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20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha
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20081024 Off Beat Guide Naha

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  • 1. An up-to-date travel guide prepared for minoguchi Naha Dec 6 – Dec 8, 2008
  • 2. The travel guide made just for minoguchi Copyright © 2008, Offbeat Guides. Offbeat Guides™ is a trademark of Sifry Enterprises, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cover photo credit: In Shurijo Castle by Jayel Aheram, http://www.flickr.com/photos/21669640@N00/2238303007
  • 3. III contents Maps ii Region Map ii City Map iii Neighborhood Map iv Street Map v ココにオリジナルコンテンツが入る 3 Your Custom Chapter Title 2 4 Naha travel guide 5 Get in 5 Get around 5 See 5 Do 5 Buy 6 Eat 6 Drink 6 Sleep 6 Get out 7 Naha, Okinawa 8 Downtown 8 History 8 Martial arts 8 Education 8 Sights 9 Transport 9 Sister cities 9 Bibliography 9 Seifa-utaki 10 Nakagusuku 11 Literature 11 Tamaudun 12 Royalty entombed 12 Katsuren gusuku 15 Literature 15 Zakimi gusuku 16 Photography 16 Literature 16 Shuri Castle 17 History 17 Sites of interest 17 Literature 17 Kadena Air Base 18 Units 18 United States Navy Use 19 Notable areas 20 History 20
  • 4. IV Other Units 20 Air traffic control 21 Beacon 21 External links and references 21 Naha Airport 22 Airlines and destinations 22 Military and public-safety units 22 Incidents 22 Marine Corps Air Station Futenma 24 Tenant commands 24 Location 24 Nakagusuku Bay 25 Okinawa Island 26 Transportation 26 Ryukyu Islands 27 Naming 27 History 27 People 28 Ecology 28 Major islands 28 Okinawa Prefecture 30 History 30 Geography 31 Demography 31 Climate and nature 31 Language and culture 32 U.S. military controversy 32 Education 33 Sports 33 Transportation 33 United States military installations 33 Weather 35 Events 38 References 39 Travel Notes 40 Travel Notes 41 Travel Notes 42
  • 5. V
  • 6. ii Region Map
  • 7. iii City Map
  • 8. iv neighboRhood Map
  • 9. v StReet Map
  • 10. 2
  • 11. 3 ココにオリジナルコンテンツが入る ナハ、なは、那覇。 ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナ ハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、 那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナ ハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、 那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナ ハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、 那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。ナハ、なは、那覇。
  • 12. 4 Your custom chapter Title 2 中心都市・那覇では、国際通りや公設市場など街歩きが楽しい。首里は守礼門や首里 城などがある琉球王朝の都。本島南部では摩文仁の丘を中心に戦跡が残る。
  • 13. 5 naha travel guide Naha (那覇) is the capital of the Okinawa Prefecture in Japan and is the main city on Okinawa Island, with a population of around 700,000 - more than half the total population of Okinawa. get in Naha Airport (那覇空港Naha-kūkō, OKA;) is the largest airport in the Okinawa area and the main hub for inter- national and inter-island flights. A new monorail, opened in 2003, connects the airport to the city center. Note: There is also a Naha Airport (NAH) in Indonesia, which should not be confused with this! get aRound The Naha monorail (, Japanese only) links together the airport, the city and Shuri Castle. Tickets cost ¥200-290 depending on distance, or you can get a one-day pass for ¥600. See ■Shuri Castle (首里城Shuri-jō) is the former seat of the Ryukyu Kingdom, built in the Okinawan gusuku style. com- pletely destroyed during World War II, the present buildings are rebuilded in 1958 and 1992. The town of Itoman lies south and southeast of Naha, and has several attractions. ■Himeyuri Peace Museum 671-1 Aza-Ihara, Itoman, 098-997-2101, (in Japanese). 9 AM-5 PM. Students from two women’s schools, together called Himeyuri, were mobilized to work as field nurses during the Battle of Okinawa in 1945. This memorial museum documents, from a personal perspective, their lives before and during the battle, in which many of them died. exhibits are labeled in english, and the museum is a worthwhile visit. ¥300 (discounts for high school students and younger) Okinawa Peace Park has several memorials relating to the Battle of Okinawa. To get there by bus, take bus no. 89 from Naha bus terminal, change to bus no. 82 at Itoman bus terminal, and get off at the Heiwa-kinendo-iriguchi stop. ■Peace Park This park has a beautiful view overlooking the ocean, and features several open-air memorials includ- ing the Cornerstone of Peace, wave-like walls of granite on which are engraved the names of those who died in the battle, on both sides. ■Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum 614-1 Mabuni, 098-997-3844,. Tues-Sun 9AM-5PM, closed Dec. 29-Jan. 3. Museum describes the Battle of Okinawa. ¥300 (discounts for children) ■Okinawa Peace Memorial Hall 448-2 Mabuni Itoman, 098-997-3011. A separate memorial, marked by a high tower, with the Peace Memorial Statue and exhibitions of Japanese artists. ¥500 (discounts for junior high school students and younger). ■Okinawa World 1336 Maekawa, Tamagusuku village (by bus No. 54 or 83, get off Gyokusendo-mae stop), 098-949- 7421, (in Japanese). 9AM-5PM. The major attraction at this theme park is Gyokusendo cave, 890 meters long, with some interesting stalagmite and stalactite formations. Above the cave is a touristy village with performances of tra- ditional dance, shops selling crafts and snake liquors, and restaurants. Separate admission is required for the habu snake exhibition which includes a snake and mongose show. cave and village ¥1200, add ¥400 for snake exhibition (discounts for junior high school students and younger). do Kiteboarding is possible year round with the winter months being the best. ■Kite Club Okinawa, Phone: 098-851-0180/mobile 090-6779-9990, http://www.kiteclub.biz/shop.html. Taka-san is a first rate kite-boarder and a very nice guy. Drop by for lessons, supplies, information about car rental, lodging, tours and whatever else you might need. Price: closed Tuesdays.
