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Social Construction And Doctors And Patients

Social Construction And Doctors And Patients



interactionist perspective on health

interactionist perspective on health



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    Social Construction And Doctors And Patients Social Construction And Doctors And Patients Presentation Transcript

    • Social Construction and Doctors and Patients Interactionist perspectives
    • Interactionism
      • As we have discussed the Interactionist perspective is quite different from Marxism and functionalism
      • It is concerned with how people make sense and give meaning to things in their social world
      • Interactionism looks at how we perceive ourselves and how others perceive us
      • It examines how our identity is shaped socially
    • Stigma – Erving Goffman 1963
      • Goffman believed that our identity is something social
      • We have to constantly present ourselves publicly and our ‘selves’ are continuously being scrutinised by ourselves and others
      • We try to project a socially desirable ‘front’
      • We want to be accepted and liked so we must present a good image of ourselves to ‘fit in’
      • We constantly ‘manage’ the impression others have of us
    • Stigma
      • A stigma is something that can damage you socially
      • A stigma can be something that is physical (such as the girl born without a nose)
      • Or something about you which is not immediately obvious, such as; the fact that you have had a mental illness.
      • Goffman identifies the following types of stigma
        • Abominations of the body
          • Disability, deformity etc
        • Blemishes of character
          • A criminal conviction, a slanderous slur, mental illness
        • Tribal Stigmata
          • Religion, race and ethnicity
    • Stigma
      • Societal Reaction
        • People react differently to people who present with some form of stigma
          • People may not speak to the person with the stigma
        • The stigmatised are discredited or devalued
          • They could suffer violence, social exclusion, less rights than other people
          • They can be seen as less than human
          • They can be held responsible for having the stigma (HIV/AIDS)
        • People with a stigma manage the information people have about their discrediting characteristic
          • Wearing make up to cover a scar from a burn
          • Hiding the fact you have an illness (like AIDS & HIV)
    • Read the article on stigma and HIV/AIDS
      • What is stigma often related to?
      • Who has been seen as blameless or innocent?
      • Why do people sometimes avoid healthcare professionals?
      • What percentage of people thought that people living with AIDS should be separated from mainstream society?
      • Write a short passage about the findings of the surveys listed in the article
        • What evidence is there of social construction?
        • What evidence is there to support the claim that people living with HIV/AIDS are stigmatised?
        • What sort of societal reaction can people get if they are living with HIV/AIDS?
        • How might Goffman view the findings of the surveys?
    • Mortification of the Self
      • In another key text ‘Asylums’ 1962
      • Here Goffman examines the effects on the self when people are confined to an institution
        • Prisons
        • Mental hospitals
      • Here people have to undergo a change of identity
        • This is a mortification of self
          • They are no longer the people they were before they entered the institution, they are now something that is defined by that institution
            • An inmate
        • Their lives are characterised by a routine not of their making
        • They are not in control of their lives
        • Their lives are run in such a way as to minimise disruption to the institution
    • Disabling Professions
      • Ivan Illich (1976)
      • Very critical about how our lives have been over structured by modern society
      • He argues that the medical profession have taken over our lives
      • We have been ‘disabled’ by the medical profession
      • Iatrogenesis
        • Illness or disease caused by the medical profession
            • Clinical
              • Ill health through being in hospital (think MRSA)
            • Social
              • Medical profession makes us morbidly obsess about our health when really there is nothing that can be done to ultimately prevent us from dying eventually
            • Cultural
              • Too many medical professionals holding too much power over individuals
              • Traditional ways of caring for people are lost
      • Our ability to look after and care for ourselves is taken away by the medicalisation of life
      • We are unable to cope with the possibility of our own death