The quest for new methodsChanging needs for foreign languages in EuropeEnglish for specific purposesNeeds analysis in ESPCommunicative language teachingEmergence of a curriculum approach in languageteachingContents:
Immigrants, refugees, and foreign students inUK, US, Canada, and AustraliaGreater mobility of peoples in air travel, internationaltrade, and commerceThe Quest for New Methods
Whites (1988,9) comments:“English has become the language of the worldthanks to the linguistic legacy of the British Empire, theemergence of the USA as an English-speakingsuperpower, and the fortuitous association of Englishwith the industrial and technological developments”
Huge demand for EFL learningExplore new teaching methodsLinguistics - organization & structure of language -applied in the cause of new “scientifically based”teaching methods.Oral approach: linked to graded grammatical &lexical syllabus situational approach / situationallanguage teaching
Situational Language Teaching in Britain: A structural syllabus with graded vocabulary levels Meaningful presentation of structures in contexts PPP method
Audiolingual method (1960s) United StatesRivers (1964) stated audiolingualism as: Habits are strengthened by reinforcement. Foreign language habits are formed most effectivelyby giving the right response, not by making mistakes. Language is behavior.Audiovisual method (1978) Europe
The upsurge in English language teaching (mid-1950s –1960s) A Language Teaching Revolution: Introducing new methods and materials WHY / HOW people learn a second language(Jupp and Hodlin, 1975)Changing Needs for Foreign Languages inEurope
Reevaluation of language teaching policy in EuropeIn 1969, the Council of Europe decided that: Language barriers must be removed. Linguistic diversity, through the study of modernlanguages, should provide a source of intellectual enrichment. If the study of modern Europe languages becomesgeneral, mutual understanding and cooperation will bepossible.
Issues to face by Van Els, T. Bongaerts, G. Extra, C.Van Os, and A. Janssen-van Dieten (1984, 159):1. Does the community consider it important that all itsmembers know a foreign language, or is this considerednecessary only for certain professional domains?2. How many languages, and which languages, are felt to benecessary?
3. How great is the demand for each individual language? Doeseveryone need the same skills, or the same level ofcommand per skill?4. Is there a stable needs pattern? Unit-credit system used as a framework fordeveloping language teaching programs for adultsduring period of Communicative Language Teaching(CLT).
Societal and learner needs are starting point inreevaluation of language teaching.
The concern to make language courses morerelevant to learners’ needs also led duringthis period to the emergence of theLanguages for Specific Purposes (LSP)movement, known in English-languageteaching circles as ESP (English for SpecificPurposes).
the need for Non-English background students. the need for employment the need for business purpose the need for immigrants
1. What was the PECC Director’s need about thisEnglish course? He needed his staff should be taught English forElectrical Engineering so that they can deal with theelectrical terms
2. What did the native English teacher teach?• Talk about yourself• Talk about your daily routine• What did you do last week / holiday?• Retell a holiday trip you have ever taken.• What should you do to have a good health?• Health Problem• Describing people• Internet-positive and negative points• What are your hobbies and interest?• Environment concerns………
University of Michigan language patterns and vocabulary(Darian, 1972)“for learners in situations such as these, whatwas needed was not more and more lessons in“advanced English” or “colloquial English” buttraining in the kinds of English learners woulduse or encounter in their specific occupationsand situations”.
Difference between ESP and EGP ESP learners are usuallyadults, who are familiarwith the English language. The age of EGP learnersvaries from children toadults and learning theEnglish language is thesubject of the courses.English for SpecificPurposesEnglish for GeneralPurposes
Difference between ESP and EGPThey are learning thelanguage in order tocommunicateprofessional informationand to perform someparticular, job-relatedfunctions.English for SpecificPurposesEnglish for GeneralPurposesEGP courses are mostlyfocused on grammar,language structure andgeneral vocabulary.
Difference between ESP and EGP The learners are highlymotivated as they areaware of their specificpurposes for learningEnglish. (cf. ChrisWright, 1992)English for SpecificPurposesEnglish for GeneralPurposes EGP helps students tocope with any subject-matter course. It gives themthe ability to generate morelanguage. EGP learners, ifwell-taught, can use Englishto cope with the languagein any undefined tasks.