  • 14. 6 ■Shopping Kokusai Doori is full of shops that sell a multitude of Okinawan products. It’s also a good place to check out the nightlife and youth scene. ■Beach Naha actually has one beach, straight towards the ocean from the southern end of kokusai doori. Not the most beautiful beach in Okinawa, but a clean beach for all practical purposes. ■Fishing Just 15 minutes from Naha Airport is the dock where Saltwater Fishing Okinawa’s head boat is berthed. They specialize in affordable offshore big game fishing for marlin, tuna, wahoo, and mahi mahi, and fish all year round. contact info is phone=”090-3797-9810” or website:. A fully incorporated charter service that you can trust. buy ■Makishi Market. Known as “the kitchen of Okinawa”, This market started as a kind of black market after WW2. There are more than 400 shops in one floor. You can buy any Okinawa’s traditional foods like dried sea snake (イ ラブーirabū), pork (Okinawas say they eat everything except the hooves and the scream), special vegetables not found on the mainland, colorful fish, or edible seaweed. There are many restaurants upstairs, serving traditional Okinawan home cooking. If you pay extra money, they will cook dishes with ingredients which you bought down- stairs. eat ■Afro Nest A raggae themed basement-restaurant with surprisingly good food just off of Kokusai Doori. Delicious goya champuru and karaage. Try the Afro Rice, it’s excellent. ■Warahondo This cozy, macrobiotic restaurant is one of the few places to get vegan food in Okinawa. The main course changes daily and is always served with fresh brown rice. You can also buy your organic foods, fruits and vegetables here. dRink You can find several establishments in and around Kokusai Street to enjoy the odd drink or two. There’s a few clubs about as well; those frequented by locals, those frequented by US military folks and a mixture of both. Don’t try gaining admission (around $25) wearing sandals, as these are frowned on, for some reason. For the more daring drinker habushu (ハブ酒) is widely available in bars and souvenir shops. Each bottle of fiery shochu liquor comes with a venomous snake inside, best drunk down in one as sipping is not recommended! ■Bar Dick. For a less frantic, more intimate time, you could do worse than check out this American-style bar that’s verging on refined. Take care not to be too noisy as it will only upset the otherwise friendly and attentive staff. ■Rehab, http://www.okinawaspirit.com/. canadian owned Bar with english speaking staff. The customers are most- ly english teachers and expats and quite a few Japanese nationals. Very friendly place. Limited food menu. ■Smugglers Irish Pub, http://smugglers.nahashop.com/. Really nice place to drink. The staff speaks english. One bloke lived in London for 5 years. Lots of friendly locals. Food is good and they had Union Rugby on the T.V. Just walk up the hill from Ryubo Shopping centre on Kokusai Steet. It is on the left side. ■Campnou Bar, (Aka Football Bar). Great Place to watch Football. The owner, Hiro-san is a lovely guy and Football Mad. He can speak enough english to get by and is foreigner friendly. He is often open odd hours to accommodate matches held in different time zones. Sleep Naha’s budget accommodations are famously cheap (as little as ¥1000 per night), but you tend to get what you pay for and some can be incredibly grotty.
  • 15. 7 ■Grace Naha Hotel. Small family-run guesthouse. Inexpensive, incredibly friendly and spotlessly clean. ■Sora House . Inexpensive, friendly hostel near Miebashi station. Staff speaks little english, but are very friendly and helpful. Staff seems to arrange trips around Okinawa; if you get a chance to attend to one, you probably should. get out
  • 16. 8 naha, okinawa downtown Downtown Naha consists of Palette Kumoji, the location of the Okinawa Prefecture Office, Naha City Hall, and many banks and corporations, accompanied by a nine story shopping mall. Kokusai Dōri, the main entertain- ment strip in Naha, is near Kumoji and boasts a mile (1.6 km) long stretch of stores. There are many restaurants as well as shopping centers and tourist gift shops. The night life on Kokusai Dōri is always bustling with clubs, bars, and cheap eateries open until the wee hours of the morning. Kokusai Dōri ends at the main bus terminal in Okinawa. There is also a station for Okinawa’s only train system, the Yui Rail. Spurring off from Kokusai is the covered Heiwa-Dōri Shopping Arcade with a large people’s market. It is quite informal compared to Kokusai Dōri, and often confusing to walk in. Northeast of Kokusai Dōri is a relatively new commercial district called Shintoshin. The area, formerly United States military housing, was released to Okinawa in 1987, but major development only began in the mid-1990s. Frequented by young people, the area boasts large stores such as Toys R Us and Best Denki (an electronics store), a Co-op market, many restaurants and a movie theater. hiStoRy According to the Irosetsuden, the name of Naha comes from its original name, Naba, which was the name of a certain large, mushroom-shaped stone in the city. Gradually, the stone wore away and became buried, and the name’s pronunciation and its kanji gradually changed. (Oshiro, 1964). In Naha, some archeological relics of the Stone Age were found. Also, from a Jōmon period kaizuka, ancient Chinese coins were found. Today Naha has developed as a city around Shuri Castle, the palace of the Ryūkyū Kingdom. In the period of the Ryūkyū kingdom, there were five districts in the area of present-day Naha. After the replacement of the Ryūkyū Kingdom with Naha Han in 1872, Naha became the capital city of Naha Han. Naha Han was abolished in 1879 and the former Ryūkyū Kingdom was once merged into Kagoshima prefecture. With the later establishment of Okinawa Prefecture, Naha became its capital city. When Naha city was founded in 1921, in the area that present-day Naha occupies there were several municipali- ties including Naha city and Shuri city. Later Shuri was merged into Naha. During the battle of Okinawa in World War II, Naha suffered extensive damage from attacks by US forces. The entire center of the city had to be rebuilt. MaRtial aRtS Naha-Te, “Naha-hand”, is a type of martial art developed in Naha. Together with the martial arts styles developed in Tomari and Shuri it formed the basis for Okinawa-te, which in turn is the origin of today’s karate-do. eduCation Four universities are located in the Naha area. Two are run by Okinawa Prefecture; two are private. The Uni- versity of the Ryukyus, the sole national university in Okinawa Prefecture, was also in Naha, on the site of Shuri Castle. Prior to the restoration of the castle, the university moved to the city of Ginowan to the north of Naha.
  • 17. 9 Naha’s public elementary and junior high schools are operated by the Naha City Board of Education. Naha’s pub- lic high schools are operated by the Okinawa Prefectural Board of Education. Private schools include Okinawa Actors’ School. SightS Shuri Castle, the former palace of the Ryūkyū Dynasty, is one of the finest gusuku (Okinawan castle) and most important historical sites in Naha. The palace was almost completely destroyed in 1945 by an attack by the US Marines, Army and Navy. After the war, the University of the Ryūkyūs was constructed on the site. Today Shuri Castle has been reconstructed, including Shureimon, its main gate, and registered as UNESCO world heritage sites. Lake Man, covered with mangrove woods on the boundary of the city of Tomigusuku, is listed on the Ramsar list of wetlands. tRanSpoRt Naha Airport and Naha Port serve the city. Naha Airport is the hub of the Ryukyu Islands. The Okinawa Monorail, also known as the Yui Rail (ゆいレール) carries passengers from Naha Airport Station to the center of Naha, Kokusai Dōri (国際通り), Shintoshin, and to the terminal at Shuri Station, which is closest to Shuri Castle. SiSteR CitieS Naha has sister-city relationships with two cities in Japan and three in other countries : ■ Fuzhou, People’s Republic of china since 1981 ■ Honolulu, United States since 1961 ■ Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture since 1996 (domestic) ■ Nichinan, Miyazaki Prefecture since 1969 (domestic) ■ São Vicente, Brazil since 1978 ■Shureimon in Naha bibliogRaphy ■Ooshiro, Sally. Irosetsuden, thesis translation of ancient Ryūkyū record compila- tion. Submitted to University of Hawaii, 1964.
