Example of a Lesson Incorporating Technology

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  • Tell a personal narrative here – make sure to have a clear kick off, feeling and plan
  • The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is an initiative developed in 2010 by two professional groups looking for the Core skills necessary for success in college and career. These two groups, National Governors Association and Council of Chief State School Officers, sought the thoughts of employers and colleges backtracking the necessary skills in reading, writing, speaking/listening and language from grade 12 to kindergarten building competencies within each grade while leading to the next. The CCSS, adopted by 45 of the 50 states, calls for “robust and real-world” expectations in the areas of “higher order skills, increased content knowledge, and the ability to engage with complex texts” (CCSS). Reading, the focus of the past decade, is part of an integrated model intertwining with writing, speaking/listening and language.
  • The article entitled Core commitment, written by these seasoned professionals, provides a great overview of the CCSS. Asha Position Papers pertaining to the roles and responsibilities of the SLP relative to literacy are referenced and elaborated upon in the article.
  • For your convenience, the Asha Position Papers, referenced in the article by Ehren et al are referenced here. This workshop focuses on students in grades K-5. These students will need intensive and systematic instruction in the early grades in the interrelationship among reading, writing, speaking/listening and language in order to prepare them for the demands of the upper grade disciplines such as science and history. Please see a second article in the Asha Leader from May 5, 2009 entitled RtI: Slps as Linchpins in Secondary Schools. Articles such as these are important since students in grades 7-12 may demonstrate much difficulty dealing with higher order thought and knowledge of various disciplines, even though their word recognition and fluency are not problematic.
  • The CCSS (2010) is a clearly written group of expectations for general education classrooms. However, it is stated within the document in a section entitled: Application to Students with Disabilities that “These common standards provide an historic opportunity to improve access to rigorous academic content standards for students with disabilities.” It calls for the supports and accomodations for students with disabilities such as Instructional Supports for Learning based on principles of Universal Design; Instructional Accomodations which do not change the standards but allow students to learn within the framework of the CCSS and Assistive Technology to provide multiple means of learning and opportunities to demonstrate knowledge put forth in the rigorous CCSS. For students with disabilities, the SLP is a vital service provider, coordinator of the relationships among reading, writing, speaking/listening and language as well as a collaborator in all tiers of RtI.RtI and the CCSS seem to be compatible for instruction and intervention. The CCSS provides a clear road map for general education. Time for collaboration among specialists (such as the SLP, reading specialist, school psychologist, special educator etc…) is vital for success with students with disabilities, learning challenges or those at risk or on IEPs.
  • This diagram shows the crux of the CCSS…increasing complexity of discourse. The standards themselves, in reading and writing elaborate upon and delineate the components of discourse: story grammar for narratives and text structures for exposition. We are asked to view these standards as a trajectory…from one grade to another to avoid “silos” in our thinking and to become more collaborative. In essence, discourse is separated into three areas: conversation, narration and exposition. Each of these has a vast amount of research and evidence as to its development, its importance to literacy and how teach children about it and through it (Think about read alouds). The CCSS has provided read-aloud suggestions at grades K-3 in order to emphasize the role oral language plays in literacy and achievement of the CCSS.
  • Note the omission o.f Discourse…There is not an efficient connection to literacy. If discourse skills are not modeled and taught early in life, the child is often dependent upon others to prod and ask questions to facilitate communication of stories, thoughts and information. It is vital to the success of the CCSS to explicitly teach discourse language in the oral mode.Oral language is the foundation for the development of other language skills. For most children, from the perspective of language development, oral language provides a literacy learning process which actually begins with speaking: talking about experiences, talking about themselves…The neglect of oral language in the classroom will destroy that foundation and severely hinder the development of other aspects of language.Zhang, H & Alex, N. (1995). Oral Language Development across the Curriculum, K-12. ERIC Digest.
