package containing it, or the label on the package bears a...
sale, or stores, sells or distributes any adulterant which is not
injurious to heath; or
(c)
prevents a food inspector fro...
imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to six years
and with fine which shall ...
educated on various provisions of the food laws, demonstration on simple tests of
detection of adulteration in food articl...
The Lactometer reading will go above 26 while
the milk apparently remains thick.
The milk can easily be tested by Urease s...
Boil a small quantity of sample with some
water, cool and add a few drops of loding
solution. Formation of blue colour ind...
starches are presents.
6) Butter a) Vanaspati or
Margraine
b) Mashed Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes and
other starches
Consumer w...
possibility of cancer.
Causes vomiting
gastro enterities
(Diarrohea)
Convulsions oedema
Stomatch disorder
Take small quant...
Degeneration of testis
in males
Carcingenic may
cause bladder cencer
Add few drops of Hydrochloric acid,
effervescence (gi...
Leaves bitter tastes at the end.
ii) Take two spoons of liquid sample or
about 5 to 10 gms of solid sample with
little qua...
The affected wheat karnel have a dull
apperance, blackish in colour and rotten fish
smell
Assemble mustard seed which show...
Affect intestines
Lathyrism, Paralysis
ii) Take some rice and sprinkle on it a
small amount of soaked lime for some
time.
...
developed, indicates, the presence of khesari
flour.
These can be examined visually
Papaya seeds can be seprated out from ...
Stomach disorders,
Degeneration of tests
in male/cancer
Small size and shrunken appearance. The
characheristic pungent tas...
Add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric
acid, effervesence (give off bubbles) will
indicate the presnce of chalk of y...
in water will continue to give its safforn colour
so long as it lasts.
i) Test as per the kit supplied by the salt
Deptt. ...
By moving a magnet through the sample, iron
filling can be separated.
Gently sprinkle the coffee powder sample on
the surf...
Silver leaves
Vinegar
Aluminium leaves
Mineral acid
Being Reactive
reduces the supply of
essential
Micronutrients
Toxic/da...
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Transcript of "pfa back ground test of adut"

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Food is one of the essential of life. So it should be pure, nutritious and free from any type of adulteration for proper maintenance of human health. It is the duty of every Government to make pure food available to the countrymen in sufficient quantities. In order to make available unadulterated food in the country, the Government makes various food laws. Similarly, Government of India also made the laws to prevent adulteration in food articles in 1954 called "Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954". To given effect to the provisions of the Act, Rules were made in 1955 and called "Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955". Though PFA Act and Rules are Central Legislature but the responsibility of implementation has been entrusted to the State Governments and Union Territories. Each State Government and Union Territory has created its own organisation for implementation of the Act and Rules framed thereunder. SCOPE OF THE P.F.A. ACT The PFA Act makes provisions for the prevention of adulteration in food, enacted by the Parliament and it extends to the whole of India. Based on the experience of the Act from time to time, various provisions of Act have been amended in the year 1964, 1976 and 1986. These amendments have been aimed at providing stringent punishments to the offenders and giving powers to the voluntary consumer organisations to actively associate themselves in the programme of implementation of food laws. Under the provisions of PFA Act & Rules the terms like Adulterant, Adulterated Food, Food, Misbranded Food, Primary Food etc. have been defined as follows" 1. ADULTERANT: means any material which is or could be employed for the purposes of adulteration. 2. ADULTERATED FOOD: An article of food shall be deemed to be adulterated: (a) if the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchases and is to his prejudice, or is not of the nature, substance or quality which it purports or is represented to be; (b) if the article contains any other substance which effects, or if the article is so processed as to affect injuriously the nature, substance or quality thereof; (c) if any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or in part for the article; so as to affect, so as to affect injuriously the nature, substance or quality thereof; (d) if any constituent of the article has been wholly or in part abstracted so as to affect injuriously the nature, substance or quality thereof; (e) if the article has been prepared, packed or kept under insanitary condition whereby it has become contaminated or injurious to health; (f) if the article consists wholly or in part of any filthy, putrid rotten, decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable substance or is insect infested or is otherwise unfit