  • 18. 10 Seifa-utaki is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site “Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryūkyū” in Nanjō, Okinawa. From July 2007, a local shrine began charging a 200 yen ad- mission. ■Sefa-utaki
  • 19. 11 nakagusuku is a gusuku in the village of Nakagusuku, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. It is currently in ruins. The legendary Ryukyuan commander, Gosamaru, built the fortress in the early 15th century to defend against attacks from the east by Lord Amawari of Katsuren Castle. The six courtyards of this fortress with stacked stone walls make it a prime example of a gusuku. liteRatuRe
  • 20. 12 Tamaudun is a mausoleum in Shuri, Okinawa, built for Ryūkyūan royalty in 1501 by King Shō Shin, the third king of the sec- ond Shō dynasty a short distance from Shuri Castle. The site, covering an area of 2,442m², consists of two stone-walled enclosures, the three compartments of the mausoleum itself facing north and backed by a natural cliff to the south. A stone stele in the outer enclosure memorializes the construction of the mausoleum, and lists the name of Shō Shin along with those of eight oth- ers involved in the construction. The shisa (stone lions) guarding the tomb are examples of traditional Ryūkyūan stone sculpture. The architectural style of the mausoleum represents that of the royal palace at the time, which was a stone structure with a wooden roof Eighteen kings are entombed at Tamaudun, along with their queens and royal children. The first to be buried there was King Shō En, for whom the mausoleum was constructed upon the orders of his son and successor, Shō Shin. The last was former Crown Prince Shō Ten, son of the Ryūkyū Kingdom’s last king, Shō Tai, who was entombed there on September 26, 1920. The structure suffered extensive damage in the 1945 battle of Okinawa, and was subsequently looted Royalty entoMbed
  • 21. 13 ■Eastern Chamber ■Shō en (1415-1476) ■Shō Shin (1465-1526) ■Shō Sei (1497-1555) ■Shō Gen (1528-1572) ■Shō Baigaku, Queen of Shō Gen (d. 1605) ■Shō ei (1559-1588) ■Aoriya anji Kanashi (dates unknown) ■Shō Konkō, Queen of Shō ei (1562-1637) ■Shō Hō (1590-1640) ■Shō Baigan, Queen of Shō Hō (dates unknown) ■Shō Kyō, eldest son of Shō Hō (1612-1631) ■Shō Rankei, Queen of Shō Hō (1588-1661) ■Shō Ken (1625-1647) ■Shō Kaho, Queen of Shō Ken (1630-1666) ■Shō Shitsu (1629-1668) ■Shō Hakusō, Queen of Shō Shitsu (1629-1699) ■Shō Tei (1645-1709) ■Shō Gesshin, Queen of Shō Tei (1645-1703) ■Shō Jun, crown Prince, eldest son of Shō Tei (1660-1706) ■Shō Giun, crown Princess, wife of Shō Jun (1664-1723) ■Shō eki (1678-1712) ■Shō Konkō, Queen of Shō eki (1680-1745) ■Shō Kei (1700-1751) ■Shō Ninshitsu, Queen of Shō Kei (1705-1779) ■Shō Boku (1739-1794) ■Shō Shukutoku, Queen of Shō Boku (1740-1779) ■Shō Tetsu (1759-1788) ■Shō Tokutaku, Queen of Shō Tetsu (1762-1795) ■Shō On (1784-1802) ■Shō Sentoku, Queen of Shō On (1785-1869) ■Shō Sei (1800-1803) ■Shō Kō (1787-1834) ■Shō Juntoku, Queen of Shō Kō (1791-1854) ■Shō Iku (1813-1847) ■Shō Gentei, Queen of Shō Iku (1814-1864) ■Shō Tai (1843-1901) ■Shō Kenshitsu, Queen of Shō Tai (1843-1868) ■Shō Ten, crown Prince, eldest son of Shō Tai (1864-1920) ■Shō Shō, crown Princess, wife of Shō Ten (dates unknown)
  • 22. 14 ■Western Chamber ■Shō Gesshin, eldest daughter of Shō en (dates unknown) ■eldest daughter of Shō Ikō (name, dates unknown) ■Shō Shōi, third son of Shō Shin (dates unknown) ■Shō Isshi, eldest daughter of Shō Gen (d. 1570) ■Shō Setsurei, wife of Shō Gen (dates unknown) ■Shō Bairei, wife of Shō Gen (dates unknown) ■Shō Getsurei, second daughter of Shō ei (1584-1653) ■Shō Ryōgetsu, wife of Shō Hō (1597-1634) ■Shō Setsurei, wife of Shō Kyō (d. 1697) ■Shō Ryōchoku, wife of Shō Bun (dates unknown) ■Shō Kyū, third son of Shō Gen (1560-1620) ■Shō Yō, second son of Shō Kō (1813-1815) ■Shō Ken, fourth son of Shō Kō (b. 1818) ■Shō Ten, seventh son of Shō Kō (1829-1833) ■Shō Shun, eldest daughter of Shō Iku (1832-1844) ■Shō Otoko and Michiko, fifth and sixth daughters of Shō Tai (dates unknown) ■17 Unknowns, one in the central chamber
  • 23. 15 Katsuren gusuku is a gusuku in Katsuren, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. With the Pacific Ocean on two sides, is also called the “Ocean Gusuku”. Its “golden age” was in the mid-15th century, under the powerful Lord Amawari. Precious tile and Chinese porcelain of the era have been excavated from Katsuren. Such remains testify to the magnificence of the ancient structure and the robust entrepôt trade. ■Katsuren castle ruins liteRatuRe
  • 24. 16 Zakimi gusuku is a gusuku in Yomitan, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. It is currently in ruins, but the walls and foundations have been restored. Built between 1416 and 1422 by the renowned Ryukyuan militarist Gosamaru, Zakimi Castle oversaw the northern portion of the Oki- nawan mainland. The gusuku fortress has two inner courts, each with an arched gate. This is Okinawa’s first stone arch gate featuring the unique keystone masonry of the Ryukyus. Before and during World War II, the castle was used as a gun emplacement by the Japanese, and after the war it was used as a radar station by the US forces. Some of the walls were destroyed in order to install the radar equipment, but they have since been restored. ■Zakimi castle Zakimi Castle, along with Okinawa’s other castles, was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in No- vember 2000. photogRaphy ■ Panorama of Zakimi castle liteRatuRe
  • 25. 17 Shuri castle Shuri Castle (Okinawan: sui ugusiku, Japanese: 首里城Shurijō) is a gusuku (Ryūkyūan castle) in Shuri, Okinawa. It was the palace of the Ryūkyū Kingdom. In 1945, during the Battle of Okinawa, it was almost completely destroyed, with only a few walls standing as high as a few decimeters. In 1992, it was reconstructed on the original site based on pho- tographs, historical records, and memory. hiStoRy The date of construction is uncertain, but it was clearly in use as a castle during ■Shureimon the Sanzan period. It is thought that it was probably built during the Gusuku period, like the other castles of Okinawa. When King Shō Hashi unified the three sections of Okinawa and established the Ryūkyū Kingdom, he used Shuri Castle as a residence. At the same time, Shuri flourished as the capital, and continued to do so during the second Sho dynasty. For 450 years from the beginning of the 15th century, it was the royal court and administrative center of the Ryūkyūan Kingdom. It was the focal point of foreign trade, as well as the political, economical and cultural heart of the Ryūkyūs. According to records, Shuri Castle burned several times, and was reconstructed each time. Before the war, it was designated a National Treasure, but during the war, the Japanese military set up its headquarters underground at the castle, and beginning on May 25, 1945, the American battleship Mississippi shelled it for three days. On May 27 it burned. After the war, the University of the Ryūkyūs moved to the castle site, where it remained until 1975. In 1958, the Shureimon gate was rebuilt, and in 1992, the main building of the castle was reconstructed. At present, the entire area around the castle has been established as Shuri Castle Park. In 2000, along with other gusuku and related sites, it was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. SiteS of inteReSt Because of its central role in Ryūkyūan political and religious life, Shuri Castle is surrounded by various sites of historical interest. Featured in their own articles are Shureimon, the main gate to the castle, and Tamaudun, the royal tombs located adjacent to Shuri Castle. liteRatuRe