  • Compare narrative to expository
  • Example of a Lesson Incorporating Technology

    1. 1. Example of Integrating High Tech and Low Tech Into a Lesson
    2. 2. Literacy Night: Interactive Lesson Supporting Common Core State Standards Using Children’s Literature, Articles & Multimedia Presented by: Linda Lafontaine, M.A. CCC-SLP Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed. CCC-SLP Lesson Designed By: Sheila M. Moreau
    3. 3. The Tool & Methodology Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    4. 4. What is the Story Grammar Marker®? A hands on, multisensory tool that has colorful, meaningful icons that represent the organizational structure of a story. The tool itself is a complete episode, the basic unit of a plot. Character Setting Kick-off Feeling Plan Planned Attempts (Actions) Direct Consequence Resolution Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    5. 5. The Critical Thinking Triangle®: It’s what is missing from traditional graphic organizers! Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    6. 6. Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    7. 7. The Research & Evidence Base Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    8. 8. Effects of Story Grammar Marker®: Listening Comprehension & Oral Expression Linda M. Lafontaine, M.A. CCC-SLP, Curtis Blake Day School of American International College Maryellen Rooney Moreau, M.Ed. CCC-SLP, MindWing Concepts, Inc. Abstract Significant Outcomes of the Story Grammar Marker Assessments (n=28) Paired dependent t test were conducted This study examined the effect of narrative intervention utilizing the Story Grammar Marker® methodology on listening comprehension and oral expression abilities of 28 school-aged children diagnosed with language impairment. Grade Level Of the 28 students Of Participants at a school in 2 Western Massa3 chusetts, 61% were male and 39% were female. 1.315 Critical Thinking Critical Triangle Triangle® Plan The Story Grammar Marker®, by MindWing Concepts, Inc. (www.mindwingconcepts.com) is an effective tool in increasing listening comprehension and oral expression of narratives. The SGM® is a visual, tactile and kinesthetic iconic manipulative designed to help students recall and sequence story details, think critically about the characters’ motivation, feelings, plan and mental states, infer information not directly stated, and predict future events in literature and life. A significant difference will be found between pretest and posttest measures in students who have a specific learning disability in reading and/or language who receive the Story Grammar Marker® intervention. -2.500 .000 Planned -2.571 .000 Attempt Pre- Post Direct Consequence 1.202 -11.007 Direct -12.728 Consequence 1.069 Direct Consequences Planned Attempt 2.5 2.0 1.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 90 2.0 1.8 1.5 80 70 1.0 60 Conclusions 1.5 .5 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.6 1.0 1.0 preIcomp postIcomp pre postSE .5 preIE postIE 0.0 preP 1.2 .5 preCTT postP Methods & Materials Assessment Pre and Post oral narrative retellings were collected and transcribed utilizing selected stories from the Strong Narrative Assessment Program (SNAP, Strong, 1998)  Students also answered factual and inferential comprehension questions about the story content that were provided in the administration manual of the SNAP Narratives were independently analyzed by two certified Speech and Language Pathologists for sentence and narrative complexity using the SGM® Progress Monitor and Instructional Planner (Moreau, 2009). postCTT Mean 0.0 .5 Mean 50 1.4 .5 Mean 1.0 Intervention Story Grammar Marker® manipulative tool 16 weeks 35 minutes of daily direct instruction Objective Pre- Post Planned Attempt 2.2 2.5 3.0 .003 -5.605 .000 Plan Initiating Event Setting Reading Comprehension -1.393 Initiating Event Setting Mean Objectives Listening Comprehension Mean Student Disability Statistically significant outcomes were revealed. Usage of the Story Grammar Marker® Progress Monitoring tools for diagnostic and intervention purposes is discussed. Pre- Post Initiating Event Mean 4 comparing pretest and posttest scores for 11 components of the SGM® Assessments. Of the eleven components there were eight statistically significant outcomes and three non-significant outcomes. Participants scored significantly higher on posttest measures of oral retellings. Additionally, students had a significant increase in posttest scores in listening comprehension as measured by their answers to the SNAP comprehension questions. Finally, as of grade 2, the expectation is that students are solid in the three narrative Pair M SD t Significance Pair M SD t Significance macrostructure elements of character, (p<.01) (p<.01) action sequence and resolution, therefore, Pre- Post Comprehension -28.930 22.50 -6.804 .000 Pre- Post Plan -1.857 .705 -13.934 no significant difference was noted between the .000 Pre- Post Setting -1.643 .559 -15.559 .000 Pre- Post Critical Thinking -.607 .994 -3.232 pretest and posttest of those elements. Mean 5 Results 0.0 prePA postPA 0.0 preDC postDC Conclusion The results of this study provide efficacy for the Story Grammar Marker’s® developmental methodology as well as the use of the manipulative tool to increase both listening comprehension and oral expression. The information presented in this study is beneficial to educators seeking effective intervention for students who perform poorly on listening comprehension of narratives, oral expression of narratives and answering questions related to narratives. The results of this study indicate that after receiving the SGM® intervention, students were more aware of how stories were structured and were able to use the structure to increase their listening comprehension levels as measured by comprehension questions and narrative retellings. References Catts, H. W., & Kamhi, A.G. (Eds.). (2005), Language and reading disabilities. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Swanson, J., Harris, K., & Graham, S. (2003) Handbook of learning disabilities. NY: Guilford Press. Moreau, M. & Fidrych, H. Moreau, M. (1994,1998, 2008) The Story Grammar Marker® Teachers Manual, MindWing Concepts, Inc. Springfield, MA Copyright © 2010. MindWng Concepts, Inc. All rights reserved. Toll Free 1-888-228-9746 • www.mindwingconcepts.com
