Unit 2 part 1 power point


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Unit 2 part 1 power point

  1. 1. Structure and Purposes of Government Unit 2
  2. 2. 2.1 The Constitution
  3. 3. Task Focus #1: What was the importance of Shays’ Rebellion? How would the government react to something like this happening today?
  4. 4. The Constitutional Convention  By 1787, Congress knew that there were serious problems with the Articles of Confederation.  Each state sent delegates to a convention in Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation.(Rhode Island sent no one because they opposed a stronger central government.)
  5. 5. The Constitutional Convention  May 25, 1787, 55 men gathered in Philadelphia at Independence Hall.  George Washington was unanimously chosen to be the chairman (president) of the convention.  The meetings were kept secret in order for the debates to happen freely.
  6. 6. The Constitutional Convention  The delegates decided that the U.S. needed a new constitution because the Articles were beyond repair. Now the meeting was called the Constitutional Convention.
  7. 7. Reading and Responding – “Freedom: How We Got It”  Read the article “Freedom: How We Got It” and answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper: 1. How did the British and Americans view the taxes and laws differently prior to the American Revolution? 2. List the problems stated by this article with the Articles of Confederation. 3. What 2 basic ideas did the framers of the new Constitution believed should be at the center of the new Constitution? 4. What was the purpose of the author for writing this article?
  8. 8. If Shay did not cause a rebellion, do you think the US would have ever rewritten the Articles of Confederation into the Constitution? Discuss your answer in detail. (5 sentences) Learning Log #1
  9. 9. 2.2 Compromises and the U.S. Constitution
  10. 10. Task Focus #2 Discuss the two groups of people mentioned in the video. What did each want? What was the outcome?
  11. 11. What does the term federalism mean? • A form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
  12. 12. Conventional Compromises  Delegates to the Constitutional Convention arrived with varying ideas and plans of government which meant that compromises would be necessary to reach agreement.  James Madison proposed the Virginia Plan as a new form of government. The Virginia Plan called for a government with three branches( executive, legislative, and judicial). The legislature would be divided into 2 houses and representation determined by population.  The New Jersey Plan called for 3 branches of government. The legislature would have only one house with each state receiving one vote.
  13. 13. Conventional Compromises  Read pages 55-58 in your textbook 1. What was the Great Compromise? Explain the parts of the Virginia and New Jersey Plans that were included in the Great Compromise. 2. What was the Three-Fifths Compromise? Explain why Southern and Northern states disagreed on how to count the population within the states. 3. Why did Southern states at first oppose giving Congress the power to regulate trade? 4. How is the electoral college used to elect the president?
  14. 14. Constitutional Compromises Mind Map  Students will create a Mind Map dealing with the Compromises to the Constitution.  The Great Compromise  3/5th Compromise  Electoral College Compromise  For your Mind Map you must include:  The definition of the compromise  A central title for your Mind Map (Constitutional Compromises)  Three subtitles for each compromise  All parts of the compromise  One picture that depicts each compromise  Who was involved in the compromise  Any other facts you can find
  15. 15. Task Focus #3  What types of government did Federalists and Anti- Federalists prefer?”
  16. 16. Conventional Compromises  Ratification required at least 9 of 13 states to vote yes. The public reacted differently once hearing about the Constitution.  Federalists supported the Constitution because they supported the new system of federalism created by the Constitution.  Anti-Federalists opposed the new government because of the strong central government.
  17. 17. Would you have been on the side of the Federalist/Anti-Federalist? Explain why? (5 Sentences) Learning Log #2
  18. 18. 2.3 Structure of the Constitution
  19. 19. Task Focus #4  What do the three words “We the people” mean at the start of the Constitution?”
  20. 20. The Constitution  The Constitution is a remarkable document. The Constitution is a short document that is flexible. Its flexibility allows for the changes that have occurred over 200 years.  The Constitution is the framework of government and the highest authority in the land.  The Constitution was a basic law, power of the 3 branches of government comes from the Constitution. The Constitution is the basic structure of the U.S. government  The Constitution has 3 parts:  1. the Preamble  2. 7 Articles that describe the structure of government  3. 27 Amendments – changes or additions to the Constitution
  21. 21. If you were the writer of the constitution, would you have structured it the way our founding fathers did? Tell me why or why not. (5 sentences) Learning Log #3
  22. 22. 2.4 The Preamble
  23. 23. Task Focus #5 Anticipation Guide 1. The Preamble states that the power of government comes from only a few people that will have control and keep control once the Constitution is signed 2. Establish justice means to arrest and prosecute criminals. 3. Every United States citizen should have equal protection of the law. 4. The government should work to settle disputes between individuals and groups of individuals. 5. Americans have a duty to ensure that rights and liberties stated in the Constitution are passed on to the next generation of United States citizens. You have 3 minutes to use the knowledge that you already have in order to answer each statement as either TRUE or FALSE.