  2. 2. for human consumption; (g) if the article is obtained from the diseased animal; (h) if the article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which renders it injurious to health. (i) if the container of the article is composed, whether wholly or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which renders its contents injurious to health; (j) if any colouring matter other than that prescribed in respect thereof is present in the article, or if the amounts of the prescribed colouring matter which is present in the article are not within the prescribed limits of variability; (k) if the article contains any prohibited preservative or permitted preservative in excess of the prescribed limits; (l) if the quality of purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard as laid down under Appendix B of PFA Rules, 1955 or its constituents are present quantities not within the prescribed limits of variability, which renders it injurious to health; in (m) if the quality or purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard or its constituents are present in quantities are within the prescribed limit of variability but which does not render it injurious to health; Provided that where the quality or purity of the article, being primary food, has fallen below the prescribed standards or its constituents are present in quantities not within the prescribed limits of variability, in either case, solely due to natural cases and beyond the control of human agency, then such article shall not be deemedto be adulterated within the meaning of this sub-clause. Thus, food adulteration includes not only the intentional addition, substitution or abstraction of substances which adversely affects the nature, substances, quality of foods but also their incidental contamination during storage, processing, transportation and distribution. 3. FOOD: means any article used as food or drink for human consumption other than drugs and water and includes: (a) any article which ordinarily enters into, or is used in the composition or preparation of, human food, (b) any flavouring matter or condiments, and (c) any other article which the Central Government may, having regard to its use, nature, substance or quality, declare, by notification in the Official Gazette, as food for the purposes of this Act. 4. MISBRANDED : an article of food shall be deemed to be misbranded: (a) if it is an imitation of , or is a substitute for, or resembles in a manner likely to deceive, another article of food under the name of which it is sold, and is not plainly and conspicuously labelled so as to indicate its true character; (b) if it is falsely stated to be the product of any place of country; (c) if it is sold by a name which belongs to another article of food; (d) if it is so coloured, flavoured or coated. powdered or polished that the article is damaged is concealed or if the article is made to appear better or of greater value than it really is; (e) if false claims are made for it upon the lable or otherwise; (f) if when sold in packages which have been sealed or prepared by or at the instance of the manufacturer or producer and which bear his name and address, the contents of each package are not conspicuously and correctly stated on the outside thereof within
  3. 3. the limits of variability prescribed under this Act; (g) if the package containing it, or the label on the package bears any statement, design or device regarding the ingredients or the substances contained therein, which is false or misleading in any material particular, or if the package is otherwise deceptive with respect to its contents; (h) if the package containing it or the label on the package bears the name of a fictitious individual or company as the manufacturer or producer of the article; (i) if it purports to be, or is represented as being, for special dietary uses, unless its label bears such information as may be prescribed concerning its vitamin, mineral, or other dietary properties in order sufficiently to inform its purchases as to its value for such uses; (j) if it contains any artificial flavouring, artificial colouring or chemical preservative, without a declaratory requirements of this Act or Rules made thereunder; label stating that fact, or in contravention of the (k) if it is not labelled in accordance with the requirements of this Act or Rules made thereunder; 5. PRIMARY FOOD: means any article of food, being a produce of agriculture or horticulture in its natural form. PROHIBITION OF MANUFACTURE, SALE ETC. OF CERTAIN ARTICLES OF FOOD No person shall himself or by any person on his behalf manufacture for sale or store, sell or distribute: (i) any adulterated food, (ii) any misbranded food, (iii) any article of food for the sale of which a licence if prescribed except in accordance with the conditions of the licence, (iv) any article of food the sale of which is for the time being prohibited by the Food (Health) Authority in the interest of public health, (v) any article of food in contravention of any other provision of this Act or of any rule made thereunder, (vi) any adulterant. PENALTIES UNDER LAW : 1. If any person:( a) Whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf, imports into India or manufacturers for sale, or stores, sell or distributes any article of food:( i) which is adulterated within the meaning of sub-clause (m) of clause (ia ) of Section 2 or misbranded within the meaning of clause (ix) of that section or the sale of which is prohibited under any provision of this Act or any rule made thereunder or by an order of Food (Health) Authority; (ii) other than an article of food referred to in sub-clause (I), in contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule made thereunder; or (b) whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf, imports into India or manufacturers for
