FOOD SAFETY
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    FOOD SAFETY FOOD SAFETY Document Transcript

    • Q:What is the meaning of “Chemical Analysis” of Water? What is the meaning of “Chemical Analysis” of Water? A: Chemical Analysis of water means to identify chemical characteristics of water, i.e. to find out the quantity of inorganic, organic constituents, m minerals in the water. The chemical potability of water is determined by this analysis. In short, the estimation of various chemical constituents of w methods is termed as chemical analysis of water. Physical characteristics of water are also taken into account to decide the potability of water. Q: What is meant by potable water? What is meant by potable water? A: Water, which is free from microorganisms likely to cause disease and also free from chemical constituents, which may impair health, is classified Q:What are the different types of samples analysed in the laboratory? What are the different types of samples analysed in the laboratory? A: The samples of Drinking Water, Packaged Drinking Water, Packaged Mineral Water, Effluents/ Sewage waters, Chemicals used for treatment of (solid/liquid), Poly Aluminium Chloride, Chlorine tablets, Sodium Hypochlorite solution, Bleaching Powder, Dose Determination of these chemicals, purposes, Water for Swimming pools, Study of Field Test Kits, are regularly analysed in the section. Q: Can general public use this facility? Can general public use this facility? A: Yes, definitely. The services are available to any component of the society. The desired fees are applicable per sample no. and sample type.
    • Q: Where should one contact to get the sample analyzed? Where should one contact to get the sample analyzed? A: One should contact at State Public Health Laboratory, Pune at the address mentioned. The facility of analysis is also available at all the District P Laboratories in the state of Maharashtra. Q: Where should one contact to get the sample analyzed? Where should one contact to get the sample analyzed? A: One should contact at State Public Health Laboratory, Pune at the address mentioned. The facility of analysis is also available at all the District P Laboratories in the state of Maharashtra. Q:What is the meaning and importance of dose determination? What is the meaning and importance of dose determination? A: Dose determination is to find or calculate a quantity of actual requirement/demand of a particular disinfectant required to fulfill its desired effect decide dose, because it depends on the basic chemical quality of water and varies accordingly. Geographical, geological, seasonal variations of the the dose patterns. This is applicable to the determination of dose of chemicals used in treatment of effluent also. The dose depends upon types of concentrations of the effluents to be treated. Q: Can samples be collected in any container and how much should be the minimum quantity of sample requ Can samples be collected in any container and how much should be the minimum quantity of sample required? A: The sample is required to be collected in clean, odourfree, dry and leak proof plastic/ polypropylene container, and the quantity required is mini analyses require special containers and preservatives.
    • Q:What are the types of “Standards” applied and what are the permissible limits for contents of water What are the types of “Standards” applied and what are the permissible limits for contents of water and other products? A: Generally standards defined by “Bureau of Indian Standards” (B.I.S.) are applied, some of which are mentioned as follows-IS 10500:1991(Drink 14543:1998(Packaged Drinking Water {other than Packaged Natural Mineral Water}), IS 13428:1998(Packaged Natural Mineral Water), IS 299:19 1065:1989(Bleaching Powder), IS 11673:1992(Sodium Hypochlorite Solution), IS 3328:1993(Water for Swimming Pool), IS 456:1978(Water for co 15573:2005(Poly Aluminium Chloride). The samples collected under the provisions of the Act are analyzed with reference to P.F.A. Act 1954, Rules (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act 1974. Q: Is my water, from my private source (well), safe to drink? Is my water, from my private source (well), safe to drink? A: There are two methods to decide the potability of water, i.e. Chemical and bacteriological examination of water. Unless you get the sample of w chemically and bacteriology, you cannot decide whether the water is safe or not. Q:What type of equipments do you have? What type of equipments do you have? A: We have good facility of equipments such as pH meters, Specific Ion meters (Fluoride and Nitrate only), Conductivity meter, Turbidity meter, TD Balances, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, GLC, FTIR, B.O.D. Incubator, Hot Air Ovens, Distillation Units, and glassware assemblies to carry out water analysis. Q: Are the “Kits for Field Tests”, available in market, useful to determine the chemical potability of Are the “Kits for Field Tests”, available in market, useful to determine the chemical potability of water? A: The commercial kits for tests of chemical parameters such as Chlorides, Fluoride, Hardness, Nitrate, Iron, Residual chlorine etc. are available in used for field level analysis, and they can show the present/absent status and certain quantity range of constituents of your water and can suggest status of water as safe, marginal safe or unsafe. But detail quantitative chemical analysis can be done in the Laboratory only.