    9. 9. The Common Core State Standards Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    10. 10. Common Core State Standards • Provide teachers and parents a clear and consistent understanding of what students are expected to learn • Are designed to be robust and “real world” and to provide students: – Knowledge and skills – College readiness – Career readiness www.corestandards.org/about-the-standards Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    11. 11. What Researchers Say… “The Common Core State Standards are here, and school-based SLPs are in a prime position to help students.” Core Commitment by Barbara J. Ehren, Jean Blosser, Froma Roth, Diane R. Paul and Nickola W. Nelson, The ASHA Leader, April 3, 2012. Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    12. 12. What ASHA Says… • Based on their focused expertise in LANGUAGE, SLPs offer assistance in addressing the linguistic and metalinguistic foundations of curriculum learning for students: – with disabilities – other learners who are at risk for school failure – those who struggle in school settings http://www.asha.org/docs/html/PS2010-00318.html http://www.asha.org/docs/html/PI2010-00317.html Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    13. 13. A Guide – But NOT a “How To” • CCSS sets grade-specific standards but does not define the intervention methods or materials necessary to support students who are well below or well above grade-level expectations • SLPs, (in collaboration with Parents, Teachers, Reading Specialists, Literacy Coaches, Special Educators and Interventionists) can… – Provide oral language development interventions – Support interrelationships among reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language – Collaborate with each other, families and administrators Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    14. 14. Where Story Grammar Marker® and related tools fit in: Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    15. 15. The CCSS: A Focus on the Discourse Level of Language It’s About Helping Students Develop “Communicative Competence” Putting together words, phrases, and sentences to create conversations, speeches, email messages, articles and books. www.nclrc.org/essentials/goalsmethods/goal.h tm © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com Copyright
    16. 16. Without Discourse There No Efficient Connection from Oral Language Development to Literacy COLLEGE AND CAREER CCSS Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-228-9746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    17. 17. Copyright © 2012, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    18. 18. http://blog.nwf.org/2013/02/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-polarbears/5
    19. 19. Polar Bear Video Google Images
    20. 20. Sir Winston Churchill Video Google Images
    21. 21. Excerpt from Sir Winston Churchill’s Speech of June 4, 1940 “We shall defend our island whatever the cost may be; we shall fight on beaches, landing grounds, in fields, in streets and on the hills. We shall never surrender …”
    22. 22. Compare Winston of Churchill to Sir Winston Churchill List some causes of Global Warming What did Winston know about the tourists to enable him to persuade them?
    23. 23. http://blog.nwf.org/2013/02/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-polarbears/5
    24. 24. polar bear video
    25. 25. Polar Bear Tundra Buggy Cam Polar Bear TV
    26. 26. Parent’s Session
    27. 27. Story Grammar Marker® Purpose To help children develop literate oral language by assisting them in progressing along the oral literate continuum. The Oral-Literate Continuum CONVERSATION NARRATION EXPOSITION The “Here and Now”………………………………….The “There and Then”
    28. 28. What is literate oral language? It is the combination of: Macro-structure The overall organization of a story or expository text selection & Micro-structure The linguistic complexity of sentences that make up the macro-structure Elements of micro-structure connect the elements of macro-structure. Copyright © 2010, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    29. 29. Narrative Macro-structure is… …the global organizational structure or “story grammar” of a narrative (story) – independent of content. Copyright © 2010, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    30. 30. Micro-structure: Gluing the Sentences Together Elaborated noun phrases (ex. The big, scary fish…) Verb phrases (tense use & adverb use, ex. The big, scary fish swam slowly.) Mental State verbs (the character may: remember, know, think, realize, etc.) Linguistic verbs (whispered, yelled, asked, etc.) Conjunctions (and, but, so, because, first, then, next, finally, etc.) Copyright © 2010, MindWing Concepts, Inc. • 1-888-2289746 • Web: www.mindwingconcepts.com
    31. 31. Best Bang for the Buck! • Winston of Churchill is narrative picture book containing informational text. • Fictional character(s), set in a scientific/historical place with a growing conflict as the result of a problem that needs to be solved. • Winston of Churchill, the main character, has many attributes paralleling the Great British Statesman Winston Churchill. • This picture book can be used to build a deep understanding of several concepts
    32. 32. Common Core State Standards set requirements not “The standards only for English Language Arts (ELA) but also for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects.” “Developed out of need for students who wish to be college and career ready, to be proficient in reading complex informational text independently in a
    33. 33. Common Core State Standards “Students who meet the standards can undertake close, attentive reading complex works … and perform the critical reading necessary to pick carefully through the staggering amount of information available in print and digitally. “ “Student writing must reinforce three writing capacities: writing to persuade, to explain, and to convey real or imagined
    34. 34. Common Core State Standards Reading Standard for Literature 5.6 Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described. Reading Standard for Informational Text 5.3 Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in an historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.
    35. 35. Common Core State Standards for Informational Text 5.5 Reading Standard Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g. chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts. Speaking and Listening Standard 5.4 Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes/speak clearly at an understandable pace.
    36. 36. Common Core State Standards Writing Standard 5.2 Write information/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (Winston of Churchill did this!!!)
    37. 37. Questions? Comments?
    38. 38. References • Okimoto, J.D. and Trammal, J. (illustrator). (2007) Winston of Churchill: One Bear’s Battle Against Global Warming. Sasquatch Books, Seattle. • http://blog.nwf.org/2013/02/10-things-you-may-notknow-about-polar-bears/5 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzD7zzsRw_k • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eL78M9yw8kM • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=taNTnxtgWTc&feat ure=player_embedded • www.mindwingconcepts.com
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