Difference between ESP and EGP In ESP course, it is needsanalysis that determineswhich language skills areuseful for the learners to beable to accomplish certainprofessional tasks. ESPcourses are centered on thecontext. The English languageis usable immediately in theemployment context.English for SpecificPurposesEnglish for GeneralPurposes EGP courses deal withmany different topics andeach of the four skills isequally treated. Due to thegeneral nature of thesecourses no needs analysis isconducted. EGP courses areresponsible to the generallanguage acquisition and, forthe vast majority of learners
Hutchinson et al. (1987, p53)“in theory nothing, in practice a great deal”English for SpecificPurposesEnglish for GeneralPurposes
1. Why do you want to study higher?2. Why did you choose Diploma in TESOL?3. Is DipTESOL useful for your current employment?4. What do you want to do after this course (Diplomain TESOL)?……………
The content of [ESP] courses are therebydetermined, in some or all of the following ways:(a) Restriction—Basic Skills of UnderstandingSpeech, Speaking, Reading, and Writing.(b) Selection—Vocabulary, Patterns of Grammar,and Function of Language.(c) Themes and Topics—Themes, Topics,Situations, and Universes of Discourse.(d) Communicative Needs—For Communication
A number of approaches were suggested to determine thelearner’s needs.1. Who can determine learner’s needs? Richterich and Chanceril (1978), working within the CouncilEurope framework proposed that learners, teachers, andemployers could all determine.2. How could they collect the information (learner’s needs)? It could be collected from the resources of the teachinginstitution, objectives, the methods of assessment used.
3. When should the needs analysis be performed in acourse? It should be an ongoing process throughout thecourse.4. Which procedures should be used for conducting needsanalysis? Questionnaires, surveys, and interviews should beused.
Munby (1978) described a Systematic Approach toNeeds Analysis in ESP Course Design.And Schutz and Derwing summarized itProfile of Communicative Needs (CurriculumDevelopment in Language Teaching, P.34)
1. Personal: their age, their education background, their nationality…2. Purpose: needs to develop their communicative skills.3. Setting: restaurant , customers who use the restaurant.4. Interactional variables: all the relationships.5. Medium, mode, channel: spoken/written, face to face6. Dialects: formal or casual styles.7. Target level: basic, intermediate, or advanced level.8. Anticipated communicative events: greetings, taking requests,clarifying information, describing menu9. Key: unhurriedly, quietly, and politely.Profile of Communicative Needs:Ex: waiter/waitress
Communicative language teaching(CLT)What is CLT?CLT is a approach to teaching that focuses oncommunication rather than on mastery of thegrammatical system of language.CLT was a response to changes in the field oflinguistics in 1970s, as well as a response to theneed for new approaches to language teaching inEurope as a result of initiative, by groups such asthe Council of Europe.
4 dimensions of CommunicativeCompetence (Canale & Swain, 1980)GrammaticalCompetenceSociolinguisticCompetenceDiscourseCompetenceStrategicCompetenceCommunicativeCompetence
Grammatical Competence: the domain ofgrammatical and lexical capacitySociolinguistic Competence: an understanding ofthe social context in which communication takesplace: role relationships, shared information ofparticipants, purpose of interactionDiscourse Competence: interpretation of individualmessage in relation to the entire discourse or textStrategic Competence: strategy to initiate,terminate, maintain, repair, and redirectcommunication.
