Chapter 6
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Chapter 6






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Chapter 6 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The U.S. and World War I
  • 2. 6.1 Beginnings of The Great War 
  • 3. The Roots of War   World War I (WWI)  Broke out in Europe in 1914  Involved U.S. and other countries  Four long term causes     Nationalism Militarism Alliance System Imperialism
  • 4.   Nationalism – pride in ones country or nationality  European counties became more interested in their own interest  Militarism – process which a nation builds up its military for purpose of intimidating and deterring other countries  In order to protect self interest in their countries
  • 5.   Alliance System – agreements between nations to help each other in the event of war  Further protection  If country is attacked allies would consider themselves at war as well  Could drag several nations into war  Imperialism – strong counties taking over weaker countries making them protectorates. These nations had interest in either the economic, militaristic, or social domination of weaker nations.
  • 6. The War Begins   Archduke Francis Ferdinand’s Assassination  Heir to the Austria-Hungary throne was visiting Bosnia  A Serbian nationalist assassinated Ferdinand and threatened to go to war  This brought Russia and Germany to the verge of war  Europe was divided and at war  Triple Entente – Great Britain, Russia, and France  Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire
  • 7. The U.S. Remains Neutral   August 4, 1914  Wilson declared U.S. neutral  Followed a policy of isolationism  Philosophy that the U.S. should stay out of international conflict
  • 8. The U.S. Enters the War   Number of factors would contribute to the U.S. getting involved in the war  Immigrants wanted to side with the Central Powers  Business men and others wanted to side with the Triple Entente  Had money invested in European countries  The U.S. eventually received all of there news from Great Britain – showed Germany as ruthless aggressor
  • 9.   Unrestricted Submarine Warfare  U-Boats – German submarines; one of there fiercest weapons  Wreaked havoc in the Atlantic during the war  Germany gave warning to sink any ship entering or leaving British ports  Wilson argued no one should be allowed to disrupt natural shipping on the high seas
  • 10.   U.S. had begun shipping military supplies to Great Britain aboard cruse liners  The Lusitania     Torpedoed by German U-boat 1200 people died included Americas Angered many Americans Germany agreed to not sink any more passenger ships; went back on there agreement
  • 11.   The Zimmermann Telegram  Arthur Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister sent a telegram to the German embassy in Mexico  Telegram asked Mexico to attack the U.S. if the U.S. declared war on Germany  Germany promised to help Mexico gain back land it lost during Mexican-American War  U.S. intercepted the telegram and cut democratic ties to Germany
  • 12.   The sinking of ships and the telegram meant the U.S. could no longer stay neutral  Wilson said “the world must be made safe for democracy”  Argument for the U.S. to go to war  Tried making citizens see it as good v. evil  April 1917 the U.S. entered the WWI
  • 13. SPAWN Assignment   You will complete a SPAWN writing assignment on the information you learned about WWI
  • 14. 6.2 U.S. Involvement in World War I 
  • 15.   When the U.S. entered war, Europe had been at war for three years  New Technology:  Machine guns – mechanical gun that could fire many rounds very rapidly  Hand grenade – hand-held explosives the could be thrown at the enemy  Mustard gas – poisonous gas first used by the Germans
  • 16.   Due to the new technologies the two sides came to a stalemate  Trench warfare – long ditches in which solders would take cover while they fired on the enemy  Forced to live for long period in wet, dirty, rat-infested trenches  Area between the trenches called “no mans land” covered with barbed wire and land mines
  • 17. Trenches 
  • 18.   The “Doughboys” Arrive  General John J. Pershing commander of the U.S. forces  U.S. not ready to send that many troops to Europe  Selective Service Act – draft of young men for military service  3 million drafted as well as National Guardsmen and Volunteers trained in a mater of months  American Expeditionary Force  Sent to fight in Europe; know as the “doughboys”
  • 19. 