  4. 4. sale, or stores, sells or distributes any adulterant which is not injurious to heath; or (c) prevents a food inspector from taking a sample as authorised by this Act; or (d) prevents a food inspector from exercising any other power conferred on him by or under Act; or (e) being a manufacturer of an article of food, has in his possession, or in any of the premises occupied by him, any adulterant which is not injurious to health; or (f) uses any report of certificate of a test or analysis made by the Director of the Central Food Laboratory or by a Public Analyst or any extract thereof for the purpose of advertising any article of food; or (g) whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf, gives to the vendor a false warranty in writing in respect of any article of food sold by him, he shall, in addition to be penalty to which he may be liable under the provisions of Section 6, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years, and with fine which shall not be less than one thousand rupees : Provided that: (i) if the offence is under sub-clause (i ) of clause (a) and is with respect to an article of food, being primary food, which is adulterated due to human agency or is with respect to an article of food which is misbranding within the meaning of sub-clause(k) of clause (ix) of section 2; or (ii) if the offence is under sub-clause (ii) of clause (a), but nor being an offence with respect to the contravention of any rule made under clause (a) of clause (g) of sub-section (1-A) of section 23 or under clause (b) of sub-section (2) of Section 24, the court may, for any adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three months but which may extend to two years, and with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees; Provided further that if the offence is under sub-clause (ii) of clause (a) is with respect to the contravention of any rule made under clause (a) or clause (g) of Sub-section(1A) of Section 23 or under clause (b) of Sub-section (2) of Section 24, the court may, for any adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months and with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees. (1-A) If any person whether by himself or by any other person on his behalf, imports into India or manufactures for sale or stores, sells or distributes: (i) any article of food which is adulterated within the meaning of any of the sub-clauses (e) to (1) (both inclusive) of clause (ia) of Section 2; or (ii) any adulterant which is injurious to health, he shall, in addition to the penalty to which he may be liable under the provisions of Section 6, be punishable with
  5. 5. imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to six years and with fine which shall not be less than two thousand rupees; Provided that if such article of food or adulterant, when consumed by any person is likely to cause his death or is likely to cause such harm on his body as would amount to grievous hurt within the meaning of Section 320 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to term of life with fine which shall not be less than five thousand rupees. (1-AA) If any person in whose safe custody any article of food has been kept under Sub- section(4) of Section 10, tampers or in any other manner interferes with such articles, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to two years and with fine which shall not be less one thousand rupees. (1-B) If any person in whose safe custody any article of food has been kept under Sub-section (4) of Section 10, sells or distributes such article which is found by the magistrate before whom it is produced to be adulterated within the meaning of sub-clause (h) of clause (ia) of Section 2 and which, when consumed by any person is likely to cause his death or is likely to cause such harm on his body as would amount to grievous hurt within the meaning of Section 320 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) then, notwithstanding anything contained in Sub-section (1-AA), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term shall bot be less than three years but which may extend to term of life and with fine which shall not be less than five thousand rupees. (1-C) if any person contravenes the provisions of Section 14 or Section 14-A, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months and with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees. (1-D) if any person convicted of an offence under this Act commits a like offence afterwards, then without prejudice to the provisions of Sub-section 92), the court, before which the second or subsequent conviction takes place, may order the cancellation of the licence if any granted to him under this Act, and thereupon such licence