Periodontal disease

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Periodontal disease

  1. 1. Periodontal Disease Prepared by Microbiology student: Minh Anh Nguyen
  2. 2. Goals <ul><li>To Explain what the root causes of Periodontal Disease are. </li></ul><ul><li>What bacteria are involved </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>How it is diagnosed </li></ul><ul><li>What treatments are available </li></ul><ul><li>what techniques are useful for prevention of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>who might most likely be affected by this disease? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gum and tissues that surround and support the teeth. If left untreated, periodontal disease can lead to tooth loss. </li></ul><ul><li>This disease is divided into two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingivitis (gum disease) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodontitis </li></ul></ul>What is Periodontal disease?
  4. 4. Periodontal disease (Cont.) <ul><li>The development of disease is also dependent on several other factors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes. Many kinds of bacteria (germs) thrive on sugar, including glucose – the sugar linked to diabetes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking make it harder for gum tissue to repair itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor oral hygiene habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history of dental disease </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Gingivitis <ul><li>The first stage of periodontal disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor brushing and flossing habits allow dental plague. </li></ul><ul><li>Plaque is a sticky material made of bacteria, mucus, and food debris that develops on the exposed parts of the teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>If you do not remove plaque, it turns into a hard deposit called tartar that becomes trapped at the base of the tooth. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria and the toxins they </li></ul><ul><li>produce cause the gums to </li></ul><ul><li>become infected, swollen, and tender. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Periodontitis <ul><li>Damages the bone and connective tissue that support the teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Plaque builds and hardens under the gums. </li></ul><ul><li>The gums pull away from the teeth, forming “pocket” of infection. </li></ul><ul><li>The infection leads to loss of the bone that holds the tooth in its socket and might lead to tooth loss. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bacteria <ul><li>Periodontal disease is caused by “ plaque ” bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>350 species of microorganisms are found in the typical health mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>4% of these species are linked to periodontal disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The helpful bacteria are usually known as gram positive aerobic bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria that cause periodontal disease thrive in acidic environments. Eating sugars and other foods that increase the acidity in the mouth increase bacterial counts. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bacteria <ul><li>The three types of bacteria types most likely to cause aggressive periodontal disease are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteroides forsythus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These bacteria are also known as gram negative anaerobic bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis are caused gum disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The bacterium that causes periodontal disease may be able to be passed to others through saliva. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Symptoms <ul><li>Red, tender and swollen gums. </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding of the gums. Even during brushing, bleeding gums are a sign of inflammation and the major marker of periodontal disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Debris and bacteria. They can cause a bad taste in the mouth and persistent bad breath. </li></ul><ul><li>Loose teeth. They can sometimes cause a change in the way the upper and lower teeth fit together when biting down or in how partial dentures fit. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How it is diagnosed <ul><li>Checks the color of gum tissue on the side of each tooth. </li></ul><ul><li>Redness, puffiness, and bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Deposits of plaque and tartar may be seen at the base of the teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>The gums are usually painless or only mildly tender. </li></ul><ul><li>At the dental office, dental bone measurements may be done to determine whether the inflammation has spread to the supporting structures of the teeth. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dental bone measurements <ul><li>Healthy gums: probing into the “ditch” only goes to depth of (1-3mm) – “coral pink” </li></ul><ul><li>Gum disease: (3-8mm) </li></ul>
  12. 12. How is Gingivitis (gum) disease treated? <ul><ul><li>Depends on how much damage the disease has caused. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonsurgical Approaches . Deep cleaning of tartar and bacteria from gum line and tooth root surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Before after </li></ul>
  13. 13. How is periodontitis treated? <ul><li>Surgical Approaches . The dentist will clean out the infection area under the gum, then reshaped the damaged tooth-supporting tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Before after </li></ul>
  14. 14. Prevention <ul><li>The best method to prevent this disease is daily brushing and flossing. </li></ul><ul><li>Four steps for prevention of this disease are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop smoking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a well - balanced diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eating foods with antioxidant properties, such as, those containing vitamin E or vitamin C can help your body repair damaged tissue. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid clenching and grinding your teeth. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. who might most likely be affected by this disease? <ul><li>This disease affects both men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>People usually don't show signs of gum disease until they are in their 30s or 40s. </li></ul><ul><li>Men are more likely to have gum disease than women. </li></ul><ul><li>http:// issuu.com/reporterherald/docs/healthline_sept16 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Questions <ul><li>What is periodontal disease? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gum and tissues that surround and support the teeth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the periodontal disease caused by gram negative or gram positive bacteria? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the root cause of periodontal disease? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodontal disease is caused by “ plaque ” bacteria. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Questions? <ul><li>What is the best method to prevent this disease? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The best method to prevent this disease is daily brushing and flossing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are four symptoms of this disease? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red, tender and swollen gums. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleeding of the gums. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bad breath. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose teeth. </li></ul></ul>
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