  • 26. 18 Kadena Air Base Kadena Air Base is a United States Air Force base located in the towns of Kadena and Chatan and the city of Okinawa, in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Kadena Air Base is the hub of U.S. airpower in the Pacific, and home to the USAF’s 18th Wing and a variety of associate units. unitS The 18th Wing is the host unit at Kadena AB. In addition, the base hosts associate units from five other Air Force major commands, the United States Navy, and numerous other Department of Defense agencies and direct reporting units. Asso- ciate units operate more than 20 permanently assigned, forward- based or deployed aircraft from the base on a daily basis. ■18th Wing ■Kadena Air Base is the home to the Air Force’s largest combat wing— the 18th Wing—and a variety of associate units. Together they form “Team Kadena”—a world-class combat team ready to fly, fight and win from the Keystone of the Pacific. Nearly 18,000 Americans and more than 4,000 Japanese employees and contractors make up Team Kadena..The wing is broken down into five groups, the 18th Opera- tions Group, the 18th Maintenance Group, the 18th Mission Support Group, the 18th civil engineer Group and the 18th Medical Group. ■100px Kadena’s fleet of F-15c/D eagles (the 44th and 67th Fighter Squad- rons); Kc-135R/T Stratotankers (the 909th Air Refueling Squadron); e-3B/c Sentries (the 961st Airborne Air control Squadron); HH-60 Pave Hawks (the 33d Rescue Squadron); Mc-130H combat Talon IIs; Mc-130P combat Shadows; Rc- and Wc- 135s; and Navy P-3 Orions project U.S. deterrence throughout the Western Pacific and South-east Asia, promoting regional peace and stability. Associate units: ■353d Special Operations Group ■The 353d Special Operations Group is an element of the Air Force Special Operations command, Hurlburt Field, Florida. The 750 Airmen of the group are organized into three flying squadrons, a maintenance squadron, a special tactics squadron and an operations support squadron. The flying squadrons operate three separate and uniquely different airframes: the Mc-130P combat Shadow, Mc-130H combat Talon II and, at Osan, the MH-53J Pave Low III helicopter. ■733rd Air Mobility Squadron ■The more than 320 people of the 733rd Air Mobility Squadron manage all passengers and cargo traveling by air in and out of Kadena. This Air Mobility command unit supports about 650 aircraft arrivals and departures every month, moving more than 12,000 passengers and nearly 3,000 tons of cargo. ■82d Reconnaissance Squadron ■Air combat command’s 82d Reconnaissance Squadron maintains aircraft; prepares combat-ready aircrews; and an- alyzes, processes, and disseminates intelligence data launch in support of Rc-135V/W Rivet Joint, Rc-135U combat Sent and Wc-135 constant Phoenix missions flown in the Pacific Theater. Of special value to the Pacific command
  • 27. 19 and national command authorities, information obtained is used at all levels of the Department of Defense and within other government agencies. The squadron works closely with the 390th Intelligence Squadron. ■390th Intelligence Squadron ■Air Intelligence Agency’s 390th Intelligence Squadron conducts information operations by providing tailored com- bat intelligence and assessing the security of friendly command, control, communication and computer systems to enhance warfighting survivability, situation awareness and targeting. ■U.S. Army ■ 1-1 Air Defense Artillery Battalion, assigned to the 94th AAMDc. This is a Patriot PAc-3 battalion. It consists of four Patriot Missile batteries (Alpha through Delta), a maintenance company (echo) and a headquarters battery (HHB). Other units: ■ 320th Special Tactics Squadron ■ 1st Special Operations Squadron ■ 17th Special Operations Squadron ■ 733rd Air Mobility Squadron ■ Det 1, 554th Red Horse Squadron ■ American Forces Network Detachment 11, AFNeWS ■ Det 3, Pacaf Air Postal Squadron ■ Det 3, United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine ■ Support center Pacific, OO-ALc/Maly ■ Det 3, Wr-Alc Air Force Petroleum Office ■ Det 624, AF Office of Special investigations ■ Det 233, Air Force Audit Agency ■ Field Training Detachment Det 15, 372nd Training Squadron ■ Defense commissary Agency ■ DoDDS Pacific Director’s Office ■ DoD Dependents Schools Pacific-Okinawa District ■ U.S. consulate Naha ■ Marine Wing Liaison Kadena ■ Red cross united StateS navy uSe The Korean War emphasized the need for maintaining a naval presence in Okinawa. On February 15, 1951, the US Naval Facility, Naha, was activated and later became commissioned on April 18th. Commander Fleet Ac- tivities, Ryukyus was commissioned on March 8, 1957. On May 15, 1972, upon reversion of Okinawa to Japanese administration, the two organizations were combined to form Commander Fleet Activities, Okinawa. With the relocations of Commander Fleet Activities, Okinawa to Kadena Air Base on May 7, 1975, the title then became Commander Fleet Activities, Okinawa/US Naval Air Facility, Kadena. The mission of NAVCOMM Det Okinawa is to provide communications support for SEVENTH Fleet and support- ing units, U.S. Naval Forces Japan, U.S. Naval Forces Korea, Defense Information Systems Agency and the Japa- nese Maritime Self Defense Force. The detachment has four work centers: 1) TSCCOMM provides telecommuni- cations support for Patrol Wing ONE Det Kadena, deployed patrol squadrons and Marine Wing Detachment; 2) CMS provides communications security (COMSEC) materials and cryptographic equipment to Patrol Squadrons and detachments, and to Commander Amphibious Group One/CTF76, located at White Beach; 3) Naval Radio Transmitter Facility (NRTF) Awase provides HF transmitter support to the fleet and area commanders and LF
  • 28. 20 transmitter support for submarines operating in the Pacific and Indian Oceans; and 4) SURTASS supports com- mand and control functions to SURTASS ships operating in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific. notable aReaS ■Main Street (The Tiki) ■Gate 2 Street ■Kadena Tarmac ■Kadena BX ■Schilling community center ■Airmans club ■NcO club ■Officers club ■Kadena High School ■Kadena Middle School ■Bob Hope Primary School ■Amelia earhart Intermediate School ■Stearley Heights elementary School ■ The Asian Division of University of Maryland University college (UMUc) ■Kadena Bomb Dump hiStoRy otheR unitS Other major units assigned to Kadena since 1954 have been: ■313th Air Division (March 1955 - October 1991) ■Assumed responsibility for air defense of the Ryukyu Islands and tactical operations in the Far east, maintaining assigned forces at the highest possible degree of combat readiness. In addition, it supported Fifth Air Force in the development, planning, and coordination of requirements for future Air Force operations in the Ryukyu Islands. The division also supported numerous exercises such as cope Thunder, cope Diamond, Team Spirit, and cope North. Provided base host unit support for organizations assigned to Kadena (May 1955 - October 1957, December 1964 - October 1974). The Air Division was incorporated into the 18th composite Wing in 1991. ■Kadena Task Force (Provisional) (SAc) (May 1955 - May 1958) (RB/eRB-47H) ■Performed electronic Reconnaissance and countermeasures activities. ■498th Tactical Missile Group (February 1961 - October 1969) (TM-76B / cGM-13B) ■equipped with the TM-76B, renumbered in 1963 to cGM-13B Mace guided cruise missile, four hard site launch sites. ■4252nd Strategic Wing (SAc) ( January 1965 - April 1970) ■376th Strategic Wing (SAc) (April 1970 - August 1973) (B-52, Kc-135, ec-135) ■Activated by Strategic Air command at Kadena. Replaced 4252nd Strategic Wing. conducted B-52 combat opera- tions in Southeast Asia from January 1965 to September 1970, when Arc Light Missions from the base were terminat- ed. conducted Kc-135 air refueling and ec-135 electronic reconnaissance from April 1970 to April 1973. conducted airborne radio relay operations, April - Nov 1970, Feb- Jun 1971 and March 1972 - August 1973. Until 1991, the wing controlled the 909th Air Refueling Squadron (Kc-135A/Q/R) and supported rotational reconnaissance aircraft (TR-