shall, notwithstanding anything in this Act, or in the rules made thereunder stand cancelled. (2) If any person convicted of an offence under this Act commits a like offence afterwards it shall be lawful for the court before which the second or subsequent conviction takes place to offender's name and place or residence, the offence and the penalty imposed to be published at the offender's expense in such newspapers or in such manner as the court may direct. The expenses of such publications shall be deemed to be part of the cost attending the conviction and shall be recoverable in the same manner as a fine. Thus, under the provision of PFA Act, the minimum punishment is 6 months imprisonment with a fine of Rs.1,000/-which may extend upto life imprisonment with unspecified amount of fine depending upon the gravity of the offence. ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT Besides lifting of samples, carrying out of analysis of the Food samples in the food laboratory and prosecuting the offenders, the Deptt. is engaged in other activities also viz. Demonstration cum education programmes, awareness creation programmes and participation in Health Melas etc. Emphasis is given in creation of awareness among school children and the people residing in slums, J.J. Clusters and Semi-Urban areas. The people are
  6. 6. educated on various provisions of the food laws, demonstration on simple tests of detection of adulteration in food articles. The booklets containing all the information about food article, adulterants, various health problems caused due to adulterants, simple methods for detection of common adulterants and the pre-cautions to be taken by the consumers while purchasing of the food articles Annexure-I, are distributed to the public free of cost at various exhibitions, health melas and education programmes especially conducted by the Department. Name of food articles Adulterant Disease/Health affects Simple method for detection of common adulterants Remarks MILK & MILK PRODUCTS 1) Milk Impure water Water Starch Removal of fat Synthetic milk a) Test for protein b) Test for Glucose/ inverted sugar May cause nausea, Abdominal pains Diarrhoea, gas Formation Consumers will be deprived from the desired nutirional value foods. Diarrhoea, gas Formation Consumers will be deprived from the desired nutritional value foods It causes cancer, impairment of body part, cause behavior change i.e. irritating behavior 1. The lactometer reading shall not ordinarily be less than 26. 2. The presence of water can be detected by putting a drop of milk on a polished slanting surface, the drop of pure milk either stops or flows slowly leaving a white trail behind it. Whereas milk adulterated with water will flow immediately without leaving a mark. Add a few drops of tincture of Iodine or Iodine solution. Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of starch.
  7. 7. The Lactometer reading will go above 26 while the milk apparently remains thick. The milk can easily be tested by Urease strips (available in the Medical stores) because synthetic milk be devoid of protein. Milk does not contain glucose /invert sugar, if test for glucose with urease strip found positive. It means milk is adulterated. Lactometer is marked in degrees ranging from 0.40 The test is not valid if skimmed milk of other thickening material is added. If it is made of synthetically by adding while colour water paint. 2.Khoa and its products 3. Chhana/ Paneer Sugar syrup c. Urea d) Neutralizer washing soda/baking soda alkaline detergent Starch Starch -Urea on boiling may convert into biuret which causes fall in blood pressure produces stron irritation in the urinary tract. Causes skin diseases & damages to respiratory tract. Harmful to intestines also. Diarrhoea/Gas formation DO -Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and add 2 drops of bromothymol blue solution development of blue colour after 10 minutes indicates the presence of urea in milk. Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube and 2 drops of bromocresol purple solution. Development of violet colour after 10 minutes indicates the presence of Neutralizer or alkaline detergent in milk.
  8. 8. Boil a small quantity of sample with some water, cool and add a few drops of loding solution. Formation of blue colour indicates the presences of starch. Boil a small quantity of sample with some water, cool and add a few drops of Iodine solution. Formation of blue colour indicated the presence of starch. Oils, alkali, urea and detergent etc. Glucose, inverted sugar syrup is added in milk to increase the consistency and test. Test for synthetic milk requires specific reagents. In case of doubt, please contact PFA deptt. DO 4.Ghee Vanaspati or Margarine Consumer will be deprived from the desired nutritional value foods Take about one tea spoon full of method sample of ghee with equal quantity of concentrated Hydrochloric acid in a stoppered test tube and add to it a pinch of sugar. Shake well for one minute and let it stand for five mintues. Appearance of crimson colour (vilot pink) in lower (acid) layer shows presence of Vanaspati or Margarine. The test in specifie for seasame oil which is compulsory added to Vanaspati and Margarine Some coal tar colours also give a positive test. If the test is positive i.e. red colour develops only by adding strong Hydrochloric acid (without adding crystals is of sugar) then the sample is adulterated with coaltar dye. If the crimson or red colour develops after adding and shaking with sugar, then alone Vansapati or Margarine is present. 5) Mashed potatotes, other starches It may cause food poisoning because starchy foods are more susceptiable for Micro-organisms The presence of mashed potatoes and sweet patotatoes in a sample of Ghee can easily be detected by adding a few drops of iodine, when iodine, which is brownish in colour turns to blue then mashed potatoes/sweet potatoes/other
