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Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
Sex ed and pregnancy
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Sex ed and pregnancy

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  • 1. •By age 15, only 13% of U.S. teens have ever had sex•By age 19, 70% of teens of both sexes have hadintercourse.
  • 2. CASE STUDYA woman gets a call from her ob/gyn. Apparently, she hadan abnormal pap smear when she had her check-up.•Should she be concerned?•What is a Pap Smear?•How often should a woman get one?•At what age should a woman get her first pap smear?•What does a pap smear test for?
  • 3. Quick Facts•More than 800,000 women younger than 20become pregnant each year • 80% of these pregnancies are unintended•Nine million teenagers and young adultsacquire an STD each year•Two young people every hour become infectedwith HIV
  • 4. Decreasing Teen Pregnancy RateSource: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2007 Annual Social and Economic Supplement
  • 5. Birth Control Methods and Effectiveness
  • 6. Behavioral Methods•Require no hormones ormedication.•Their moderateeffectiveness depends onconsistent adherence•Only risks areinconvenience and failure asa contraceptive•Theses methods include: • Withdrawal • Periodic Abstinence (Rythmic Method) • Lactational Amenorrhea
  • 7. Barrier Methods•Attempt to prevent the fertilization of an ovum by physically preventing spermfrom entering the uterus.•Condoms and spermicide are available without prescription•Latex and polyurethane condoms protect against HIV and other STDs•Successful use of the barrier method as contraception requires consistencyand discipline.•All barrier methods are safe for use during lactation.•Types of barrier methods: • Male Condoms • Female Condoms • Cervical Caps (not in USA) • Diaphragm • Spermicide
  • 8. Hormonal Contraceptives•Attempts to prevent fertilization of the ovum or ovulation itself via the use of progesterone and estrogen(combined contraceptives) or just progesterone.•Combined contraceptives (progesterone/estrogen) • Act by preventing ovulation • Can be dispensed via pill (daily), patch (weekly), or vaginal ring (monthly) • Benefits include: improvement of menorrhagia, acne, reduced risk of ovarian cancer, quick return to fertility with discontinued use. • Side effects can include: nausea, spotting, • Contraindications for use: Migraine with aura, smoking, stroke, ischemic heart disease, liver disease, major surgery with immobilization, hypertension, breast cancer, deep vein thrombosis. • Types: Pill “The Pill”, Patch, Ring•Progesterone-only contraceptives • Act by thickening cervical mucus, thus becoming a barrier to sperm entering the uterus. • Can be dispensed via pill (daily), injection, intrauterine device, or implant. • Well-suited to women who cannot take estrogen (breastfeeding, etc.) • Common side effects include: spotting, hair or skin changes, weight gain, headaches, depression, decreased libido. • Types: Pill “The Mini Pill”, Injection,
  • 9. Intrauterine Devices (IUD)•These are devices placed in the uterus to prevent conception bysuppressing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus.•They are highly effective, well tolerated, long-acting and reversible.•For women who do not plan on becoming pregnancy in the next twoyears, IUD’s are the most cost-effective contraceptive.•Suited for women who cannot take estrogen, for those who havenever born a child, and for those with STDs•There is a risk of uterine perforation, infection and expulsion within thefirst year.•Fertility returns quickly after removal.•There are two types available: • Copper IUD • Progestin IUD
  • 10. Sterilization•Sterilization provides permanent,non-reversible protection againstpregnancy.•There are several procedures formen and women•Male sterilization procedures costless and carry less risk thanfemale sterilization, however, inthe US, female sterilization ispreformed more often than malesterilization.•Female Procedure: TubalSterilization•Male Procedure: Vasectomy
  • 11. Emergency Contraceptives•Lower the risk of pregnancy following unprotectedintercourse.•There are four types: • Progestin-only (levonorgestrel) Pill • Estrogen/Progestin Pill • Copper IUD • Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulator (ulipristal) Pill
  • 12. Condoms
  • 13. Male Condom Use by Race
  • 14. U.S. teenagers have higher rates of pregnancy,birth and abortion than teenagers in most otherdeveloped countries
  • 15. Levels of teenage sexual activity across developed countries are similar…
  • 16. …but U.S. teenagers have higher rates of unintended pregnancy and STDs because they•Are less likely to use contraceptives•Have shorter relationships•Have more sexual partners
  • 17. Why this discrepancy?•Other countries have: • Greater access to contraceptive and reproductive health services • Comprehensive sex education
  • 18. Abstinence in school district sex education
  • 19. Practice Safe Sex•Use contraceptives—they work!
  • 20. NOTE: Conception canoccur at ANY time during the menstrual cycle!
