Urban Planning and Urban land for specific regions in Vietnam By Ngo Minh HUNG Senior Urban Planner- Architect National Institute for Urban and Rural Planning Ministry of Construction, VIETNAM Tokyo- Japan March 17,2004 Sustainable National Land Policy of Asian Countries responding to Long term Impacts
I. Urban Planning in Urban Socio-Economic Development
At National level:
"Direction for Master Plan for urban development in the period 2000-2020"
In the development process of Vietnam, urban network planning has played a very important role in Nowadays, planning tasks that are implemented following a professional sequence often include logical planning steps below
Orientation towards the sustainable development of an architectural space, construction, landscape, land use, infrastructure, environment.
Logical Planning Steps
2. At Regional level: Planning for 10 urbanization areas 4. Mekong Delta Region 5. West Highland Region 6. South Central Region 7. North Central Region 8. Region of CaoBang-LangSon- BacGiang-BacNinh-BacCan-ThaiNguyen 9. Region of Lao Cai-Yen Bai-Ha Giang- Tuyen Quang-Phu Tho-Vinh Phuc 10. North West Region 1. Focal Economic Region at the North, Red River Plain 2. Focal Economic Region in the South & South East 3. Central Economic Region and Areas in the Central
Logical Planning Steps ... Nowadays, planning tasks have contributed to the improvement and upgrading of urban developing investment projects, such as
Great directions for investment in urban upgrading, construction and management in conformity to the legislation corridor are becoming more and more complete
Investment in building Industrial complexes and integrated industrial parks in different scales: small, medium and large. They are main accelerators of urban development
A large number of recreational areas like inner and outer city parks, professional parks, high-tech parks have been built
3. At Urban level: General Plans for from cities to provincial towns. 4. At Sub-urban level: Detailed Plans for functional areas. 5. At project level: Detailed plans that will be put into detail at feasibility level.
Some Policies for Socio-Economic Development 2001-2010.
+ To rapidly develop industries capable of promoting their competitive advantages, such as agricultural, forest and aquatic product processing, garment, leatherwear and footwear, electronics and informatics, certain mechanical products and consumer goods, etc.
+ To selectively build a number of heavy industry establishments;
+ To speed up agricultural and rural industrialization and modernization
+ To invest more in rural socio-economic infrastructures development.
+ To effect rational planning and raise the efficiency of land, water and forest resources utilization in combination with environmental protection. + To conduct planning of populated areas, and develop district towns, townships and commune cultural centers; improve the material cultural and intellectual living standards. - For Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Rural Economy
For Industrial development
2. Point of View and Objectives of Urban Development
Point of View
UD must be in conformity to the distribution and development level of each urban should rely on the economic and technical bases.
Reasonably developing and distributing large, medium and small cities and towns in the whole country, creating the balanced development among regions.
- UD should combines with the integral construction of social, technical infrastructure.
Urban formulation and development ensure sustainability and perpetually.
Combining urban renovation with urban regeneration, taking into account the cultural characteristic and national tradition preservation.
- Calling for all sources of capital for urban renovation and construction.
General objective for UD in the whole country until 2020:
Step by step constructing and perfecting the national urban system with modern socio-economic-technical infrastructure & pure urban environment Ensuring that each urban develops stably, balance, sustainable and perpetually, Implementing two strategic missions: + socialism construction and national defense, + enhancing the industrialization and modernization of the country.
3. The Needs for Urban Land in Vietnam
The area of urban:
63,300 ha (0.2%); 45m2 per capita.
Year 2010, the urban area:
243,200 ha (0.74%); 80m2/ capita.
Increasing 170,900 ha
in which 90,400 ha of agricultural land
Until 2020, the urban area:
460,000 ha (1.4%); 100m2/capita.
The needs of land use will be identified on the base of
+ Standards & regulations for UCP
+ Actual conditions of each local area.
On the base of these needs then directions, the selection of land reserve for regional construction are very necessary for the comprehensive development and living quality improvement in the future.
4. Direction of Land Reserve for Construct. Develop. of Specific Regions For regions of terrain with great partition: The construction of urbans in the northwestern mountainous area + Must pay attention to earthquakes to save agricultural land reserve; + to avoid natural disasters and technological break-down For the Central highland and the southeastern region: Construction land is various, suitable for the develop. of large very large urban
For the delta region with small steep and layer highland:
The construction land reserve is very various with small steep & good construction foundation.
When selecting the land for UC, needs to preserve ecological forests, terrain & open water surface because these factors create the beauty of landscapes, maintain the mild microclimate.
Lang Son, Cao Bang, Son La, Dien Bien Phu, Hoa Binh, Yen Bai, Lao Cai, Nghia Lo, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang… the urbans which are constructed in other areas should be small scale of about 100 ha
For Cuu Long River Delta: + Construction land reserve is quite various but + Often suffers from floods; + Urban should be small, medium scale. + In flooding regions, technical methods must be combined to protect the constructed urban from spate to ensure a low cost investment. For the delta regions of the North and the Northern Center: + Various construction land, + Land foundation is weak (many lakes and ponds) + Most of the land reserve is high quality agricultural land that needs to be protected. For midland and round-hill regions of the North and the Northern Center: + Construction land is very various (good terrain, low cultivation quality) + The selection of urban land should overcome difficulties of flat hills with too small and decentralize dimensions.
5. Direction for Distribution, Organization of Functions & Infrastructure - Industrial parks + Ensuring the development area for industrial parks + Rearranging industrial parks in conformity to planning structure + Organically combining new industrial parks with residential areas - Residential areas and public service centers in urban + In large and medium urban: organizing new urban areas + Old urban needs studying and planning to be rearranged suitably. - Tourism areas and resorts + Tourism region of Hanoi metropolitan + Tourism region of Ho Chi Minh city and the outskirts + Tourism region of Hue - Da Nang - Lao Bao - Quang Ngai + Coastal and mountainous tourism regions
5. Direction for Distribution, Organization of Functions & Infrastructure Preserving urban environment, landscapes and ecological balance + Building a framework for nature preservation, ensuring sustainable development & ecological balance. + In the whole country, be protected 9,300,000 ha of existing forest + To develop new grown forest. By 2010, increasing to 16 million ha. + Zoning and protecting strictly the natural forests, national parks, heritages and natural regions. + In large urban and urban clusters, planning and building green belts and specific green trees. + Studying models, new housing units and several ecological villages to apply for each concrete region and urban. + Applying technical and technological methods and solutions to exploit reasonably natural resources in conformity to the socio-economic development level and ability of Vietnam.
Findings + Vietnam always makes friends with all countries in the world. + Socio-Economic developments concentrating on growth economic regions (triangle economic regions in North, Center and South of Vietnam). + Developing comprehensive economic areas, border gate trading areas between neighbor countries such as China, Lao, Cambodia and others through Seaports. + Applying appropriate solutions to harmonize overloaded development in metropolitans such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. + Concentrating on infrastructure development under urbanization and urban development. Industrialization and Modernization in Vietnam show that urban planning for specific regions and socio-economic development has played as an important role for the future. It should be implementing ahead in order to set up national development strategies by identifying major economic regions, land reserve, comprehensive economic areas, infrastructure, environment and so on. In general, we do believe these targets set by the 2005-2010 Socio Economic Strategy of Vietnam will be fulfilled. Conclusion