  • 29. 21 1, SR-71) after the deactivation of the 9th SRW in 1974. The Wing was deactivated at Kadena on 30 October 1991 with the drawdown of strategic forces. Its mission was absorbed by the host 18th Wing. ■9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing (SAc) (1968 - 1974) (A-12, SR-71) ■Deployed from Beale Air Force Base, california, Performed strategic reconnaissance over Southeast Asian enemy territory (North Vietnam, Laos). The SR-71s averaged approximately one sortie a week for nearly two years. By 1970, the SR-71s were averaging two sorties per week. By 1972, the Blackbird was flying nearly one sortie every day. While deployed in Okinawa, the SR-71s and their aircrew members gained the nickname Habu (as did the A-12s preceding them) after a southeast Asian pit viper which the Okinawans thought the plane resembled. aiR tRaffiC ContRol The U.S. air force (the 5th air force) takes charge of control. In addition, the airspace control of Okinawa Island and the circumference of it are not under Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, but under the OKINAWA ap- proach control (the common name is Kadena Rapcon (嘉手納ラプコン,Kadena rapukon) Radar APproach cONtrol) of U.S. air force in the Kadena base. The management of control charge is due to be transferred to Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in the near future, and the air traffic controllers belonging to the ministry are training it towards change of jurisdiction as of December, 2006. beaCon The U.S. air force takes charge of maintenance. exteRnal linkS and RefeRenCeS ■Kadena’s official site ■globalsecurity.org on Kadena ■ 498th Tactical Missile Group at Kadena ■ 1-1 ADA Battalion’s Official Homepage
  • 30. 22 naha Airport is a second class airport located in the city of Naha, Okinawa. The primary air terminal for passengers and freight traveling to and from Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, the airport handles international traffic to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Korea, and China. Japan’s fifth largest airport, it also carries domestic flights to Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) and many other cities on Japan’s four main islands. Naha is also a hub for service to other locations in Okinawa, including Ishigaki Airport. In all, flights connect Naha to more than 30 destinations. Its single 3000 m runway handles in excess of 150 flights daily. The governor has expressed his interest to build a second runway to accommodate flights, to be operational by 2015. The basic and detailed design engineering works in addition to the later construction management phase of the international passenger terminal, were awarded in part to the Japan Branch of the American design-build engi- neering company, The Austin Company. The Okinawa Monorail carries passengers from Naha Airport Station to the center of Naha, and to the terminal at Shuri Station, which is closest to Shuri Castle. In addition, bus service is available to many parts of Okinawa Island. Extensive parking lots are available as well. aiRlineS and deStinationS MilitaRy and publiC-Safety unitS Naha Airport hosts Japan Air Self-Defense Force units flying modified F-4EJ jets, Kawasaki T-4 trainers, UH-60J Black Hawk and CH-47J Chinook helicopters. Units of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force fly P-3 Orion patrol aircraft. The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, Okinawa Prefectural Police, and the Japan Coast Guard also uti- lize facilities at Naha Airport. inCidentS ■china Airlines Flight 120
  • 31. 23 ■ On 1994, December 11, a bomb exploded on Philippine Airlines Flight 434, a Boeing 747-283B en route from cebu to Tokyo. The plane made an emergency landing at Naha Airport safely. ■On January 31, 2001: Japan Airlines Flight 907, bound for Naha from Tokyo International Airport, nearly collided with another Japan Airlines aircraft. The Boeing 747 for Flight 907 suddenly dived and avoided a Dc-10. See 2001 Japan Airlines mid-air incident ■ On 2007, August 20, Boeing 737-800 operating china Airlines Flight 120 had an engine explode shortly after land- ing at Naha Airport, resulting in a fire that gutted the aircraft. All passengers and crew members were evacuated safely.
  • 32. 24 marine corps Air Station Futenma Marine Corps Air Station Futenma or MCAS Futenma is a United States Marine Corps base located in Gi- nowan city, on the island of Okinawa. It is home to approximately 4,000 Marines of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing and has been a U.S. military airbase since the island was occupied following the Battle of Okinawa in 1945. Ma- rine Corps pilots and aircrew are assigned to the base for training and providing air support to other land-based Marines in Okinawa. The base includes a 2,800 meter-long runway as well as extensive barracks, administrative and logistical facili- ties. The air station is tasked with operating a variety of fixed and rotary-wing aircraft in support of the III Marine Expeditionary Force. The base is also used as a United Nations air facility. tenant CoMMandS ■ Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron ■ Marine Aircraft Group 36 ■ Marine Air control Group 18 loCation MCAS Futenma is situated in the center of Ginowan City (pop. 89,000). The air station covers approximately 480 hectares, about one quarter of the area of Ginowan City, and includes a 2,800-meter-long runway.
  • 33. 25 nakagusuku Bay is a bay off the southern coast of Okinawa Island in Japan, at. American soldiers nicknamed the bay Buckner Bay, after General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.
  • 34. 26 okinawa island Okinawa Island (沖縄本島Okinawa-hontō, or 沖縄島Okinawa-jima) is the largest of the Ryukyu Islands, and is home to Naha, the capital of Okinawa Prefecture. The island has an area of. It is the ‘home’ of karate. During the American occupation of Japan, following the Imperial Japanese surrender after WW II, the United States controlled Okinawa Island, which remained under U.S. governance until June 17, 1972. Since then, United States Armed Forces personnel and Kadena Air Base have remained on Okinawa Island by invitation of the Japanese government as part of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan. In 1990, the total population of Okinawa Island was an estimated 1.22 million people, comprising Ryūkyūans (especially native Okinawans), Japanese people, and expatriates, as well as American military personnel and their families. Whereas northern Okinawa Island is largely unpopulated, the south is markedly urbanized—particularly the city of Naha, and the urban corridor stretching north from there to the city of Okinawa. The island also houses six gusuku, Okinawan fortresses most of which now lie in a state of ruin. The southern end of the island consists of uplifted coral reef, whereas the northern half has proportionally more igneous rock. The easily eroded limestone of the south has many caves, the most famous of which is Gyokusendō in Nanjō. An 850 m stretch is open to tourists. The island’s subtropical climate supports a dense northern forest and a rainy season occurring in late spring. tRanSpoRtation Naha Airport serves the island.