  9. 9. starches are presents. 6) Butter a) Vanaspati or Margraine b) Mashed Potatoes Sweet Potatoes and other starches Consumer will be deprived from the desired nutritional value. May cause food poisoning after some time because adulterated foods are more suspectable to Micro-organisms. Take about one tea spoon full of melted sample of butter with equal quantity of concentrated Hydrochloric acid in a stoppered test tube and add to a pinch of sugar. Shake well for one minute Appearance of crimson colour is lower (acid) layer shows presence of Vanaspati or Margarine. The presence of mashed potatoes and sweet potatoes in a sample of butter can easily be detected by adding a few drops of iodine.When iodine (which is brownish in colour) turns to blue if mashed potatoes/sweet potatoes/other starches are present. The test is specific for sesame oil which is compulsorily added to Vanaspati and Margarine some coal tar colours also give a positive i.e. red colour develops only by adding strong. Hydrochloric acid (without adding crystal of sugar) then the sample is adulterated with coaltar dye. If the crimson or red colour develops after adding and shaking with sugar , then alone Vanaspati or Margarine is present. OILS AND FATS SWEETENING AGENT Sugar a) Argemone oil b) Mineral oil c) Castor oil Chalk powder Epidemic dropsy (fluid accumulation in lower extermities) glaucoma, heart trouble debilitating diseases like beri-beri Lever trouble and
  10. 10. possibility of cancer. Causes vomiting gastro enterities (Diarrohea) Convulsions oedema Stomatch disorder Take small quantity of oil in a test tube. Add equal quantity of concentrated Nitric acid and shake carefully. Red to reddish brown colour in lower (acid) layer would indicate the presence of Argemone oil. Take 2 ml of the oil sample and add equal quantity of N/2 alcoholic potash. Heat in boiling water bath(dip in boiling water) for about 15 minute or till it becomes clear and add 10 ml of hot water. Any turbidity shows presence of mineral oil. (i) Take about one ml of the oil. Add 10 ml of acidified petroleum ether and mix well. And a few drops of ammonium molybdate regent. Immediate appearance of white turbidity indicates the presence of castor oil 1. Dissolve oil in petroleum either in a test tube and cool the test tube in ice-salt mixture. Turbidity within 5 minutes shows castor oil. Dissolve 10 gm of sample in glass of water, allow to settle , chalk will settle down at the bottom. Colourless (not yellowish) Nitric acid may be used. Artificial colour if present will usually be a bright shade of colour, generally. Red or pink. The test may sometimes give misleading result. The test may not respond if the Argemone oil is present in small quantity.this test may not be positive. If castor oil is present in small quantity, this test may not be positive. Pithi sugar I ) Washing soda ii) Chalk powder iii) Yellow colour (unpermitted) iv) Honey a) Metanil Yellow (a non-permitted colour) b) Saccharin Skin diseases & damage to respiratory tract Stomach disorder/cancer Cancer Sugar solution
  11. 11. Degeneration of testis in males Carcingenic may cause bladder cencer Add few drops of Hydrochloric acid, effervescence (give off bubbles) will indicate the presence of washing soda. Dissolve 10 gm of sample in a glass of water, allow to settle. Chalk will settle down at the bottom. Take 5 ml in a test tube from the above solution and add few drops of cone HCl. A pink colour in lower acid layers shows the presence of unpermitted colour. A cotton which dipped in pure honey when lighter with a match stick burns and shows the purity of honey. If adulterated, the presence of water will not allow the honey to burn. It does, it will produce a cracking sond. Extract colour with luke water from food articles. Add few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid. If Magenta red colour develops the presence of metanil yellow is indicated. i) Taste a small quantity, Saccharin leaves a lingering sweetness (on tounge for a considerable time and This test is only for added water. Sweetmeats, Ice Cream and Beverages FOOD GRAINS AND THEIR PRODUCTS i) Wheat, Rice, Maize, Jawar, Bajra, Chana, Barley etc. a) Dust, pebble, stone straw, weed seeds damaged grain weevilled grains, insects rodent hair and excreata b) Ergot (a fungus containing poisonous substance) Stomach Disorder Lever damage and cancer -Do-
