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  1. 1. CancerMini Medical School: Pre-Medical Honors Program UMDNJ-NJMS
  2. 2. Objectives• Gain a basic understanding of the normal cell cycle and how cancer develops• Appreciate the variations in cancer rates amongst the different ethnicities and between genders• Understand the risk factors and symptoms of common cancers, including lung, colon, skin, breast, and prostate cancers• Apply knowledge to a case study
  3. 3. Introduction Mitosis• Cancer is the uncontrolled spread and growth of abnormal cells in the body.• Normal cells know when to multiply or die, but cancer cells do not.
  4. 4. Not all tumors are cancer!• Benign tumors: Abnormal growth of cells that form a mass • Do not typically metastasize (spread) or recur after being removed • Can still cause problems by compressing nerves or blood vessels.• Malignant=Cancer!
  5. 5. Case Study – Part 1a• A 46-year-old overweight Caucasian woman comes into the doctor’s office for a mammogram. She is nervous because one week ago, while showering, she felt a mass in her left breast and a “lump” in her left axilla (armpit).• Besides the palpable masses, what other parts of this woman’s history are relevant?• What additional questions would you want to ask?
  6. 6. Case Study – Part 1b• Besides the palpable masses, what other parts of this woman’s history are relevant? • 46 years old – increasing age is a risk factor • Caucasian – higher rates of breast cancer in Caucasian women • Overweight – increasing weight is a risk factor• What additional questions would you want to ask? • Past history? • Family history? • Diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol habits?
  7. 7. Case Study – Part 1c• The woman states that she has no previous history of benign breast tumors, but her mother was diagnosed with breast cancer at 48 and successfully treated. Her diet is heavy in fatty foods and she rarely exercises. She denies smoking and consumes 1-3 alcoholic drinks a week.
  8. 8. Cancer Statistics
  9. 9. DemographicsRace/Ethnicity New Cases (per 100,000) New Cases (per 100,000) Male FemaleAll Races 541.8 412.3White 542.7 423.1Black 627.1 398.3Asian/Pacific Islander 342.6 299.4American Indian/Alaska 352.7 313.8NativeHispanic 402.0 324.1 Rates are based on cases diagnosed in 2005-2009 from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)
  10. 10. Gender-MaleType Risk of Risk of Dying Developing From Percent (%) 1 in Percent (%) 1 inAll invasive sites 44.29 2 23.20 4Prostate 16.22 6 2.79 36Lung and bronchus 7.67 13 6.95 14Bladder (includes in situ) 3.80 26 0.85 118Melanoma of the skin 2.36 42 0.40 250Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2.30 43 0.88 114Kidney and renal pelvis 1.88 53 0.60 167Leukemia 1.52 66 1.00 100Liver and bile duct 1.06 94 0.77 130
  11. 11. Gender-FemaleType Risk of Risk of Dying Developing From Percent (%) 1 in Percent (%) 1 inAll invasive sites 37.76 3 19.58 5Breast 12.15 8 2.81 36Lung and bronchus 6.35 16 5.05 20Colon and rectum 4.97 20 2.01 50Uterine corpus 2.58 39 0.53 189Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 1.92 52 0.73 137Melanoma of the skin 1.56 64 0.21 476Pancreas 1.41 71 1.26 79Thyroid 1.34 75 0.07 1,429
  12. 12. Cancer Symptoms• Sometimes there may be no symptoms at all, or symptoms at very late stages• Common symptoms include: unexplained weight loss, fatigue, fever, pain, skin changes• Screening by a doctor is the best way to detect cancer early
  13. 13. Lung Cancer – Risk Factors• Cigarette Smoking: • About 90% of lung cancers arise through cigarette smoking. • Risk depends on how long a person has smoked, the amount of cigarettes smoked, and the age at which smoking began• Other Risk Factors: second hand smoke, air pollution, asbestos, chronic lung diseases (Tuberculosis, COPD), radon exposure • Radon is a by-product of radium, present in indoor and outdoor air. • About 12% of lung cancer deaths are attributed to radon
  14. 14. Lung Cancer – Symptoms• Coughing• Coughing up blood• Shortness of breath• Fatigue• Wheezing• Pain in the chest, shoulder, upper back, or arm• Repeated pneumonia or bronchitis• Loss of appetite and weight loss• General pain content/uploads/2011/01/Lung_Cancer3.jpg• Hoarseness• Swelling of face or neck• Pleural effusion
  15. 15. Colon Cancer – Risk Factors• Most develop as colorectal polyps that later become cancerous• Genetic: if a family member has had colon cancer, the risk is significantly higher• Cigarette smoking• Diet: High fat, low calcium, folate, and fiber increase risk • Diets low in fruits and vegetables may also increase risk• Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
  16. 16. Colon Cancer – Symptoms• Change in bowel habits, including diarrhea, constipation or a change in the consistency of stool for greater than 2 weeks• Rectal bleeding or blood in stool• Persistent abdominal discomfort (cramps, gas, pain)• A feeling that your bowel doesnt empty completely content/blogs.dir/7/files/2011/05/diseases/Colon_Cance r-3.jpg• Weakness or fatigue• Unexplained weight loss
  17. 17. Skin Cancer – Risk Factors• UV Rays • UVB rays cause a much greater risk than UVA • UVA rays increase the damaging effects of UVB • As elevation increases, UV light gets stronger• Heredity: family history • People with fair skin and a northern European heritage appear to be most susceptible• Multiple or atypical moles• Exposure to coal and arsenic compounds• Repeated exposure to x-rays• Scars from disease and burns
  18. 18. Skin Cancer – Symptoms• Any change on the skin, especially in the size or color of a mole or other darkly pigmented growth or spot, or a new growth• Scaliness, oozing, bleeding, or change in the appearance of a bump or nodule• The spread of pigmentation beyond its border • Ex. dark coloring that spreads past the edge of a mole or mark• A change in sensation, itchiness, tenderness, or pain
  19. 19. Skin Cancer - ABCDE• ABCDE is a mnemonic that can help differentiate between benign moles and moles that should be examined by a physician.• A – asymmetry• B – border (blurry or jagged border)• C – color (more than one hue)• D – diameter (larger than a pencil eraser)• E – elevation (raised above the surface of the skin)• If a mole has any of these characteristics, have it examined by a physician.
