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  1. 1. Re-planning structure, Socializing conservation of “Hanoi Ancient Quarter” towards Sustainable Urban Development i n Vietnam Presented by Ngo Minh Hung- ht040962u Supervisors: Dr. Wong Yunn Chii and Prof. Heng Chye Kiang AKI Dept- NUS
  2. 2. Hanoi Ancient Quarter called 36 Old Streets Quarter is just recognized as one of National Heritages including hundreds of valued relics from year 1010 to now. Urban development is being changed town structure and caused social problems loosing its initiative identity The aim of this research is to discover historical and urban development process of the Ancient Quarter to review and evaluate social and community’s efforts in last ten years Some key solutions of sustainable urban development and design are proposed in order to positively conserve and develop original image “Ancient Quarter” of Hanoi City towards sustainable urban development.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Location of Vietnam, Hanoi City and Ancient Quarter </li></ul><ul><li>Background of Ancient Quarter </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Historical and Urban Development Process </li></ul><ul><li>Part 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Present situation under market mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Part 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Projects Review </li></ul><ul><li>Part 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Re-structuring and Socializing conservation to AQ </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Brief Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam Map </li></ul><ul><li>Map of Hanoi City to 2020 </li></ul>Ancient Quarter
  5. 5. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrating its 1000th anniversary in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Population:83.000 people, 900 people/ ha (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative structure: 10 Guilds (Phuong) </li></ul><ul><li>Old City in Hanoi: 36 Old Streets (Ancient) Quarter </li></ul><ul><li>Heart of the City: Hoan Kiem district </li></ul><ul><li>Area: 100ha </li></ul><ul><li>One of 19 National Heritages </li></ul><ul><li>800 Ancient houses, 112 Historical- Cultural relics </li></ul><ul><li>22 Revolutionary relics </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming World Heritage in 2010 (UNESCO) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Facing problems of rapid urbanization that effected on quality of life/ changed tangible and intangible value The research is carrying out through some aspects such as (1) historical and urban development review; (2) its present situation and; (3) efforts of implemented projects Conservation trends have become popular as a response to the threat of a loss of identity Socializing conservation and restructuring urban fabric become a fundamental factor for raising local communities’ awareness and protecting the “spirit” of ancient quarter under development pressure
  7. 7. <ul><li>Thang Long Period (1010-1800) </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptof ancient form: Feng shui with principle of yin and yang </li></ul><ul><li>In 1010, King Ly Thai To was erected his Citadel/ Capital, Thang Long (soaring Dragon) </li></ul><ul><li>Thang Long: two parts, the Royal City (Hoang Thanh) and the Commoner’s city (Kinh Thanh). The present area of the 36 Old streets quarter has originated from this Commoner’s City </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pre-colonial period (1802- 1883) </li></ul><ul><li>From1802-1945, Nguyen Anh neglected Thang Long and selected Hue as capital. </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as the Nguyen King had officially handed Hanoi over to the French (Nhuong dia), the latter started to destroy the ancient City. </li></ul>Ancient Quarter Red River Commoner City Large Market <ul><li>This structure were made grid form of ancient city, which had relevance for sustainable city (C.Mougtin, 1996) with diversity of open-space, water surface… </li></ul>HK Lake <ul><li>Hang Dao and Luong Van Can streets were main north-south roads to connect old and new areas ( religious axis ) </li></ul>Religion (Temples) <ul><li>Hang Chieu Street were the main east-west axis to serve trading, commercial activities and created linear urban ( commercial axis ) </li></ul>Commercial acts Royal City (Center)
  9. 9. <ul><li>Colonial period (1883- 1954) </li></ul>Royal City (Center) <ul><li>Royal City, Ancient Quarter, Red river were the parts of urban in general unity, well connection </li></ul>Red River Ancient Quarter <ul><li>House were bearing traditional influence (two- storied) </li></ul><ul><li>Map in 1885 </li></ul>Commercial axis West East <ul><li>The French realized significance of Hanoi as a major urban </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce, residences buildings were given certain attention </li></ul><ul><li>Grid system were set up by street network </li></ul><ul><li>Streets were widened, asphalted </li></ul><ul><li>Under the French colonial rule: </li></ul><ul><li>Ebra Plan (1920); and Cerutty Plan (1940). </li></ul><ul><li>Both pointed out that 36 OSQ had been left for commerce </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Plan (2000-2020) </li></ul>Royal City destroyed HK Lake (Center) Commercial axis North South <ul><li>36 Old streets Quarter is isolated by 2 corridors (railway and ring road), disconnected Red river </li></ul>Ring road Railway <ul><li>Inter war (1955-1964) </li></ul><ul><li>War period (1965- 1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern period (1976- 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal period (1991 onward) </li></ul>New Master Plan for Hanoi AQ: were proposed to upgrade + Public recreational areas, QOL + Height controlling + No concept of SUD Lack of historical authenticity The significances of AQ are reduced
  11. 11. <ul><li>Images- PAST and PRESENT </li></ul>Dong Xuan Market 1890 & after 1997 Bach Ma temple was built in Lý dynasty and now Silk Street 1907 and present Hang Dieu street 1922 and Now
  12. 12. <ul><li>Images- PAST and PRESENT </li></ul>Ancient Quarter in 1930 Present 36 Old streets Quarter
