Communicative Language Teaching (Clt)


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Communicative Language Teaching (Clt)

  1. 1. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Min-Hsun Chiang, Ph. D.
  2. 2. Steps in planning a CLT lesson <ul><li>1. Presentation of a situation or context through a brief dialogue or several mini-dialogues, preceded by a motivational activity relating the dialogue to learners’ experiences and interest. This includes a discussion of the function and situation: People, roles, setting, topic and the level of formality or informality the function and situation demand. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Brainstorming or discussion to establish the vocabulary and expressions to be used to accomplish the communicative intent. Includes a framework or means of structuring a conversation or exchange to achieve the purpose of the speakers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Steps in planning a CLT lesson <ul><li>3. Questions and answers based on the dialogue topic and situation: Inverted, wh- questions, yes/no, either/or and open-ended questions. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Study of the basic communicative expressions in the dialogue or one of the structures that exemplifies the function, using pictures, real objects, or dramatization to clarify the meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Learner discovery of generalizations or rules underlying the functional expression or structure, with model examples on the chalkboard, underlining the important features, using arrows or referents where feasible. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Steps in planning a CLT lesson <ul><li>6. Oral recognition and interpretative activities including oral production proceeding from guided to freer communication activities. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Reading and/or copying of the dialogues with variations for reading/writing practice. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Oral evaluation of learning with guided use of language and questions/answers, e.g. &quot;How would you ask your friend to ________________? And how would you ask me to _______________?&quot; </li></ul>
  5. 5. Steps in planning a CLT lesson <ul><li>9. Homework and extension activities such as learners’ creation of new dialogues around the same situation. </li></ul><ul><li>10. To complete the lesson cycle, provide opportunities to apply the language learned the day before in novel situations for the same or a related purpose. </li></ul>
  6. 6.   A Model Communicative Approach Lesson <ul><li>Vacations by Ozlem Catal </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reading Passage <ul><li>  Last year I went to Northern Cyprus for a week. It was a nice experience for me because I haven’t been to a Mediterranean island before. </li></ul><ul><li>I was disappointed at first because the Ercan Airport was very small and not attractive. Then they took me to my hotel in Famagusta that was very beautiful and comfortable. </li></ul><ul><li>In the morning our representative gave us some information about Cyprus. He was a well-trained tourist guide with a sense of humor. He was very friendly and helped us a lot. </li></ul><ul><li>After that, we set off for a city tour with our guide. He showed us many historical places. They were marvelous. I liked Salamis Ruins the best because I am fond of mosaics and ancient sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Then we had our lunch at a cozy restaurant near the coast. The food was delicious. I selected sheftali kebab from the menu. It is minced meat with parsley and onions rolled in a membrane and then grilled. </li></ul><ul><li>Next, we went to a place called the Golden Beach to swim. The beach is on the Mediterranean Sea. The sea was very clean and the view was fantastic. We swam there for an hour. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, we got back to our hotel feeling tired but happy. That was my first day in Cyprus. I will never forget my vacation there. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Comprehension Questions for the Reading: <ul><li>Questions are included that can be answered with information from the reading. Other inferential or problem-solving questions will require the use of maps, brochures, etc. or of background knowledge. Some examples are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When did you travel to Northern Cyprus? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did you enter the country? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where was the hotel you stayed in? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How far was your hotel from the airport? (Inference/problem-solving) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Generate a concept web based on this model. <ul><li>This concept map is based on students’ personal experiences and familiar background knowledge. Teacher and students will generate vocabulary and expressions for each of the concept categories related to vacations, including who took the vacation and when, where the vacation spot was, how they traveled there, and what they enjoyed about the place. Teacher will encourage students to use past tense verbs and descriptive vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>My vacation Who? Enjoyed? By? </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul>
  10. 11. Personal Information Chart <ul><li>  Create sentences using the information from the chart. Put several sentences together for a short oral presentation from selected students. Also, have one student interview another based on their personal information charts. </li></ul><ul><li>  Student 1       2       3   </li></ul><ul><li>Name When did you go? Where did you go? What did you like?       </li></ul>
  11. 12. Sentence Combination <ul><li>Using these prompts, have students write to complete each of the sentences. Then they will combine the sentences into a short narrative using well-developed paragraphs. They should have a reference of transitional words and expressions to give a flow and coherence to their paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>  My Vacation </li></ul><ul><li>1.       I went on vacation to? </li></ul><ul><li>2.     ?..was very beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>3.     I was disappointed at first because?/b> </li></ul><ul><li>4.     I couldn’t help but like ??so? </li></ul><ul><li>5.     I spent my first day? </li></ul><ul><li>6.     I hoped to ?. but?. </li></ul><ul><li>7.     I didn’t expect? </li></ul><ul><li>8.     However, I enjoyed? </li></ul><ul><li>9.     After awhile, I ... </li></ul><ul><li>10.  Then I missed ? </li></ul><ul><li>11.   Next year, I plan on... </li></ul><ul><li>12.  Today, I will continue to... </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Verb Practice </li></ul><ul><li>When students complete the sentence combination exercise and have a completed narrative, the teacher will generate a list of the verbs used for vacation activities. Students will sort the verbs according to whether they are regular or irregular. They will also categorize the verbs according to the pronunciation of the endings. </li></ul><ul><li>  Research and Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Using the links provided on the Internet, students will research a vacation spot in the United States to write about. The example in this lesson is a vacation in Hawaii. By following the links, students can take a virtual Tour of the Hawaiian Islands. They will read the text describing each vacation spot and select vocabulary and information to use in their own narratives. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Depending on the student’s level of proficiency, they will use the information from their research to: </li></ul><ul><li>  A.     Write a narrative patterned after the narrative they created in the sentence combination exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>B.      Write a report about the Hawaiian Islands following a report-writing template. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Making a case for a vacation spot </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the information on the vacation spot that students researched, they will engage in a pur poseful communication activity to persuade someone to choose a vacation to their vacation spot. The teacher may wish to formally present the grammatical construction for comparing and contrasting (comparative and superlative forms) and specific vocabulary for description. The students will also need to know the expressions used in persuasion or, in other words, the format for making a case. A graphic organizer can be used for this purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>  Form a triad, with two students as persuaders and a third student as the person as decision-maker. Each of the two students will make a case for his or her favorite vacation spot. The third student will choose between the two vacation spots and justify his or her choice. Extension activities include: </li></ul><ul><li>Have the class rank order the vacation spots selected in the triad activity based on students’ rationales for their selection. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Evaluation <ul><li>Products from this lesson for assessment and evaluation purposes are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Graphic organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Personal information chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Sentence combination narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Research report or narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Oral proficiency and communicative competence are assessed using a rubric. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Did the persuader provide relevant information and detail about the vacation spot? </li></ul><ul><li>Did the student use descriptive language effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Did the student show competence in using the comparative and superlative forms? </li></ul><ul><li>Did the student utilize expressions for making a case? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the information provided about the vacation spot motivating and exciting so as to inspire a desire to visit there </li></ul><ul><li>Create a rubric using these criteria with a rating scale. Students can rate themselves and/or each other as well as the teacher. Students can describe specific grammatical forms or vocabulary they wish to improve should they repeat the exercise. </li></ul>