  24. 24. Copy this chart into your notes Preamble Phrases Explanation we the people (sovereignty) form a more perfect union promote the general welfare ensure domestic tranquility establish justice provide for the common defense secure the blessings of liberty
  25. 25. Preamble 1. “Form a more perfect Union” – to unite the states more effectively so they can operate as a single nation, for the good of all. 2. “We the People” – that the people of the United States have created and will be in control of the government 3. “Promote the general Welfare” – to help people live healthy, happy, and prosperous lives 4. “insure domestic tranquility” – to maintain peace and order, keeping citizens and their property safe from harm
  26. 26. Preamble 5. “provide for the common defense” – to be ready militarily to protect the country and its citizens from outside attacks 6. “secure the Blessings of Liberty” – to guarantee the freedom and basic rights of all Americans including future generations 7. “establish justice” – to create a system of fair laws and courts and make certain that all citizens are treated equally
  27. 27. Name, describe, and tell the importance of one of the phrases to the Preamble. Learning Log #4
  28. 28. 2.5 The Articles
  29. 29. Task Focus #6  Define the following word in your own words: Expressed, Concurrent, Reserved.
  30. 30. Parts of the Constitution  The first 3 Articles of the Constitution describe the powers and responsibilities of each branch of government.  Article I – the Legislative branch is made of 2 houses – Senate and House of Representatives – has lawmaking authority.  The specific powers of Congress are they may collect taxes, regulate foreign and interstate trade, coin money, and declare war.
  31. 31. Parts of the Constitution  Article I  “to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper”  The necessary and proper clause allows Congress to exercise powers that are not specifically listed in the Constitution.
  32. 32. Parts of the Constitution  Article II the Executive Branch lead by a president and vice president, Executive Branch is in charge of all armed forces and foreign affairs.  Article III the Judicial Branch interprets laws including cases involving the Constitution, federal laws and treaties, and disputes between states.
  33. 33. Parts of the Constitution  Article IV stated the states must respect other state laws and the process of admitting new states.  Article V specifies how amendments (changes) are to be made.  Article VI states the Constitution is “the supreme law of the land.” Any conflict between state and federal law would have the federal law prevail.  Article VII said the Constitution would take effect when 9 of 13 states ratified the Constitution.
  34. 34. Expressed Powers Reserved Powers Concurrent Powers
  35. 35. Federalism – National vs. the States  Read the article “The Question of States' Rights: The Constitution and American Federalism” and answer the following questions…. 1. Explain how the Supremacy Clause in Article VI of the Constitution is an example of federalism. 2. List 4 reasons why the Anti-Federalists opposed the Constitution. 3. How is the Supreme Court of the U.S. is an example of federalism? Give examples.
  36. 36. Describe the most important expressed power and why that power is given to the federal government. Why do the federal and state governments share concurrent powers? Why are some powers reserved only for the states and denied to the federal government? Why are some powers given to the federal government and not to the states? Learning Log #5
  37. 37. 2.6 The Bill of Rights
  38. 38. Task Focus #7  What does “freedom of speech” mean to you?
  39. 39. Copy this into your notes 1st Amendment Freedom of Speech Freedom of Religion Freedom of the Press Freedom to Assembly Freedom to Petition the Government
  40. 40. Pretend you were a classmate of Joseph Frederick. What would your reaction have been to seeing his banner? What do you think should have been done about it? Do you agree with what was done? How do you feel about the Supreme Court Ruling? Would you have supported your classmate or not? Learning Log #6
  41. 41. Task Focus #8  What do you think about the 2nd Amendment? What do you think the writers meant originally by the wording of the 2nd Amendment?  2nd Amendment - Right to keep and bear arms in order to maintain a well regulated militia
  42. 42. 2nd Amendment 3rd Amendment 4th Amendment 5th Amendment
  43. 43. 6th Amendment 7th Amendment 8th Amendment 9th Amendment 10th Amendment
  44. 44. 2nd Amendment – The Right to Bear Arms  Watch the video and answer the following questions: 1. How has the role of militia groups changed over the years? 2. According to the U.S. Constitution, all citizens have the right to bear arms. What restrictions exist that make it difficult to own a gun? 3. Are the restrictions put on guns by the government an infringement of our 2nd Amendment rights? 4. What are the benefits of these restrictions?
  45. 45. Pick one amendment and write a paragraph about why that was an important amendment to add to the constitution. Learning Log #7
  46. 46. 2.7 The Other Amendments
  47. 47. Amendments 11-27  Amendment 11 establishes judicial limits.  Amendment 12 outlines the process for electing the President and Vice President.  Amendment 13 abolishes slavery.  Amendment 14 describes the privileges of citizenship.  Amendment 15 states that the right to vote shall not be denied on account of race.  Amendment 16 gives Congress the power to collect income taxes.  Amendment 17 establishes the election of Senators by popular vote.  Amendment 18 prohibited the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors.  Amendment 19 states that the right to vote shall not be denied on account of sex.  Amendment 20 sets the beginning of congressional and presidential terms of office.  Amendment 21 repeals the eighteenth amendment.  Amendment 22 defines presidential term limits.  Amendment 23 gives presidential voting rights to the District of Columbia.  Amendment 24 states that the right to vote shall not be denied on account of any poll tax.  Amendment 25 delineates presidential succession.  Amendment 26 establishes the right to vote at age eighteen years or older.  Amendment 27 limits congressional pay increases.
  48. 48. Based on all of the Amendments we have discussed which one do you think we could not live without and then which one do you think we could live without. Discuss your answer. Learning Log #8