  12. 12. Leaves bitter tastes at the end. ii) Take two spoons of liquid sample or about 5 to 10 gms of solid sample with little quantity of water in a test tube, add few drops of Hydrochloric acid and 10 ml of solvent ether, Shake well. Decant the ether layer in a test tube or beaker and wash the either layer with small quantity of water evaporate the ether spontaneously. Add one drop of water (warm) to the residue and taste. Sweet taste will indicate the presence of saccharin. These may be examined visually to see foreign matter, damaged grains, discoloured grains , insect rodent contamination etc. a) Purple black longer sized grains in Bajra show the presence of Ergots b) Put some grains in a glass tumbler containing 20 percent salt solution. Ergot floats over Damaged/ discoloured grains should be a slow as possible since they may be affected by fungal toxins Argemon seeds, Dhature seeds etc. in modernately excessive amount can result in risk to health. Discard the damaged/undesirable grains before use. Sella Rice (Parboiled Rice) c) Dhatura d) Karnel Bunt e) Argemone seed Metanil Yellow (a non-permitted coalter colour) Turmeric (colouring for golden appearance) Lever damage and cancer Stomach, Disorder Epidemic dropsy, glaucoma, Heart trouble Degeneration test is in males /cancer Anaemia paralysis etc. (if turmeric contains lead chromate) The surface while sound grains settles down Dhatura seeds are flat with edges with blackish brown colour which can be seperated out by close examination.
  13. 13. The affected wheat karnel have a dull apperance, blackish in colour and rotten fish smell Assemble mustard seed which show a protrusion on close examination. The surface of Argemone seed is grainy and rough while that of mustard seed is smooth. When Mustard seed is pressed in side, it is yellow where as seed is white. Rub a few grains in the plams of tow hands, yellow colour get ruduced or disappear. Add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid to a few rice grains mixed with little water presence of pink colour indicates presence of Metanil yellow. i) Take a small amount of sample in test tube, add some water and shake Dip Boric acid paper (filter paper dipped in Boric acid solution). If it turns pink, turmeric is present. Argemone See Appendix I 3. Dal Whole and split 4. Atta, Maida suji (Rawa) 5. Besan (a) Khersari Dal b) Clay, stone, gravels, webs insects, rodent hair & excreta c) Metanil yellow (a non permitted coalter colour) a) Sand soil, insects webs, lumps, rodent hair and excreta b) Iron filling Khesari flour Lathyrism, Paralysis & Leprosy Stomach disorder Lever damage & cancer Degeneration of test is in males and effect lever Stomach disorder, Lever damage & cancer
  14. 14. Affect intestines Lathyrism, Paralysis ii) Take some rice and sprinkle on it a small amount of soaked lime for some time. The rice grains will turn red if turmeric present. i) Khesari dal has edged typed appearance showing a slant on one side and square in appearance in contrast to other dals. ii) add 50 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid to the sample and keep in simmering for about 15 minute. The pink colour developed indicates the presence of Khesari dal Visual exmination will detect these adulterants. Take 5 gms of the sample with 5 ml of water in a test tube and add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid. A pink colour shows presence of Metanil yellow. These can be identified by visual examination. By moving a magnet through the sample, Iron filling can be separated. Add 50 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid to The test is only for khesari dal (Metanil yellow if present will give a similar colour immediately even without simmering). Raject if the number of insects is large or if the odour is unpleasant and taste bitter or gritty. The test is only for SPICES AND CONDIMENTS Whole spicies Black pepper Cloves Dirt, dust, straw insect, damaged seeds, other seeds, rodent hair and excreta (a) Papaya seeds (b) Light black (c) Coated with mineral oil Volatile oil Leprosy Stomach Disorder Lever damage and Cancer Cancer Deprived from the desired 10 gms of sample and keep on simmering for about 15 minutes. The pink colour, if
  15. 15. developed, indicates, the presence of khesari flour. These can be examined visually Papaya seeds can be seprated out from pepper as they are shrunken, oval in shape and greenish brown or brownish black in colour. (1) Float the sample of black pepper in alchohol (rectified spirit). The mature black pepper berries sink while the papaya seeds and light black pepper float. (2) Press the berries with the help of fingers light berries will break easily while black pepper will not break. Black pepper coated with mineral oil gives kerosene like smell. (3) Exhausted cloves can be identified by its Khesari dal (Metanil yellow, if present will give a similar colour even without simmering insects is large or if the odour is unpleasant and taste bitter. (c) Mustard Seed (d) Turmeric whole 4. Powdered spices Powdered spices (a) Turmeric powder Extracted (exhausted cloves) Argemone Seed Lead Chromate (a) Added Starch (b) Chalk Powder yellow soap stone powder (c) Common salt (a) Coloured Saw Nutritional value foods Epidemic dropsy, glaucoma, heart trouble Anaemia, Abortion, Paralysis, Brain damage deprived from the desired nutritional value foods. Stomach disorders/ Cancer. Deprived from the nutritional value foods.