  13. 13. <ul><li>Problems of Ancient Quarter under market mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Short Movie  </li></ul><ul><li>Source: n.m.Hung (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>High population densities on the existing inadequate and aging technical infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in traffic (motorized and non-motorized vehicles)  air, noise pollution, unsafe pedestrian. </li></ul><ul><li>The growth in informal sector of the economy (business centers, jobs) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor living conditions, narrowed space and courtyards, recreational grounds for living purposes </li></ul><ul><li>No project is reaching successful in developing stable Ancient Quarter </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation works lack local involvement </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1. Form of complete and integrated communities 2. Activities located within easy walking distance of transit points. 3. Diversity of housing types 4. Business provides a range of job types for the community’s residents. 5. The community should have a center (commercial, civic, cultural and recreational uses) 6. The community should contain open space. 7. Public spaces should be designed to encourage the attention and presence of people. 8. Streets, pedestrian paths and bike paths 9. The natural terrain, drainage and vegetation should be preserved with examples (parks or greenbelts) 10. The community design should help conserve resources and minimize waste. 11. The street orientation, the use of shading should contribute to the energy efficiency of the community. <ul><li>Designing Sustainable Communities/ Sustainable/ Ecological Urban Design </li></ul><ul><li>Judy. C and Michael. C (Designing sustainable community-2000) / Randall.T, Max. (Sustainable Urban Design- An Environmental Approach-2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Rodney R.W (Building the ecological city- 2002)/ Andre S, Peter J.M, Jill G (Towards Sustainable Cities -2004) </li></ul>Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ <ul><li>Sustainable Urban Development </li></ul><ul><li>(World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)- Cliff. M (Urban Design- Green Dimension- 1996). </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Project Review (10 years) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Planning structure of AQ </li></ul><ul><li>Designing O-P system in preserving areas as public space </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up transit network, public to limit traffic movement </li></ul><ul><li>Defining real valued tube- like houses and its potentials (preservation & dissemination) </li></ul><ul><li>Specifying detailed boundaries, local regulation (huong uoc) for socializing conservational edu. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Socializing conservation to AQ </li></ul><ul><li>Central authority level (Hanoi People’s Committee) </li></ul><ul><li>Main responsibility: supreme decision- maker (law, plans, guidelines of preservation) </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminating regulatory documents to all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Designing action plan and enforcing regulatory implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Leading junior managers, unit and assisting higher authority to deal with main issues </li></ul><ul><li>Local authority level (Guild people’s committees) </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering, supporting all people in community (conservational plan/ work) </li></ul><ul><li>Providing guidelines, technical design to HHs (clear map, figures, words) </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in community meetings (adm. System) to build local convention (huong uoc) </li></ul><ul><li>Street community level </li></ul><ul><li>Main tube-house owners </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing conservation based on Huong uoc (key regulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Approaching easily building procedure and being assisted restoration, land management, design </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal construction activities will be announced to community under necessary punishments </li></ul>
  18. 18. Thank you !
  19. 19. <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Judy. C and Michael. C (2000) Designing Sustainable Communities. ISLAND Press, Washington. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert. R (2004) Sustainable Urban Planning. BLACKWELL Publishing, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Rodney R.W (2002) Building the ecological city. WOODHEAD Publishing Limited, Cambridge England. </li></ul><ul><li>Andre S, Peter J.M, Jill G (2004) Towards Sustainable Cities. ASHGATE, Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>William S. Logan (2000) HANOI Biography of a City. UNSW Press, Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>N.K.Dam (1999) Thanh Luy Pho Phuong va Con Nguoi Hanoi trong Lich su. Nha xuat ban VHTT, Hanoi. </li></ul><ul><li>UBND TP.HN (2000) SWORD LAKE HANOI VIETNAM. Nha xuat ban VHTT, Hanoi. </li></ul><ul><li>Georges B and N.V.Ky (2002) HANOI City of the Rising Dragon. ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD Publishers, Inc. USA. </li></ul><ul><li>RIA, MOC (1999) Preserving Hanoi’s Architectural and Landscape Heritage. CONSTRUCTION Publishing House, Hanoi. </li></ul><ul><li>Hanoi People’s Committee (1995) The Ancient Quarter Local Structure Plan. Report of AusAID, Hanoi. </li></ul><ul><li>H.H. Phe and Yukio N (1990) The Historical Environment and Housing Conditions in the “36 Old Streets” Quarter of Hanoi. Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand. </li></ul><ul><li>Anna L (1995) The CORRIDOR- A Case in Preservation- the 36 Old Streets Quarter. Lund University and HAI, Sweden. </li></ul><ul><li>Hanoi People’s Committee (1995) Land Use & Development Control- Manual for The Ancient Quarter of Hanoi. Report of AusAID, Hanoi. </li></ul><ul><li>R.E. Hansen (1995) Hanoi Planning & Development Control Project. Sweden. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: www.thudo.gov.vn </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: http:// www.hanoi.irisnet.be </li></ul>