    • Q:How to disinfect drinking water at home? How to disinfect drinking water at home? A: If drinking water is suspected to be contaminated, it can be disinfected by boiling for 15 mins.or using the proper dose of chemical disinfectant Liquid Chlorine (Sodium hypochlorite solution), Chlorine tablets available in the local market / medical shops, under various different commercial p confirmation of quality of chemical disinfectant and chemical potability of water should be known before treatment of water. Q: How much does it cost to have a sample analyzed? How much does it cost to have a sample analyzed? A: The fees for sample analysis depend upon the parameters of the sample to be analyzed.Following are the charges applicable. The type of sampl taxes extra **(S.T. + E.C.) per sample are as follows 1) Drinking Water , 235/- , 10% + 2% 2)Packaged Mineral Water , 35/-,----,,----- 3)Package 35/-,----,,----- 4)Alum,305/-,----,,---- 5)Dose Determination(Alum),12/-,----,,----- 6)P.A.C./ Liquid Alum,125/-,----,,----- 7)Dose Determination,12 8)Bleaching Powder,25/-,----,,----- 9)Dose Determination(B.P.),12/-,----,,----- 10)Water for Construction,235/-,----,,----- 11)Effluent / Sewage, A Parameter,----,,----- 12)Specific Parameter, As per Parameter,----,,----- Note-: **S.T. - Service Tax, E.C. - Education Cess. Extra Q How many Public Health Labs are working in Punjab A: Total 3 Public Health Laboratories are working in the State at all district level. Q: Which samples are analyzed in your laboratories? Which samples are analyzed in your laboratories? A: Water sample for bacteriological potability.Stool samples for isolation of V.Ch./Sal./Shigella bacteria.Blood samples for S.typhi/Sal. Para A, Para samples for Microbial Quality & Bacterial food poisoning.
    • Q:Are viral diseases diagnosed in the laboratory? Are viral diseases diagnosed in the laboratory? A: Viral disease diagnosis is done at National Institute of Virology Pune-1. Q: Which are the water borne outbreaks. Which are the water borne outbreaks. A: Cholera Gastroenteritis Typhoid Dysentery Hepatitis A & E Q:Which sources of water can be tested in Public Health Laboratory? Which sources of water can be tested in Public Health Laboratory? A: All types of sources of water can be tested for potability in PHL like Wells, Bore wells, Taps, Hand pump, River water, House hold water etc. Q: Approximately blow much water sample is required for testing. Approximately blow much water sample is required for testing. A: Approximately 200 ml of water sample is required for Microbial analysis of water sample & 5 liter for Chemical analysis.
    • Q:Which are the indicator organisms used to test water in Public Health Which are the indicator organisms used to test water in Public Health Laboratory. A: Coliforms. Faecal (Thermotolerant) Coliforms. E. Coli. Q: Which method is used to test the potability of water samples? Which method is used to test the potability of water samples? A: MPN- Most probable number test also known as Multiple Tube Dilution technique is used to test potability of water sample. Q:Which organisms are tested from packaged drinking water. Which organisms are tested from packaged drinking water. A: Total 9 organisms are tested which are as follows. Salmonella & Shigella. Yeast & Moulds Clostridium spp. Vibrio Cholerae & V. Parahaemolyticu faecalis. E. Coli. Pseudomonas oerogenosa. Q: Which diseases are diagnosed in the laboratory? Which diseases are diagnosed in the laboratory? A: Mostly the water borne bacterial diseases are diagnosed in the laboratory.
    • Q:What types of test are done for food samples? What types of test are done for food samples? A: For food samples Microbial food Quality of the sample is tested Q: Do you also test food samples collected during food poisoning outbreak? Do you also test food samples collected during food poisoning outbreak? A: Yes, we test the food samples collected during food poisoning outbreaks. Q:How to collect the food sample for testing. How to collect the food sample for testing. A: Aseptically collect 250 ml of liquid or 250 gms of solid food sample in a wide mouth container which is sterile. If sterile container is not available a new unopened plastic bag. Q: How to send any sample to the Laboratory. How to send any sample to the Laboratory. A: Send the sample in a cold chain to the nearest lab within shortest time from collection. (i.e. within 24 hrs. after collection).