  20. 20. Case Study – Part 2a• A density (next slide) in the left breast was seen on the mammogram and the doctor ordered an ultrasound. The ultrasound (next slide) revealed the size of the breast mass to be 15 x 14 x 15 mm and the axillary mass to be 35 x 29 x 14 mm. The doctor referred the woman to a surgeon who biopsied both masses. He also ordered a chest X-ray and a bone scan.• Why were a chest X-ray and bone scan ordered?
  21. 21. Case Study – Part 2b Ultrasound Mammogram
  22. 22. Case Study – Part 2c• Why were a chest X-ray and bone scan ordered? • The doctor ordered these scans to ensure that no other tumors existed in the patient.• An MRI confirmed the malignancy in the left breast and enlarged lymph node. It also showed no satellite lesions and a normal right breast. The surgeon referred the patient to a medical oncologist and a radiotherapist and the plan is for her to undergo neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgery, and then radiation therapy.• What is neo-adjuvant chemotherapy?
  23. 23. Breast Cancer – Risk Factors• Gender and Race • Caucasian women are more likely to develop breast cancer than Age Risk to African-American develop in women next 10 years• Age 30 1 in 280 40 1 in 70• Genetics 50 1 in 40 • 5-10% of breast cancer are hereditary 60 1 in 30 • BRCA1/BRCA2 are abnormal genes that, if inherited, increase the lifetime risk 40-85%
  24. 24. Breast Cancer – Risk Factors• Hormones • Early onset of menstruation (11 years or younger) or late menopause (55 years or older) have slightly increased risk• Lifestyle and diet • High dietary intake of fat • Being overweight or obese • Alcohol • Regular exercise may decrease the risk• Benign breast disease • Predispose to later development of breast cancer• Environmental • Radiation treatment increases risk much later on
  25. 25. Breast Cancer – Symptoms • Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurt • Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple • Fluid coming from the nipple • Bone pain • Breast pain or discomfort • Skin ulcers • Swelling of one arm (next to the breast with cancer) • Weight loss
  26. 26. Prostate Cancer – Risk Factors• Not completely known• Age • 1 in 100,000 for men aged 40, 1,146 in 100,000 for men age 85• Race: African American men 1.6x more likely than Caucasian to be diagnosed and 2.4x more likely to die from it • Asian-Americans have much lower chance
  27. 27. Prostate Cancer – Risk Factors• Genetic • Men with a family history, especially a 1st degree relative (ex. Father or brother) are at an increased risk • Risk may be 2-3x greater than those without family history• Infection • Recent evidence suggests role of sexually transmitted diseases as a causative factor • People who have had STIs have a 1.4x greater chance of developing prostate cancer than the rest of the population• Diet • High fat • Obesity may lead to more aggressive cancer, giving poorer outcomes after treatment• Chemical agents • Ex. Cadmium
  28. 28. Prostate Cancer – Symptoms• Trouble urinating• Decreased force in the stream of urine• Blood in the urine• Blood in the semen• Swelling in the legs• Discomfort in the pelvic area• Bone pain
  29. 29. Case Study – Part 3a• What is neo-adjuvant chemotherapy? • Neo-adjuvant therapies are treatments given prior to the main treatment. Oftentimes, the neo-adjuvant therapy aims to shrink or reduce the size of the tumor before surgery is performed.• After tolerating her treatment and showing a dramatic clinical response, the patient underwent a mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy 6 months after her initial presentation.• What is a sentinel lymph node biopsy?
  30. 30. Case Study – Part 3b• What is a sentinel lymph node biopsy? • Because tissues drain much of their fluid into the lymphatic system, cancer cells that have spread can often be found in the lymph nodes. This can warn doctors of spreading cancer cells.• The pathology examination found no residual carcinoma in either the breast or lymph nodes. The patient plans to undergo breast reconstruction after completing her radiation therapy. She has tolerated her treatments with minimal side effects and no complications.
  31. 31. Early Detection• Early detection is the best way to catch cancer and to give the best possible outcome after treatment • For example, self-breast exams for women age 20 and above with mammograms beginning at age 40 • PSA blood tests for men and digital rectal examinations to detect prostate cancer beginning at age 50 • CDC currently recommends against using the PSA screening test for men who do not show symptoms• Be aware of your body!• Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and other medications