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Tvet cte policy initiatives in korea and southeast asian countries; a comparative study paryono, global hr forum 2010.pdf, seoul, korea



Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has become one of priority areas of UNESCO and has been part of education reform initiatives in Korea and some countries Southeast Asia. UNESCO ...

Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has become one of priority areas of UNESCO and has been part of education reform initiatives in Korea and some countries Southeast Asia. UNESCO further states that skills development through TVET are increasingly seen as critical to educational development, labor market inclusion and economic growth. Thus TVET can be seen as the Master Key, which opens the doors to poverty alleviation, rising standards of living, greater justice, equity and fairness in our various societies (UNESCO UNEVOC). Realizing the importance of TVET, this paper will highlight various TVET reform initiatives happening in Korea and some countries in Southeast Asia, examines commonalities and lessons leaned from the policies and practices both at the national and school levels. Among others, this paper will elaborates some of the reform initiatives such as policies on enhancing access and equity, quality assurance, skills standards, assessment, and recognition, and school management. This paper also includes some success stories on how TVET has successfully become alternative pathways for success.



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    Tvet cte policy initiatives in korea and southeast asian countries; a comparative study paryono, global hr forum 2010.pdf, seoul, korea Tvet cte policy initiatives in korea and southeast asian countries; a comparative study paryono, global hr forum 2010.pdf, seoul, korea Presentation Transcript