    • Q:Is any specific container required for collection. Is any specific container required for collection. A: Yes, sterilized water bottles are mandatory for collection of water samples. Q: What is the Name of your Laboratory ? What is the Name of your Laboratory ? A: The name of the Laboratory is State Public Health Laboratory, CHANDIGARH Q:Under which Act the Laboratory functions are carried out? Under which Act the Laboratory functions are carried out? A: Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (37) of 1954 & Rules 1955 made there under. Q: Name the Implementing Authorities of the Act. Name the Implementing Authorities of the Act. A: (a)Food & Drug Administration. (b)Public Health Laboratories. (c)Judiciary.
    • Q:What are the functions/ Role of above authorities? What are the functions/ Role of above authorities? A: (a)Food Inspectors of Food & Drug Administration of the State are inspecting & collecting authority of samples. (b)Public Health Laboratory Staf analyses the samples & Public Analyst, after completion of the analysis, submit the report to respective Local (Health) Authorities. (c)When the rep adulterated, Local (Health) Authorities launches the case against the vendor in the court of law. Court penalizes the vendors depending upon the s Q: What is adulteration? What is adulteration? A: Adulterant means any material, which is or could be employed for the purpose of Adulteration. Q:What is the definition of adulteration? What is the definition of adulteration? A: (a)If the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchaser. (b)If any inferior or cheaper substance h (c)What is the definition of food? Means any article used as a food or Drink for human consumption other than Drug. (d) What is the definition of s a sample of any article of food taken under the provision of this Act or any rule.
    • Q: Detection of Common adulterant Detection of Common adulterant A: 1) Milk - Addition of Water & removal of cream. Addition of thickners like Starch, Sugar etc. Starch - Add few drops of iodine solution in milk in of Starch, blue colour is developed. 2)Milk Products-Addition of starch in milk products viz. Khoa, Dahi, Paneer etc. can also be tested by adding fe solution in milk product in a test tube. In presence of Starch, blue colour is developed 3) Ghee/ButterAddition of vanaspati or margarise Ghee sam hydrochloric acid (and used for cleaning tiles) & few grains of sugar. Shake well. Development of pink (Red) colour indicates presence of Vanaspati Adultrant Cheaper Oils, harmful oils, Argemone, Castor, Karmaja Mineral can be detected in the Laboratory. 5)Sweetners-Gur or Sugar solution in Non permitted colour. Excess colour above prescribed limit, Aluminium Foil instead of Silver foil. 7) Food grains -Foreign matter like Dhatura seeds Bajara, Kernel Bunt in Wheat can be examined by physical examination. 8)Dal - A) Khesari dal as an adultrant - has edged type appearance showi and square in appearance incontrast to other Dal. B) Non permitted colour- Drop of HCl on sample of Dal produces voilet colour which indicates pre colour. SPICES AND CONDIMENTS 1)Mohari - Argemone seeds, poisonous in nature, as an adultrant, can be detected by physical observation. Arg blackish rough surface in nature & the notch is present on the surface. These seeds are non-edible poisonous seeds. 2)Black pepper - The adultran Light berries can be detected by physical observation. They float in alcohol. 3)Clove - Volatile oil Extracted (i.e. Exhausted cloves) as an adultrant 4)Powdered Spices - Added Starch and Common salt are found as an adultrant--- Iodine test for Starch detection. Organoleptic test for Common s 5)Turmeric Powder - Coloured Saw Dust, Chalk Powder or Yellow soap stone Powder are commonly found adultrant. 6)Chilly Powder - Brick Powde Extraneous Colour are commonly found adultrant. 7)Hing - Colophony resins, Soap stones or other earthy matter are commonly found adultrant. 8 tendrils of maize comb are commonly found adultrant. Other articles 1)Salt - Inorganic matter like clay , stone etc. is commonly found adultrant. 2 adultrants found are Extraneous Colour, exhaust Tea,Tur or Gram Dal Husk with colour, Iron fillings. 3)Coffee - Chicory are commonly found adultr Panmasala - Extraneous Colours are commonly found adultrant. 5)Vinager - Mineral acids are commonly found adultrant. Can be detected with col yellow paper ( Observation Voilet colour). Duties of Purchaser while purchasing food articles 1)Whenever food article is suspected to be adulterated purchasing, customer have right to complaint against shopkeeper to the Food & Drug. Administration of their district under section 12 of PFA Act 1 purchasing the packed food articles the customer should check the label and packing as mentioned. A) Batch no. B) Ingredients C) Date of manufa E) Addresses of manufacturer. F) Weight of substance etc.