  • 20. Turing Points of the War   The Bolshevik Revolution  The Russians lost almost 2 million lives  The revolution forced Czar Nicholas II from power and replaced him with a new republic – did not last long  Bolsheviks  Leader Vladimir Lenin  Took over country and established a communist regime  Pulled Russia out of the war
  • 21.   U.S. Troops Save Paris and Help Turn the War  Russia was no longer a concern of Germany  Germany turned it sights on Paris, France  Just outside of Paris U.S. Marines stopped Germany advancement  Allies used tanks to push through German lines  Germany since the war had turned against them  November 1918 the warring nations signed an armistice – cease fire or agreement to stop fighting
  • 22. After the War   Big Four (Britain, France, Italy, and U.S.)  Met for peace conference in Paris  Wilson had no desire to punish Germany; goal was peace and stability in Europe  “Fourteen Points”- Wilson’s peace proposal  Reduction in arms  Right of self-determination – power to govern oneself  League of Nations – provide a place where countries could talk about differences rather than go to war
  • 23.   Peace without victory – peace imposed by a victor upon a loser would give birth to resentment and leads to conflict  The U.S. did not join the League of Nations  Isolation grew strong again after war  The Treaty of Versailles  Allies forced Germany to sign  Germany had to take total responsibility for the war  Imposed harsh conditions  Pay reparations – lead to economic depression and bitterness
  • 24. Government Increases Its Role   WWI had a huge effect on life in the U.S.  War Industries Board  Placed controls on nation's economy; obtain supplies for the military and allies  Committee on Public Information  Encourage public support for U.S. war effort  Propaganda, rationing, conserve fuel (daylight saving time)
  • 25.   Espionage and Sedition Acts  Made it illegal to interfere with the draft, sale of Liberty Bonds, make statements considered disloyal or critical of the government, the Constitution, or the U.S. military  Limited civil liberties to protect national security
  • 26. Mind Map Assingment   Using the information that you gathered you will create a mind map of the causes and effects of WWI.  You must include both written information and pictures/symbols/drawings that will explain the information  The following is an example of a mind map:
  • 27.   The following topics must be included in your poster:  New technology of WWI (Trench warfare, mechanized warfare and chemical warfare)  The home front in America including ways the govt got civilians to back the war effort  Central Powers of WWI (reasons for involvement)  Allied Powers of WWI (reasons for involvement  Results of the end of the war (ex. Treaties and alliance groups between the US and other nations
  • 28. Section 3  The Home Front
  • 29. Building up the Military  Many volunteered but others thought that more men needed to be drafted Many Progressives thought that conscription, forced military service, was a violation of democratic and republican principles
  • 30.  Selective Service Act: created by congress with the support of Wilson; required all men 21-30 register for the draft
  • 31. African Americans in the War drafted 400,000 AA were Racially segregated units were always under the supervision of white officers Fought bitter battles; were often awarded war medals
  • 32. Women in the Military   1st war that women officially served in; nurses were not given ranks  Jobs performed:  Clerical  Radio operators  Chemists  Photographers  Torpedo assemblers
  • 33. Organizing Industry  War Industries Board: coordinated the production of war materials Was later reorganized and Bernard Baruch was appointed to run it Controlled the flow of raw materials, ordered the construction of new factories, and set prices
  • 34. Food and Fuel  The Food Administration, run by Herbert Hoover, encouraged Americans to save and ration food Victory Gardens: gardens planted by citizens in order to save food for the troops
  • 35.  The Fuel Administration, run by Harry Garfield, tried to manage the nations use of coal and oil Introduced daylight savings time which shortened the workweek for factories that did not make war materials
  • 36. Paying for the War  To fund the war effort (44 million a day) Congress increased income taxes Liberty and Victory Bonds: Americans would buy bonds, and the government agreed to repay with interest
  • 37. Selling the War  Committee on Public Information: Headed by George Creel who recruited artists, advertisers, public speakers, authors, and motion picture co. to help sway the public in favor of the war.
  • 38. Civil Liberties Curtailed  Espionage: spying to acquire secret government information (Espionage Act of 1917) The fear of spies caused Americans to persecute German Americans Sauerkraut: Liberty Cabbage Hamburger: Salisbury Steak Dropped German language classes from schools
  • 39. Supreme Court Limits Free Speech  Schenck vs. The US: individuals freedom of speech could be curbed when words spoken constitute “clear and present danger”
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  • 42. 
  • 43. Propaganda Poster Activity  Use a white sheet of paper Use the following rubric as a guide to help you create your propaganda poster ____/50 picture/image relates to WWI ____/25 wording relates to WWI ____/25 Creativity