Chapter 2


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Chapter 2

  2. 2. •Take sheet from chair and start on bellwork/task focus.
  4. 4. TEXAS: INDEPENDENCE AND ANNEXATION • Manifest Destiny – U.S. leaders and citizens believed it to be destiny to expand and possess land to the West • Middle of the nineteenth century • Mexico gained independence from Spain • Gained control of Texas with large number of U.S. settlers • General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna gained control over Mexican Government • Sam Houston launched a rebellion in Texas
  5. 5. • March 2, 1836 Texas declared an independent republic • The Alamo – a battle fought between Santa Anna’s men and Texans • Every Texan who fought perished in battle or captured and killed • Texans defeated Santa Anna and took him hostage • For freedom, Santa Anna promised to recognize the Republic of Texas
  6. 6. • Texas becomes part of the U.S. • Asked to be annexed • Andrew Jackson in favor but know northern states would oppose a large slave state • Texas stayed independent until 1845 • Election of 1844 • Texas annexation was critical issues in election • Split the Democratic Party • James K. Polk – first “dark horse” (unexpected winner) presidential nominee • Called for annexation of Texas and Oregon • Defeated the Whig Party • Whigs and Democrats were dominate political parties at this time.
  7. 7. OREGON TERRITORY • After Polk settled with Texas, he turned his attention to Oregon. • Great Britain and U.S. jointly occupied Oregon • Polk argued the U.S. should claim territory up to 54˚40’N because of citizen population • Polk ready to fight – Great Britain willing to give it up because it was no longer profitable; U.S. important consumer of British goods • Oregon became territory 1846
  8. 8. SOUTHWEST TERRITORIES • 1848 Mexico and U.S. signed treaty after U.S. defeated Mexico in war • Mexico surrendered New Mexico and California territories • 1853 boundary dispute sill remained with Mexico • President Franklin Pierce sent James Gadsden to purchase land from Mexico for transcontinental railroad • Gadsden Purchase - $10 Million for present-day New Mexico and Arizona
  9. 9. • Gold Rush of 1849 • Settlers discovered gold north of Sacramento, California • Gold seekers come from all over the world • Congress admitted California to the Union as a state in 1850
  10. 10. 2.2 CULTURAL CLASHES
  11. 11. EUROPEAN MIGRATION • With expansion west came a migration of settlers with different motivations • Catholics hoped to read the message of Jesus to Native Americans • Gold Rush of 1849 – became major reason for conflict between settlers and Native Americans • Comstock Lode – region in Nevada with largest load of precious ore
  12. 12. • 1862 Congress passed two pieces of legislation to encourage western settlement • Homestead Act – anyone who agreed to cultivate 160 acres of land for five years would have title to that land from federal government • Morrill Land-Grant Act – millions of acres given to state governments to sell as agriculture colleges; teach farmers how to use new technology to farm the Midwest
  13. 13. • Oklahoma land rush • 50,000 people on horseback, bicycle, wagon, and on foot gathered waiting for the gun how to open the Oklahoma territory • “The Sooner State” – people tired to jump the gun to get a head start and get to Oklahoma sooner
  14. 14. WOMEN OF THE WEST • Enjoyed greater freedom • Required women to take on men's jobs • New freedoms attracted women to the west
  15. 15. AFRICAN AMERICANS OF THE WEST • Before the Civil War, many African Americas in the South were slaves • Black Exodus – African Americas who left the south after the Civil War • Large number migrated; became carriers or cowhands • Large number of cowboys were African Americans • Serve in west as United States Army • Buffalo Soldiers – name given by Native Americans who fought against them; all black regiments
  16. 16. CHINESE IMMIGRANTS • Chinese immigrants arrived in California • Population grew rapidly • Came to find work building railroads • Major role in building western railroads • Connecting eastern and western railroads • Citizens did not like Chinese immigrants • Felt they drove price of labor down and stole jobs from Americans • Racism/Nativism – opposed to immigration • Trust – did not trust Chinese because of appearance, dress, language
  17. 17. • Chinese Exclusion Act – prohibited people from china from immigration to the United States • Not repealed until 1943
  18. 18. EUROPEAN AMERICANS AND MEXICANS • Annexation of Texan and Mexican- American war made relation between U.S. and Mexico tense • Mexicans did have a positive effect on settlers in the western region • Taught white settlers how to herd, raise, and drive cattle to market • Cowboy hats and chaps were also adopted by white settlers
  19. 19. NATIVE AMERICANS • European Americans had conflict with Native Americans living in the west • Buffalo – great source of food, clothing, and shelter for Plains Indians • Settlers killed great number for hides and make way for the cattle industry • Plains Indians would no longer continue their way of life • Caused a dramatic decline in the population of Native Americans • Ranching took more land from Native Americans for railroads, towns, and cattle