Grammatical Competence Communicative CompetenceAbility to produce sentences in alanguage Knowledge of building blocks ofsentences (e.g., parts of speech, tenses,phrases, clauses, sentence patterns) andhow sentences are formedFocus of many grammar practice books,which typically present a rule of grammarand provide exercises to practice using theruleKnowing how to use language for arange of different purposes and functions Knowing how to vary our use oflanguage according to the setting and theparticipants (e.g., when to use formal andinformal speech or when to use languageappropriately for written or spokencommunication) Knowing how to produce andunderstand different types of texts (e.g.narratives, reports, interviews,conversations)
Proposals for a Communicative SyllabusSkills-based syllabus: This focuses on the four skills ofreading, writing, listening, and speakingFor example:ListeningskillsKey words inconversationThe topic of aconversationSpeakers’ attitudetoward a topicTime reference ofan utterance
Functional syllabus• This is organized according to the functions thelearner should be able to carry out in English, suchas expressing likes and dislikes, offering andaccepting apologies, introducing someone, andgiving explanations.• Vocabulary and grammar are then chosen accordingto the functions being taught.
PPP TrianglePresentationPracticeProduction-Pronounciation-Meaning-Form-Controlled practice-Free practice
Notional syllabus: based around the contentand notions a learner would need to express.The components of meaning:Semantico-grammatical meaning: time (pointof time, duration, frequency, sequence…)Modal meaning: modality, scale ofcertainty, scale of commitmentCommunicative function:requests, complaints, suggestions, apologies…
Notional-functional syllabus is a way of organizinga language-learning curriculum, rather than amethod or an approach to teaching. In a notional-functional syllabus, instruction is not organized interms of grammatical structure, but instead interms of "notions" and "functions“
A "notion" is a particular context in whichpeople communicate A "function" is a specific purpose for a speakerin a given context• For example:The "notion" of shopping requires numerouslanguage "functions", such as asking aboutprices or features of a product and bargaining
Components of syllabus1. Consideration of purposes2. Setting3. Socially defined role4. Communicative events5. Language functions6. Notions7. Discourse and rhetorical skills8. Variety9. Grammatical content10. Lexical content(Yalden 1987, 86-87)
Emergence of a curriculumapproach in language teaching
Tyler’s Linear model1. What educational purposes should the school seekto attain?2. What educational experiences can be provided thatare likely to attain these purposes?3. How can these educational experiences beeffectively organization?4. How can we determine whether these purposes arebeing attained? (Tyler, 1950)Aims andObjectivesContent Organization Evaluation
Nicholls and Nichollss description in 1972s:Cyclical Modela) The Careful Examinationb) The Development and Trial Usec) The Assessment of the Extentd) The Final Element – Feedback of all the experiencegained.
Linear Model Cyclical Model Rigid The elements are linear, where oneleads to another It’s not clear whether changes couldhappen or not. Flexible View curriculum elements asinterrelated and interdependentPresent the curriculum process as acontinuing activity, which is constantlyin a state of change as new information,and practices become available. Cyclicalmodels accommodate change over theyears
System-design model• Is “an integrated plan of operation of allcomponents (sub-systems) of asystem, designed to solve a problem or meet aneed”(Briggs 1977, 5)• The system model belongs to an approach toeducational planning that sees curriculamdevelopment as a rational and somewhattechnical process.
System-design modela. Formulation of objectivesb. Selection of contentc. Task analysisd. Design of learning activitiese. Definition of behavioral outcomesf. Evaluative measures for determining theachievements
Curriculum development refer to the range of planningand implementation processes involved in developing orrenewing a curriculum. (Jack, 2001)The Focuses on the Curriculum Development:1. Needs Analysis2. Situational Analysis3. Learning Outcome4. Course Organization5. Selecting Teaching Material6. Preparing Teaching Material7. Providing for Effective Teaching8. Evaluation
DISCUSSION1. Have you ever taken an ESP lesson before?Did it meet your needs?2. In your point of view, do you think the ESP courseis more motivated than General English course?3. What do you think about CLT in Vietnam?4. What approach do you apply in your CLT?
Which of the statements below do you thinkcharacterizes communicative language teaching?1. People learn a language best when using it to do thingsrather than through studying how language works and practicing rules2. Grammar is no longer important in language teaching.3. People learn a language through communicating in it.4. Errors are not important in speaking a language.5. CLT is only concerned with teaching speaking.6. Classroom activities should be meaningful and involve real communication7. Dialogs are not used in CLT.8. Both accuracy and fluency are goals in CLT.9. CLT is usually described as a method of teaching.