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Chapter 3


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  • 1. Industrial Growth
  • 2.  After Civil War, America continued to become an industrial urban society.  Inventors  Samuel Morse – telegraph  Alexander Graham Bell- telephone  Thomas Edison – Light bulb  Canals  Improved water travel  New York’s Erie Canal  Ship goods west more easily  Help NYC become major economic center Business and individuals communicate more easily Longer working hours and better products
  • 3.  Railroads  Ship goods across country cheaper, faster, and more efficiently  Allowed the west to expand and grow  The Internal Combustion Engine  Relied on the combustion of fossil fuels like gasoline  lead to the breakthrough of the automobile
  • 4.  Henry Ford  First to perfect and successfully market automobile  Model T  Mass production  Produce enough automobiles to see them at reduced prices  Assemble line – employees stayed while the parts moved  Thought of workers as consumers  Wanted workers to afford an automobile  Paid them unheard-of $5 per day
  • 5.  Migration  Many people left farms for cities  Higher wages  Fewer people make living off of farming  Immigration  Many from Eastern and Southern Europe  Italy, Russia, Poland  Ellis Island  New York Harbor – 1892  Reception center for poor immigrants arriving by ship  Cultural shock
  • 6.  Population became very dense  Melting Pot – people of all backgrounds come together in the U.S. to assimilate into American culture  Many did not want to assimilate and loose their heritage  Cities started to experience cultural pluralism – presence of many different cultures in one society  Problems and Concerns  U.S. citizens looked at immigrants negatively  Took jobs away from Americans  Mistrusted immigrants because of cultures barriers  Practicing culture and speaking native language is disloyal to the U.S.  Ethnic Ghettos – inner city cities with immigrants of same culture, language, and heritage  Religious tension
  • 7.  Push and Pull Factors  Push factors – why people leave one region for another  War, religious freedom, natural disasters, political/religious prosecution  Pull Factors – why people want to come to a region  Political freedom, religious freedom, jobs, economic opportunities
  • 8.  Living and Working Conditions among Immigrants  Tenements – small over crowded apartment where immigrants lived  One room, unsafe, unsanitary  Worked long hours under hazardous conditions  Sweatshops – contracted out work from factories located in small makeshift factories or apartments  Poorly lit, poorly ventilation, unsafe  Long hours, little pay  Triangle Shirtwaist Factory  1911 factory fire  Nine floor building which had 500 workers (women and some children) on a Saturday  Most doors locked to prevent them from leaving
  • 9.  Suburbs formed with the electric trolley  Classifications developed:  Middle class and upper class moved away from cities  Poor class and immigrants remained in the inner cities  Farms  Worked until the work was done  Not a lot of leisure time  Factory  Worked by the clock  Entertainment began to grow with leisure time
  • 10.  Entertainment  Salons – popular place for men to socialize, drink, and talk politics  Dance halls and musical shows – entertainment for women  Amusement parks and Vaudeville shows (inexpensive variety shows)  Boxing, horse racing and baseball  New York’s Central Park – landscaper Frederick Law Olmsted
  • 11. Take out your homework. If you were absent Friday, grab 3.2 from the back.
  • 12.  Bessemer Process: developed by Sir henry Bessemer  New method for making steel  Make quicker and efficient  Expansion for railroads and building construction  Andrew Carnegie: dominated the steel industry  Created a monopoly on the industry  Gospel of Wealth – Carnegie believed he should use the money on public causes not spend it on frivolous pursuits  Rags to riches story
  • 13.  Edwin L. Drake – drilled for oil in PA  John D. Rockefeller – becoming the nations riches and most powerful businessman  Standard Oil was the nations first trust  a business arrangement which a number of companies unite under one system  Help create monopolies  Eliminate competitors, control the U.S. oil industry, and dictate prices
  • 14.  Cornelius Vanderbilt – impact on the railroad industry  Made it possible to travel form New York to Chicago nonstop by train  J.P. Morgan – most powerful and influential finance capitalist  Control over banks, insurance companies, and some stock-market operations  Bought out Carnegie’s steel company making Carnegie the richest man in the world
  • 15.  George Westinghouse – invented transformers so electricity can be transmitted at alternating currents to points faraway  Westinghouse Electric founder
  • 16.  Rapid growth after the Civil War  Factories replace local shops  Stimulate economic growth  Business owners enjoyed “limited liability”  Afford to invest large amounts of money without the risk of loosing everything if the business failed
  • 17.  Spoils system  Government officials awarded supports with government positions  Led to a lot of corruption in government  assassination of President James Garfield by man who did not receive a government position  led to the passage of the Pendleton Act  Pendleton Act  Established the Civil Service Commission  Required applications to pass a civil service exam  Appointment would be based on merit not loyalties
  • 18.  Political Machines  Unofficial entities meant to keep a certain party or group in power  Most famous political boss was New York’s Boss William Tweed  Ran Tammany Hall – political club that controlled the city’s Democratic party  Thomas Nast’s political cartoons helped to bring him down from power  Graft – the use of ones political position or job to gain wealth
  • 19.  Sherman Antitrust Act  Passed by Congress during President Benjamin Harrison  Made monopolies illegal  Supreme Court ruling on E.C. Knight Company said  Sherman Antitrust Act cannot be used to break-up monopolies in manufacturing just distribution of a product
  • 20.  Create a newspaper article (if you were writing it back then) on two of the men we discussed yesterday. (3-5 paragraphs) Microsoft Publisher has a newspaper template on in. You are to compare and contrast these men based on business practices and lives. Then tell if these men are “Captains of Industry” or “Robber Barons”. Explain.