  20. 20. • Native Americans were forced to relocate to reservations – land set aside for Native Americans just to be forcibly moved again and again because of gold being discovered • Native Americans grew tired of this and violent wars broke out
  22. 22. • The Sand Creek Massacre and The Battle of Little Bighorn • Sand Creek Massacre – 270 Native American dead; most were women and children • Cheyenne forced to give up claims to land given to them • Warriors raided mining camps and local settlements • U.S. forces surprised Cheyenne at Sand Creek in Colorado Territory • The Battle of Little Bighorn – General Custer attempted to surprise and defeat the Sioux in Montana • Known as “Custer’s Last Stand”
  23. 23. • Last greatest victory for Native Americans • Sioux and Cheyenne surrendered to U.S. troops to moved to land in the Dakotas and Oklahoma • Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce • Nez Perce – tribe bed by Chief Joseph • Forced to leave land • Warriors killed several white settlers without Chief Joseph’s blessing • Joseph ordered to comply with move to reservation • Troops attacked tribe while moving them
  24. 24. • Joseph and Nez Perce retreated and planed to avoid U.S. troops and escape into Canada • Caught thirty miles for the border • Forced onto reservation in Oklahoma • Many died due to sickness and malnutrition • Wounded Knee • last notable armed conflict between U.S. and Native Americans • “Ghost Dance” alarmed settlers and sent U.S. Army • Believed Sioux leader Sitting Bull was trying to start an uprising
  25. 25. • The Dawes Act • Congress passed 1887 • Assimilate Native Americans – force them to became part of mainstream society • Abolished tribes and separated reservations into land for individuals • Huge failure – did not want to give up tribes, no interest in farming
  26. 26. GROUP ASSIGNMENT • Create a poster that shows the social, political, and economic antagonism that occurred once westward expansion began to occur. It should be formatted like a graphic organizer using the information that we covered today. Every person must have a rough draft and the final copy will be the group poster.
  28. 28. THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD • Railroads became important means of transportation in the U.S. • Transcontinental Railroad • Union Pacific – Eastern rail company • Central Pacific – rail company from California • Irish and Chinese workers • Promontory Point – city in Utah were transcontinental railroad met to unite the East and West
  29. 29. FARMING, RANCHING, AND MINING • Many people moved West intended on farming • Adapt to terrain different from the East • Technological Advances: • John Deere’s steel plow – allowed farmers to cut through prairie sod • Windmills – allowed farmers to harness wind power to push water to the surface • Barbed wire – made it possible for farmers to fence in there livestock and land • Railroads – import needs/ship products to other parts of the country
  30. 30. • Cattle Ranching • used ranching techniques of Mexicans • Growth of cattle contributed to slaughter of buffalo • Land taken from Native Americans • “Cowboys” • Moved cattle on long drives to be shipped by train to market • Became legendary figures in Western culture
  31. 31. • Mining – became important with discoveries of gold • Mining camps and towns were established • Boomtowns – mining towns that were booming with minerals • Ghost towns –mining towns that were not booming anymore and everyone has left
  32. 32. FARMER COOPERATIVES • 1870’s – 1880’s – overproduction cased prices to drop • Farmers making less money/rising cost of equipment and railroads • Farmers went into debt; lost their farms and land • Cooperatives – farmers pulled their resources together to purchase new equipment and sell crops • Began to build political influence
  33. 33. THE POPULIST MOVEMENT • Populist Movement – formed because of concerns of the farmers • Low prices for their goods and the crop lien system (farmers borrow money against crops; slip further into debt) • Populists wanted to regulate railroad prices for farmers on hauling products and machinery • Appealed to “common man” – working class in the Northeast, South, and West • Omaha Platform – unlimited coinage of sliver, government regulated railroads/industry, graduated income tax, election reforms
  34. 34. • Green Backs – paper money • Printing more paper money would ease the farmers’ burdens of raising prices • Free Silver Policy – base the U.S. dollar on silver and gold • Populists believed this would pump money into the nation’s economy and ease financial pressure on farmers.
  35. 35. • Election of 1896 • Economic depression • President Cleveland seemed vulnerable • Free sliver became major issue • William Jennings Bryan • Democratic Party nomination • Backed means to spur inflation and raise prices of for farmers • Populist Party backed Bryan • Could not overcome a split in Democratic party • Republican Party candidate William McKinley won election