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Periodontal disease
 

Periodontal disease

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    Periodontal disease Periodontal disease Presentation Transcript

    • Periodontal Disease Prepared by Microbiology student: Minh Anh Nguyen
    • Goals
      • To Explain what the root causes of Periodontal Disease are.
      • What bacteria are involved
      • Symptoms
      • How it is diagnosed
      • What treatments are available
      • what techniques are useful for prevention of the disease.
      • who might most likely be affected by this disease?
      • It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gum and tissues that surround and support the teeth. If left untreated, periodontal disease can lead to tooth loss.
      • This disease is divided into two types:
        • Gingivitis (gum disease)
        • Periodontitis
      What is Periodontal disease?
    • Periodontal disease (Cont.)
      • The development of disease is also dependent on several other factors.
        • Illness
          • Diabetes. Many kinds of bacteria (germs) thrive on sugar, including glucose – the sugar linked to diabetes.
        • Bad habits
          • Smoking make it harder for gum tissue to repair itself
        • Poor oral hygiene habits
        • Family history of dental disease
    • Gingivitis
      • The first stage of periodontal disease.
      • Poor brushing and flossing habits allow dental plague.
      • Plaque is a sticky material made of bacteria, mucus, and food debris that develops on the exposed parts of the teeth.
      • If you do not remove plaque, it turns into a hard deposit called tartar that becomes trapped at the base of the tooth.
      • Bacteria and the toxins they
      • produce cause the gums to
      • become infected, swollen, and tender.
    • Periodontitis
      • Damages the bone and connective tissue that support the teeth.
      • Plaque builds and hardens under the gums.
      • The gums pull away from the teeth, forming “pocket” of infection.
      • The infection leads to loss of the bone that holds the tooth in its socket and might lead to tooth loss.
    • Bacteria
      • Periodontal disease is caused by “ plaque ” bacteria.
      • 350 species of microorganisms are found in the typical health mouth.
      • 4% of these species are linked to periodontal disease.
      • The helpful bacteria are usually known as gram positive aerobic bacteria.
      • The bacteria that cause periodontal disease thrive in acidic environments. Eating sugars and other foods that increase the acidity in the mouth increase bacterial counts.
    • Bacteria
      • The three types of bacteria types most likely to cause aggressive periodontal disease are:
        • Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans).
        • Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis).
        • Bacteroides forsythus.
      • These bacteria are also known as gram negative anaerobic bacteria.
      • Both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis are caused gum disease.
      • The bacterium that causes periodontal disease may be able to be passed to others through saliva.
    • Symptoms
      • Red, tender and swollen gums.
      • Bleeding of the gums. Even during brushing, bleeding gums are a sign of inflammation and the major marker of periodontal disease.
      • Debris and bacteria. They can cause a bad taste in the mouth and persistent bad breath.
      • Loose teeth. They can sometimes cause a change in the way the upper and lower teeth fit together when biting down or in how partial dentures fit.
    • How it is diagnosed
      • Checks the color of gum tissue on the side of each tooth.
      • Redness, puffiness, and bleeding.
      • Deposits of plaque and tartar may be seen at the base of the teeth.
      • The gums are usually painless or only mildly tender.
      • At the dental office, dental bone measurements may be done to determine whether the inflammation has spread to the supporting structures of the teeth.
    • Dental bone measurements
      • Healthy gums: probing into the “ditch” only goes to depth of (1-3mm) – “coral pink”
      • Gum disease: (3-8mm)
    • How is Gingivitis (gum) disease treated?
        • Depends on how much damage the disease has caused.
      • Nonsurgical Approaches . Deep cleaning of tartar and bacteria from gum line and tooth root surfaces.
      • Before after
    • How is periodontitis treated?
      • Surgical Approaches . The dentist will clean out the infection area under the gum, then reshaped the damaged tooth-supporting tissues.
      • Before after
    • Prevention
      • The best method to prevent this disease is daily brushing and flossing.
      • Four steps for prevention of this disease are:
        • Stop smoking.
        • Reduce stress
        • Maintain a well - balanced diet
          • Eating foods with antioxidant properties, such as, those containing vitamin E or vitamin C can help your body repair damaged tissue.
        • Avoid clenching and grinding your teeth.
    • who might most likely be affected by this disease?
      • This disease affects both men and women.
      • People usually don't show signs of gum disease until they are in their 30s or 40s.
      • Men are more likely to have gum disease than women.
      • http:// issuu.com/reporterherald/docs/healthline_sept16
    • Questions
      • What is periodontal disease?
        • It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gum and tissues that surround and support the teeth.
      • Is the periodontal disease caused by gram negative or gram positive bacteria?
        • Gram negative
      • What is the root cause of periodontal disease?
        • Periodontal disease is caused by “ plaque ” bacteria.
    • Questions?
      • What is the best method to prevent this disease?
        • The best method to prevent this disease is daily brushing and flossing
      • What are four symptoms of this disease?
        • Red, tender and swollen gums.
        • Bleeding of the gums.
        • bad breath.
        • Loose teeth.