  • 21. Teen Pregnancy Outcomes
  • 22. Abortion Rates
  • 23. The Rise of STIs•One in four U.S. women aged 14–19 has a sexually transmitted infection(STI), according to a study released in March 2008 by researchers from theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).• Young people aged 13–24 made up about 17% of all those who received adiagnosis of HIV/AIDS in 2008• Although 15–24 year-olds represent only ¼ of the sexually activepopulation, they account for nearly ½ (9.1 million) of the 18.9 million newcases of STIs each year.• Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections account for about half of STIsdiagnosed among 15–24-year-olds each year.
  • 24. What do we have here….
  • 25. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)• The virtual “marker” for having had sex.• The CDC estimates that 20 million people are currently infected with HPV, 6.2million Americans become infected each year and at least 50% of sexually activeindividuals will acquire an HPV infection at some point in their lives.• Most HPV infections cause no clinical problems and resolve on their own withouttreatment. (As many as 91% of new infections clear up within two years.)• Certain HPV strains lead to genital warts. These warts can be removed, but if theimmune system fails to clear the virus entirely, symptoms may reappear.• Other HPV strains are deemed “high-risk” because they occasionally develop into apersistent infection that can progress to cervical cancer if left untreated, usually overthe course of decades.• Pap tests can detect not only early-stage cervical cancer, which is highly treatable,but also cervical dysplasia—precancerous changes of cervical cells which can lingerfor years—allowing for the removal of affected tissue long before invasive cancer setsin.
  • 26. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea•bacterial infections that can be cured with antibiotics•Untreated chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in women maylead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious infectionthat itself may lead to ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronicpain.•In 2007, the overall reported rate of chlamydia infection amongwomen (544 cases per 100,000 females) was almost threetimes the rate among men (190 per 100,000 males)•Rates of gonorrhea and chlamydia are heavily concentratedamong young people. Young women aged 15–24 are hithardest by chlamydia, with rates more than five times as highas women overall.•Routine screening is the most widely recommendedpreventative healthcare for these two diseases
  • 27. Other STIs A and B, which are•viral infections, such as herpes and hepatitisincurable but treatable;•and bacterial and parasitic infections, such as syphilis andtrichomoniasis, which can be cured with antibiotics.•About 7.4 million new cases of trichomoniasis occur each year.Left untreated, trichomoniasis can be an irritant, causing vaginaldischarge, discomfort during intercourse and painful urination.•Late-stage syphilis can, years later, cause irreversible damageto the nervous system and heart, possibly leading to blindness,insanity, paralysis and death.•Hepatitis B can cause inflammation of the liver, and chroniccases can cause liver cell damage, which can lead to cirrhosis ofthe liver and cancer. • It is estimated that 5,000 people die each year in the United States due to the complications of cirrhosis and liver cancer as a result of hepatitis B.•HIV/AIDS
  • 28. Prevention•To date, there are vaccines for onlytwo viral STIs: hepatitis B and HPV.•Abstinence•Long term, mutually monogamousrelationship with a partner without anSTI•Use condoms consistently andcorrectly!
  • 29. Testing and Treatment•Get tested regularly: pap smear, blood work•For most STIs, screening and treatment to cure orsuppress existing infections, often referred to as secondaryprevention, can play as important a role in preventing long-term harm to an individual’s health and to reducing thespread of STIs as preventing infections in the first place.
  • 30. CASE STUDYA woman gets a call from her ob/gyn. Apparently, she hadan abnormal pap smear when she had her check-up.•Should she be concerned? Maybe•What is a Pap Smear?•How often should a woman get one?•At what age should a woman get her first pap smear?•What does a pap smear test for?
  • 31. CASE STUDYA woman gets a call from her ob/gyn. Apparently, she hadan abnormal pap smear when she had her check-up.•Should she be concerned? Maybe•What is a Pap Smear? A test to check the condition ofcervical cells•How often should a woman get one?•At what age should a woman get her first pap smear?•What does a pap smear test for?
  • 32. CASE STUDYA woman gets a call from her ob/gyn. Apparently, she hadan abnormal pap smear when she had her check-up.•Should she be concerned? Maybe•What is a Pap Smear? A test to check the condition ofcervical cells•How often should a woman get one? Yearly•At what age should a woman get her first pap smear?•What does a pap smear test for?
  • 33. CASE STUDYA woman gets a call from her ob/gyn. Apparently, she had an abnormalpap smear when she had her check-up.•Should she be concerned? Maybe•What is a Pap Smear? A test to check the condition of cervical cells•How often should a woman get one? Yearly•At what age should a woman get her first pap smear? 21 or within ayear of first sexual experience (whichever comes first).•What does a pap smear test for?
  • 34. CASE STUDYA woman gets a call from her ob/gyn. Apparently, she had an abnormalpap smear when she had her check-up.•Should she be concerned? Maybe•What is a Pap Smear? A test to check the condition of cervical cells•How often should a woman get one? Yearly•At what age should a woman get her first pap smear? 21 or within ayear of first sexual experience (whichever comes first).•What does a pap smear test for? Cancerous and pre-cancerous cells.
  • 35. Questions?

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