  16. 16. Stomach disorders, Degeneration of tests in male/cancer Small size and shrunken appearance. The characheristic pungent taste of genuine cloves is less pronounced in exhausted cloves. Take some water in beaker/glass and add clvoes. Genuene cloves will settle down at bottom while exhausted cloves will float, on surface. Mustard seeds have a smooth surface the argemone seed have grainy and rough surface and are black and hence can be separated out by close examination. When Mustard seed is pressed in side it is yellow while Argemone seed is white. Appears to be bright coloured and leaves colour immediately in water. Boil the sample with some water in a test tube and cool. And a few drops of tincture of Iodine or Iodine solution. Indication of blue colour shows the presence of starch. Take one gram of powdered spices in a test tube and add 5 ml. Carbontetra-chloride solvent Shake well and left for some time. Impurities will settle at the bottom, while the spice powder will float on the surface. Taste for addition of common salt. Take a tea spoon full of turmeric powder in a test tube. Add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid. Instant appearance of pink colour which disappeares on dilution with water shows the presence of trumeric. If the colour Use manginifying glass for identification. Iodine test for added starch is not applicable for turmeric powder. The test is only for Metanil yellow. Chillies Powder Chalk Powder (a) Brick, Powder, salt powder or tale powder (b) Water soluble Coaltar Colour Stomach disorder/Cancer Stomach irritation/Cancer Lever damage/ Cancer persists, metanil yellow (an artificial colour ) a non permiktted coaltar is present. Take a small quantity of turmeric powder in a test tube containing small quantity of water.
  17. 17. Add a few drops of concentrated Hydrochloric acid, effervesence (give off bubbles) will indicate the presnce of chalk of yellow soap stone powder. Take a tea spoon full of chillies powder in a glass of water. Coloured water extract will show the presence of artificial colour. Any grittiness that may be felt on rubbing the sediment at the bottom or glass confirm the presence of brick powder/sand, soapy and smooth touch of the white residue at the bottom indicates the presence of soap stone. Water soluble artificial colour can be detected by sprinkling a small quantity of chillies or turmeric powder on the surface of water contained in a glass tumbler. The water soluble colour will immediately start discending in colour streaks. This test is only for earthy material (iii) Hing (iv) Saffron MISCELLENEO US FOODS Iodized Salt (c ) oil soluble coaltar Soap stone or other earthy matter Coloured dried tendrils of maize cob Common salt Lever damage/cancer Damaged to the elementary canal and kidney stone. Cancer May cause goiter Take 2 gm of the sample in a test tube, add few ml of solvent ether and shake. Decant ether layer into a test tube containing 2 ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid (1 ml Hel plus 1 ml of water) shake it, the lower acid layer will be coloured distinct pink to red indicating presence of oil soluble colour. Shake little portion of the sample with water and allow to settle. Soap stone or other earthy matter will settle down at the bottom. Genuine saffron will not break easily like artificial. Artificial saffron is prepared by soaking maize cob in sugar and colouring it with coal tar colour. The colour dissolves in water if artificially coloured. A bit of pure safforn when allowed to dissolved