  • 35. 27 Ryukyu islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the (literally Southwest Islands), are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. They stretch southwest from the island of Kyūshū to the island of Taiwan. The islands are administratively divided into Satsunan Islands to the north, belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, and Ryukyu Shotō to the south, belonging to Okinawa Prefecture, Japan (Yoron Island is the southernmost island of the Satsunan Islands and Yonaguni the southernmost of the Ryukyu Islands). The largest of the islands is Okinawa Island. The islands have a subtropical climate with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very high, and is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. The archipelago is home to the Ryukyuan languag- es. The original dialects are native to each island ■Location of Ryukyu Islands and distinct from one another. naMing hiStoRy The Ryukyu Kingdom was once an independent kingdom occupying the island chain, from Yonaguni Island in <?xml version=”1.0” encoding=”iso-8859-1”?> version=”1.0” ■Ryukyuan flag from 1875 to 1879 the southwest to Amami Ōshima in the north. In encoding=”iso-8859-1”?> 1372, it became a tributary state (藩国) of the Ming Dynasty. <!-- Generator: Adobe Illustrator 11 Build 196, SVG Export Plug-In . SVG Version: 6.0.0 Build <!-- Generator: Adobe Illustrator 78) --> 11 Build 196, SVG Export Plug-In . In 1609, Shimazu Tadatsune, Lord of Satsuma, in- SVG Version: 6.0.0 Build 78) --> vaded the Ryūkyū Kingdom with a fleet of 13 junks <!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.0//EN” and 2,500 samurai, thereby establishing suzerainty “http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-SVG-20010904/DTD/ over the islands. They faced little opposition from svg10.dtd” [ the Ryukyuans, who lacked any significant military capabilities, and who were ordered by King Shō Nei <!ENTITY ns_flows “http://ns.adobe.com/ to surrender peacefully rather than suffer the loss of Flows/1.0/”> precious lives. After that, the kings of the Ryukyus paid tribute to the Japanese shogun as well as the Chinese emperor. <!ENTITY ns_svg “http://www.w3.org/2000/svg”> In 1879, the Meiji government announced the an- nexation of the Ryukyus. Messengers sent by the Ryukyuan king had knelt outside the Beijing offices of Chinese Prime Minister Zongli Yamen for three days, pleading not to be separated from China. China, weak- ened from internal corruption and colonial occupation (including that of Japan) refused the request to send military protection. Instead, China made diplomatic objections and asked former President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant to arbitrate. Grant decided that Japan’s claim to the islands was stronger and ruled in Japan’s favor. The claims of the indigenous Ryukyuans to the land were ignored. In the process of annexation, the Japanese military assassinated Ryukyu politicians and civilians who opposed the takeover. The Ryukyu Kingdom became part of its northern neighbor, the Satsuma han. Later, it became its own prefecture, Okinawa Prefecture, when the prefectural system was adopted nationwide. Compulsory Japa-
  • 36. 28 nese education was enforced on the Ryukyu children, whereby they were taught Japanese language, culture and identity, while strictly forbidden the use of their native language. Military activity on the island, before and during WWII, especially the Battle of Okinawa, had a devastating effect on the Okinawan people. A huge loss of civilian life left many feeling that they were being mistreated by both the Japanese and American military. Okinawa remains the poorest prefecture in Japan to this day. The US was granted control over Ryukyu Islands south of 29°N latitude amongst other Pacific islands, under the San Francisco Peace Treaty between the Allied Powers and Japan. US military control over Okinawa began in 1945 with establishment of the Okinawa Advisory Council. This organization eventually became the government of the Ryukyu Islands which existed from 1952 to 1972. Sovereignty was given to Japan in 1972. Today, there are a number of issues arising from Ryukyuan history. Some Ryukyuans and some Japanese feel that people from the Ryukyus are not “real” Japanese. Some natives of the Ryukyus claim that the central government is discriminating against the islanders by allowing so many American soldiers to be stationed on bases in Oki- nawa with a minimal presence on the mainland. Additionally, there is some discussion of secession from Japan. Many popular singers and musical groups come from the Ryukyus. These include (among many others) the pop groups Begin (ビギン) and Orange Range, singers Namie Amuro and Gackt, as well as the group Da Pump. See also Ryukyuan Music and Ryukyuan songs. people The Ryukyuans are known for their longevity. The Okinawa Centenarian Study attributes this phenomenon to a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle practices. Traditionally, the people of the Ryukyus speak a chain of languages related to Japanese as members of the Japonic language family. Since the latest Japanese invasion in 1879, Japanese has become the main language of public life on the Ryukyus, especially on Uchinā (Okinawa). Younger and middle-aged people tend not to speak a Ryukyuan language as fluently as Japanese, if at all. eCology MajoR iSlandS This list is based on present day Japanese geographic names: Nansei Islands Satsunan Islands (The Northern Half ) ■Ōsumi Islands with: ■ Tanegashima, Yakushima, Kuchinoerabujima, Mageshima in the North-eastern Group, ■ Takeshima, Iojima, Kuroshima in the North-Western Group. ■Tokara Islands (The Shichi-tō): Kuchinoshima, Nakanoshima, Gajajima, Suwanosejima, Akusekijima, Tairajima, Kodakarajima, Takarajima ■Amami Islands: Amami Ōshima, Kikaigashima, Kakeromajima, Yoroshima, Ukeshima, Tokunoshima, Okinoerabujima, Yoronjima ■right
  • 37. 29 Ryūkyū Shotō (The Southern Half ) Okinawa Islands (The central Group or Ryukyu proper): Okinawa Island (aka. Okinawan mainland, Okinawa hontō), Kumejima, Iheyajima, Izenajima, Agunijima, Iejima, Iwo Tori Shima (Iōtorishima) ■Kerama Islands: Tokashikijima, Zamamijima, Akajima, Gerumajima ■Daitō Islands: Kita daitō, Mimami daitō, Oki daitō Sakishima Islands (“Further Isles”) ■Miyako Islands: Miyakojima, Ikema, Ogami, Irabu, Shimoji, Kurima, Minna, Tarama ■Yaeyama Islands: Iriomote, Ishigaki, Taketomi, Kohama, Kuroshima, Aragusuku, Hatoma, Yubujima, Hateruma, Yonaguni ■Senkaku Islands (claimed by PRc and ROc): Uotsurijima, Kuba Jima, Taisho Jima, Kita Kojima, Minami Kojima Notes: ■ For some of the island names above, the suffix -jima, -shima, and -gashima can be interchanged, omitted, or ap- pended. The suffix means “island.” In general, the islands are listed from north to south where possible. ■ “Shotō” is replaced with “Islands” in the list except for Ryūkyū Shotō (琉球諸島), since the term “Ryukyu Islands” already exists in english. The Japanese term refers only to the islands that comprise Okinawa Prefecture, while the english term refers to the entire chain of islands between Kyūshū and Taiwan. ■Ryūkyū Rettō (琉球列島) refers to what was once the territory of the former kingdom, which are the Amami Is- lands, Okinawa Islands, Miyako Islands, and Yaeyama Islands.