  18. 18. in water will continue to give its safforn colour so long as it lasts. i) Test as per the kit supplied by the salt Deptt. Min. of industries or through State iodine Deficiency disorder (IDD) Cell NCT, Delhi. ii) Cut a piece of potato , add salt and wait minute and add two drops of lemon juice. If iodized salt blue colour will develop. In case of common salt, there will be no blue colour. See also Appendix I . In place of solvent ether thinner can also be used. In compounded Hing due to presence of starch, a slight turbid solution, may be produced. However this will settle down after keeping. Common salt Tea leaves Coffee powder White powdered stone (a) Exhuasted tea or tur or gram dal husk with colour. (b) Iron fillings (c) chicory Damage to the elementary canals Cancer and other diseases. Damaged to the elementary canals Deprived from the nutritional value foods. Stir a spoonful of sample of salt in a glass of water. The presence of chalk will make solution white and other insoluble immpurities will settle down. Take a filter paper and spares a few tea leaves sprinked with water to wet the filter paper if coal tar colour is presented it would immediately stain the filter paper wash the filter paper under tap water and observe the staine against light. Spread a little slaked lime on white proclain tile or glass plate, sprinkle a little tea dust on the lime. Red, orange or other shades of colour spreading on the lime will show the presence of coal tar colour. In case of genuine tea, there will be only a slight greenish yellow colour due to chlorophyll, which will appear after some time.
  19. 19. By moving a magnet through the sample, iron filling can be separated. Gently sprinkle the coffee powder sample on the surface of water in a glass, the coffee floats over the water but chicory begins to sink down within a few seconds. The falling chicory powder particles leave behind them a trail of colour , due to large amount of caramel. Supari Pan Massala Catechu Powder Starch , toasted bread powder, chokar etc Tamarind seeds powder and date seeds powder (j) Colour (ii) Saccharin Chalk Do Do Cancer Damaged elementary canal Take a small amount of coffee powder in a test tube with water and heat. Take another test tube and add two granules of potassium permegnate add 2 drops of cone Hel mix both the solution and add tincher iodine solution. If blue colour comes, it means coffee powder is adulterated alter natively make a decoction of the coffee, decolourises it by adding acidified potassium permegnate solution and then add a drop of Iodine solution. Blue colour shows adulteration with starchy material. (i) Take the solution of sodium hydroxide in a test tube and add coffee powder. Development of red colour indicates presence of tamarind seeds. (ii) Sprinkle the suspected coffee powder on white filter/blotting paper and spray 1 percent sodium carbonate solution on it. Tamarind and date seed powder will, if persent, stain blotting paper/ filter paper red. Lever damage & colour dissolves in water Saccharin gives excessive and Cancer care ingeniclingering sweet taste and leaves bitter taste at the end. May cause bladder Chalk gives effervescence (gives off bubbles) With concentrated Hydrochiloric acid. This test is only for chalk.
  20. 20. Silver leaves Vinegar Aluminium leaves Mineral acid Being Reactive reduces the supply of essential Micronutrients Toxic/damge elementary canal (i) Onignition, genuine silver leaves burn away completely, leaving glistering white spherical ball of the same mass whereas aluminium leaves are reduced to ashes of dark grey blackish colour. (ii) Take silver leaves in test tube, add diluted Hydrochloric acid. Appearance of turbidity to white precipitate indicated the presence of silver leaves. Aluminium leaves do not give any trubidity or precipitate. (iii) Take a small portion of metal leaves and add a few drops of concentrated Nitric acid. Silver leaves will completely dissolve where as aluminium leaves will remain undissolved. Test with the Metanil yellow indicator paper in case the colour changes from yellow to pink mineral acid is present. See appendix I CAUTION: The acids prescribed in these test should be used with caution. Their external & internal use on the body is strictly prohibited. They should strictly be kept away from children. In no case mentally retareded or emotional persons should be allowed to handle them.

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