  • 38. 30 okinawa Prefecture is one of Japan’s southern prefectures, and con- sists of hundreds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, which extends southwest from Kyūshū (the southwesternmost of Japan’s main four islands) to Taiwan. Okinawa’s capital, Naha, is located in the southern part of the largest and most populous island, Okinawa Island, which is ap- proximately half-way between Kyūshū and Taiwan. The disputed Senkaku Islands (Mandarin: Diaoyu Islands) are also administered as part of Okinawa Prefecture at present. hiStoRy The oldest evidence of human existence in the Ryukyu islands was discovered in Naha and Yaese. Some human bone fragments from the Paleolithic ■Location of Ryukyu Islands era were unearthed, but there is no clear evidence of Paleolith remains. Japanese Jōmon influences are dominant in the Okinawa Islands, although clay ves- sels in the Sakishima Islands have a commonality with those in Taiwan. The first mention of the word Ryukyu was written in the Book of Sui. This Ryukyu might refer to Taiwan, not the Ryukyu islands. Okinawa was the Japanese word depicting the islands, first seen in the biography of Jianzhen, written in 779. Agricultural societies begun in the 8th century slowly developed until the 12th century. Since the islands are located in the center of the East China Sea relatively close to Japan, China and South-East Asia, the Ryūkyū Kingdom became a prosperous trading nation. Also during this period, many Gusukus, similar to castles, were constructed. The Ryūkyū Kingdom had a tributary relationship with the Chinese Empire beginning in the 15th century. In 1609 the Satsuma clan, which controlled the region that is now Kagoshima Prefecture invaded the Ryūkyū Kingdom. Following the invasion the Ryūkyū Kingdom surrendered to the Satsuma and was forced to form a tributary relationship with Satsuma and the Tokugawa shogunate, in addition to its previous relationship with China. Ryukyuan sovereignty was maintained since complete annexation would create a problem with China. The Satsuma clan earned considerable profits from trades with China during a period in which foreign trade was heavily restricted by the shogunate. Though Satsuma maintained strong influence over the islands, the Ryūkyū Kingdom maintained considerable degree of domestic political freedom for over two hundred years. Four years after the 1868 Meiji Restoration, the Japanese government, through military incursions, officially annexed the kingdom and renamed it Ryukyu han. At the time, the Qing Dynasty of China asserted sovereignty over the islands of the Ryūkyū Kingdom, since the Ryūkyū Kingdom was a tributary nation of China. The Okinawa han became a prefecture of Japan in 1879, while all other hans had became prefectures of Japan in 1872. Following the Battle of Okinawa and the end of World War II in 1945, Okinawa was under the United States administration for 27 years. During the trusteeship rule the USAF established numerous military bases on the Ryukyu islands.
  • 39. 31 In 1972, the U.S. government returned the islands to Japanese administration. Under the Treaty of Mutual Co- operation and Security, the United States Forces Japan (USFJ) have maintained a large military presence. 27000 personnel, including 15000 Marines, contingents from the Navy, Army and Air Force, and their 22,000 family members are stationed in Okinawa. 18% of the main island was occupied by US military bases and 75% of all USFJ bases are located in Okinawa prefecture. 85% of the Okinawans oppose the large presence of the USFJ and demand the consolidation, reduction and re- moval of US military bases from Okinawa. Repeated accidents and crimes committed by U.S. servicemen have reduced local citizens’ support for the U.S. military bases. The Japanese and the US government consider the mutual security treaty and the USFJ absolutely necessary and neglected the awkward situation in Okinawa for decades. The rape of a 12 year old girl by U.S. servicemen in 1995 triggered large protests in Okinawa. As a re- sult, both the U.S. and Japanese governments agreed to the relocation of the Marine Corps Air Station Futenma and other minor bases. However, at present, the closure of the bases has been indefinitely postponed. These disagreements also contribute to the relatively recent anti-Japanese sentiment and subsequently Ryukyu inde- pendence movement. geogRaphy deMogRaphy Okinawa prefecture age pyramid as of 1 October 2003 (per 1000’s of people) Okinawa Prefecture age pyramid, divided by sex, as of 1 October 2003 (per 1000’s of people) ■Source: Japan Statistics Bureau (総務省統計局) CliMate and natuRe The island is largely composed of coral rock, and rainwater filtering through that coral has given the island many caves, which played an important role in the Battle of Okinawa. Gyokusendo, an extensive limestone cave in the southern part of Okinawa’s main island, is a popular tourist attraction. Okinawa is said to have the most beautiful beaches in all of Japan and normally enjoys temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius for most of the year. Oki- nawa and the many islands that make up the prefec- ture boast some of the most abundant coral reefs found in the world. Rare blue corals are found off of Ishigaki and Miyako islands as are numerous species throughout the chain. Many coral reefs are found in this region of Japan and wildlife is abundant. Sea ■Shuri castle Naha turtles return yearly to the southern islands of Oki- nawa to lay their eggs. The summer months carry warnings to swimmers regarding poisonous jelly- fish and other dangerous sea creatures. Okinawa is a major producer of sugar cane, pineapple, papaya, and other tropical fruit, and the Southeast Botanical Gar- dens represent tropical plant species.
  • 40. 32 language and CultuRe Having historically been a separate nation, Okinawan language and culture dif- fer considerably from that of mainland Japan. u.S. MilitaRy ContRoveRSy Because the islands are close to China and Taiwan, the United States has large military bases on the island. The area of 14 US bases are, occupying 18% of the main island. Okinawa accounts for less than one percent of Japan’s land, but hosts about two-thirds of the 40,000 American forces in the country. 85% of Okinawans oppose the presence of the U.S. military It has been claimed that some US soldiers raped Okinawan women dur- ing the Battle of Okinawa in 1945. While the number of Okinawan women raped by US troops is not known, historian Peter Schrijvers states that an Okinawan historian has estimated that the number may have exceeded 10,000, and that this is consistent with the incidence of reported rapes during the first 10 days of the Occupation of Japan. In 1998 the remains of 3 executed presumed rapists from the occupation forces were discovered ■US. Military Bases in Okinawa in a cave. In 1955 Isaac J. Hart was accused but not convicted of the rape and mur- der of six-year-old Yumiko. This is known as “The Yumiko Incident”. Forty years later, on September 4, 1995, two U.S. marines and a sailor abducted and raped a 12-year-old girl. At the time of the incident, Japanese police could not arrest the men known to be involved because they had to remain with the United States Military until charged in a court, see U.S.-Japan Status of Forces Agreement. Anti-military base emotions erupted in some of the largest protests in recent history. Eventually through political pressure, the soldiers were tried and convicted in early 1996. As a result of this incident the Status of Forces Agreement, which was criticized for being too protective of U.S. servicemen involved in crimes, underwent revision. A movement to reduce the size of US military presence on Okinawa gained popularity. In November of 1995, a group called “Okinawan Women Act Against Military Violence” was organized to raise awareness of crimes alleged to have been committed by U.S. military personnel on the island. Sentiments against the United States military presence in Okinawa were inflamed further by the Michael Brown Okinawa assault incident, in which a Marine Corps ma- jor charged with attempted rape (and later convicted of the reduced charge of attempted indecent assault) was not turned over to the Japanese authorities at their request. Okinawa authorities pressed for a modification of the Status of Forces Agreement in an effort to remove the military’s unilateral right to determine whether it would turn over a servicemember charged with a serious crime. Tensions increased even more following allegations of an assault committed by an American servicemen against a minor, a restriction was imposed to all U.S. military and Status of Forces Agreement eligible personnel at bases in Okinawa and Iwakuni in February, 2008. It has since been lifted. In April 2008 the U.S. Military charged a Marine with raping a 14-year-old girl in Okinawa, pressing ahead with a case that spurred protests against the U.S. presence on the island. U.S. military charges against Staff Sgt. Tyrone L. Hadnott include rape of a child under 16, abusive sexual conduct, making a false official statement, adultery and “kidnapping through inveigling,” or trickery. Hadnott was later cleared of the charge of rape and kidnapping and convicted on the assault charge with a prison sentence of three years.
  • 41. 33 eduCation The public schools in Okinawa are overseen by the Okinawa Prefectural Board of Education. The agency directly operates several public high schools. The US Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS) operates 13 schools total in Okinawa. Seven of these schools are located on Kadena Air Base. Okinawa has many types of private schools. Some of them are cram schools, also known as Juku. Others solely teach language such as the famous English school, Nova (eikaiwa). Since Nova’s collapse, more and more people are favoring small language schools. Japanese language schools for foreigners are also becoming popular in Okinawa. There are 10 colleges/universities in Okinawa including the Asian Division of University of Maryland University College (UMUC). SpoRtS Football ■F.c. Ryūkyū (Naha) Basketball ■Ryukyu Kings (Naha) In addition, various baseball teams hold training during the winter in the prefecture as it is the warmest prefec- ture of Japan with no snow and higher temperatures than other prefectures. ■Softbank Hawks ■Yokohama BayStars ■chunichi Dragons ■Yakult Swallows tRanSpoRtation united StateS MilitaRy inStallationS ■ Kadena Air Base Marine corps Base camp Smedley D. Butler
  • 42. 34 ■ Marine corps Air Station Futenma ■ camp courtney ■ camp Foster ■ camp Hansen ■ camp Kinser ■ camp McTureous ■ camp Schwab ■ camp Gonsalves (Northern Training Area, Jungle Warfare Training center) ■ Naha Military Port ■ Naval Facility White Beach ■ camp Lester ■ Torii Station ■ camp Shields
  • 43. 35 Weather Day of Friday, October 24 Humid with times of clouds and sun. High: 85° F, feels like 92° F Wind: 13 mph, NNE Precipitation: 9% chance Sunrise: 6:35 AM UV: 6 Night of Friday, October 24 Partly cloudy. Low: 75° F, feels like 75° F Wind: 12 mph, NNE Precipitation: 2% chance Sunset: 5:53 PM Day of Saturday, October 25 Partial sunshine. High: 84° F, feels like 86° F Wind: 13 mph, NE Sunrise: 6:35 AM UV: 6 Night of Saturday, October 25 Partly cloudy. Low: 77° F, feels like 79° F Wind: 9 mph, NE Sunset: 5:52 PM Day of Sunday, October 26 Partial sunshine. High: 85° F, feels like 91° F Wind: 8 mph, NE Precipitation: 2% chance Sunrise: 6:36 AM UV: 6 Night of Sunday, October 26 Patchy clouds and warm. Low: 75° F, feels like 76° F Wind: 8 mph, NNE Sunset: 5:51 PM
  • 44. 36 Day of Monday, October 27 Partial sunshine. High: 82° F, feels like 86° F Wind: 11 mph, NE Sunrise: 6:37 AM UV: 6 Night of Monday, October 27 Partly cloudy and warm. Low: 74° F, feels like 73° F Wind: 10 mph, NE Sunset: 5:50 PM Day of Tuesday, October 28 Nice with times of sun and clouds. High: 82° F, feels like 83° F Wind: 13 mph, NE Sunrise: 6:37 AM UV: 5 Night of Tuesday, October 28 Partly cloudy and warm. Low: 75° F, feels like 74° F Wind: 9 mph, NE Sunset: 5:49 PM Day of Wednesday, October 29 Partly sunny. High: 84° F, feels like 86° F Wind: 10 mph, ENE Sunrise: 6:38 AM UV: 6 Night of Wednesday, October 29 Partly cloudy and warm. Low: 76° F, feels like 78° F Wind: 6 mph, ENE Sunset: 5:49 PM Day of Thursday, October 30 Partly sunny and humid. High: 81° F, feels like 88° F Wind: 7 mph, ESE Precipitation: 1% chance Sunrise: 6:38 AM UV: 6
  • 45. 37 Night of Thursday, October 30 Partly cloudy and humid. Low: 71° F, feels like 76° F Wind: 2 mph, ENE Precipitation: 5% chance Sunset: 5:48 PM Day of Friday, October 31 Mostly cloudy and humid. High: 76° F, feels like 81° F Wind: 7 mph, NE Precipitation: 13% chance Sunrise: 6:39 AM UV: 4 Night of Friday, October 31 Rain. Low: 67° F, feels like 66° F Wind: 12 mph, NNE Precipitation: 16% chance Sunset: 5:47 PM Day of Saturday, November 1 Rain. High: 76° F, feels like 73° F Wind: 17 mph, NNE Precipitation: 7% chance Sunrise: 6:40 AM UV: 3 Night of Saturday, November 1 Rainy. Low: 69° F, feels like 65° F Wind: 17 mph, NNE Sunset: 5:47 PM Day of Sunday, November 2 Times of sun and clouds. High: 79° F, feels like 77° F Wind: 17 mph, NNE Sunrise: 6:40 AM UV: 5 Night of Sunday, November 2 Partly cloudy. Low: 73° F, feels like 70° F Wind: 11 mph, N Sunset: 5:46 PM
  • 46. 38 Events
  • 47. 39 References Wikitravel, Naha — http://wikitravel.org/en/Naha Wikipedia, Naha — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naha Wikipedia, Seifa-utaki — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seifa-utaki Wikipedia, Nakagusuku — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakagusuku Wikipedia, Tamaudun — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamaudun Wikipedia, Katsuren gusuku — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katsuren_gusuku Wikipedia, Zakimi gusuku — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zakimi_gusuku Wikipedia, Shuri Castle — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shuri_Castle Wikipedia, Kadena Air Base — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kadena_Air_Base Wikipedia, Naha Airport — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naha_Airport Wikipedia, Marine Corps Air Station Futenma — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_Corps_Air_Station_Fu- tenma Wikipedia, Nakagusuku Bay — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakagusuku_Bay Wikipedia, Okinawa Island — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okinawa_Island Wikipedia, Ryukyu Islands — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryukyu_Islands Wikipedia, Okinawa Prefecture — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okinawa_Prefecture Eventful — http://eventful.com Zvents — http://zvents.com Upcoming — http://upcoming.yahoo.com Accuweather — http://www.accuweather.com/ Yahoo Finance — http://finance.yahoo.com Google Maps — http://maps.google.com
  • 48. 40 Travel notes
  • 49. 41 Travel notes
  • 50. 42 Travel notes

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