    • Global HR Forum 2010 Paryono SangHoon Bae SEAMEO VOCTECH                                                                   Sung Kyun Kwan 1
    • The importance of TVET/CTE reform TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and  h l d l d d Training ) or CTE (Career and Technical Education) is a  very dynamic education and training. It should be able    d i   d i   d  i i  I   h ld b   bl to response to the changes of economic, social,  technological, and labor market demands.   t h l i l   d l b   k t d d TVET plays very crucial roles in preparing qualified  and relevant skilled labor forces that will enhance   d  l t  kill d l b  f  th t  ill  h business and industry productivity, thus determine  country’s economy. country’s economy At individual level, TVET can enhance career  development, labor market advantage. development  labor market advantage 2
    • Significant TVET policy reforms in Korea and  SEA countries SEA  ti Socio, economic, and education context in  which the policy was formed. hi h th   li    f d Commonalities and differences Lessons learned With objectives: Better understanding of the international CTE  reform trends and finding lessons on CTE  reforms from the cases, etc reforms from the cases  etc Identify and recommend possible TVET  collaborations between Korea and SEA countries 3
    • Variable Country Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Korea Population (July 2010 242,968,342 26,160,256 99,900,177 4,701,069 66,404,688 48,508,972 est.) Literacy 90.4% 90 4% 88.7% 88 7% 92.6% 92 6% 92.5% 92 5% 92.6% 92 6% 97.9% 97 9% Employment sectors: * Agriculture 42.1% 13% 34% 0% 42.4% 7.2% * Industry 18.6% 36% 15% 23.8% 19.7% 25.1% * Services 39.3% 51% 51% 76.2% (2008) 37.9% 67.7% (2007 est.) (2006 est.) (2005 est.) (2009 est.) (2008 est.) Unemployment 7.7% 3.7% 7.5% 3% 1.5% 3.7% (2009 est.) (2009 est.) (2009 est.) (2009 est.) (2009 est.) (2009 est.) GDP Per capita PPP $4,000 $4 000 (2009 $14,800 $14 800 (2009 $3,300 $3 300 (2009 $50 300 (2009 $8 100 (2009 est.) $28 100 (2009 $50,300 $8,100 est ) $28,100 est.) est.) est.) est.) est.) GDP PPP (2009 est.) $962.5 b. $383.6 b. $324.4 b. $243.2 b. $540.1 b. $1.364 t. Education Expenditure 3.6% 3 6% (2006 6.2% 6 2% (2004) 2.5% 2 5% (2005) 3.7% 3 7% (2001) 4.2% 4 2% (2005) 4.6% 4 6% (2004) (% GDP) est.) Source: CIA, 2010 4
    • Country Secondary (%) Postsecondary (%) Republic of Korea 96.90 (2007) 94.7 (2007) Indonesia 67.50 (2007) 17.5 (2007) Malaysia 73.52 (2003)* 30.2 (2006) Philippines 61.30 (2007) 28.5 (2006) Singapore 88.20 (2009)** 60.0 (2005) Thailand 76.10 (2007) 49.5 (2007) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Data Centre. Online database accessed  on 10 and 28 August 2009. * Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2004).  The Development of Education. * *Ministry of Education Singapore. (2010). Education Statistics Digest 2010.  ( (Based on  who sat for GCE ‘N’ or ‘O’ Level Examinations and had at least 5 ‘N’ level  f 5 passes or 3 ‘O’ level passes 5
    • Education Great commitment to education and ongoing  disdain for CTE  Enrollment rate: 92.5% (High school), 70.4% (tertiary) ll h h l ▪ # of students (General vs. CTE): 74.8%: 24.2%  Advancement rate(high school to tertiary): 81.9% Labor market Youth unemployment rate: 8.6% Employed graduates from 4‐year college: 60.5% Employed graduates from 4 year college: 60 5% Shortage of technicians required high school CTE: 65  thousands (81% of total labor shortage)  Major Industries: Steel, Automotive, Electronics 6
    • Strengthen CTE to help students prepare for  g p p p employment. Resolve an over‐education issue among  Korean youths. Provide technician‐level skilled workers to  business and industry. 7
    • Offer specialized CTE programs aligned with industry needs and  standards. d d Strengthen collaboration between CTE schools and local industry. Provide more school autonomy in the area of student recruitment,  curriculum management, and staffing. curriculum management  and staffing Introduce “basic vocational skills assessment” to ensure CTE school  y accountability and effective transition to labor market. Introduce  “Meister high school” as exemplary CTE schools. Greater financial support from the government and more autonomy to  create model cases and then diffuse best practice to general CTE schools.  8
    • Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand 9
    • Education participation 67.5%  (secondary), 17.6% (tertiary) (secondary)  17 6% (tertiary) Unemployed graduates from secondary general  education: 23.44%, secondary TVE: 9.19% (BPS 2004). Labor force pyramid: unskilled  76 million , skilled   19  Labor force pyramid: unskilled= 76 million , skilled = 19  million, experts = 4.5 million (BPS, 2004) Low quality of teachers, inadequate and outdated  L   lit   f t h  i d t   d  td t d  facilities (Directorate TVE, 2006) Main industries: Petroleum, Natural Gas, Textiles,  Automotive 10
    • Address high percentage of secondary HS graduates who cannot  go to college (74.16% did not go to postsecondary. go to college (74 16% did not go to postsecondary Improve TVET image by improving the quality and relevance of  TVET programs. TVET programs Address the quality and quantity of teachers and increase their  number by working with local government, training the “general”  teachers with technical and vocational skills, and relocation of  t h   ith t h i l  d  ti l  kill   d  l ti   f  teachers from city to rural. Address the lack of school facilities: affordable equipment projects. Strengthening Adaptive Skills in the curriculum  Enhancing Teaching  (Vocational Schools ‐ Industry  Partnership) Integrated learning factory. Integrated learning factory Address high unemployment by preparing graduates for domestic  and overseas market. d    k t 11
    • Prepare secondary general high school  graduates with necessary skills to enter labor  market by expanding secondary TVET.  y p g y TVET:GHS student ration 60:40 in 2015. Offer qualified and relevant TVET programmes:  improving school management, e.g more  autonomy, curriculum (attractive, relevant  autonomy  curriculum (attractive  relevant  (PPP), competency based and include  entrepreneurship), enhance teaching‐learning  entrepreneurship)  enhance teaching learning  process, improve assessment and recognition) 12
    • As Malaysia strives towards becoming a more  industrialised and knowledge centred nation,  industrialised and knowledge‐centred nation,  the need for more skill‐based workers has increased  considerably Enrolment of students declines Academic quality become deteriorating A d i   lit  b  d t i ti High commitment from the government on education by  allocating 6.2% of GDP for education (the highest %  among these 6 countries) g ) Electronics, Petroleum, Chemicals, Textiles, Palm Oil,  Tourism, automotive Tourism  automotive 13
    • Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) has  made the TVE as mainstream education to  ensure the government's intention to achieve    th   t'  i t ti  t   hi developed nation status by the year 2020 a  p y y reality  Developing multi‐skilling students Developing multi skilling students Gaining international accreditation for the  courses offered  14
    • Transformation of TVET involving rebranding,  expansion of TVE, improving curriculum,  standards and competencies and gain  p g international recognition.  Retraining of technical teachers to enable them  to teach vocational subjects Improving links with industry players and  professional bodies Strengthening the concept of School Enterprise  based on Production‐based Education 15
    • TVET is not only targeted for domestic but also  for overseas labor market (>30% workforces  f    l b   k t ( %  kf   working abroad) Major sender country for workers both skilled  M j   d   t  f   k  b th  kill d  and semi‐skilled in the region. TVET at secondary level under DepEd was  strengthened recently not only as elective  courses but as programs, but it is still small. courses but as programs  but it is still small Unemployment is relatively high (7.5%) Major industries: Processed Foods, Coal,  Major industries: Processed Foods  Coal   Chemical Products, Garments, Electrical  Machinery and Electronics, Fishing Machinery and Electronics  Fishing 16
    • Enhancing the quality and diversifying the   g q y y g TVE programs aiming for domestic and  overseas market Encourage and recognize various learning  context: formal, informal, non‐formal   through the Philippines National  Qualification Framework (PNQF) 17
    • • Private Sector‐led and Market‐Driven‐ Strengthen industry linkages on standards and systems assessment certification and policy systems, assessment, certification, formulation • Pro‐Active Job‐Skill Matching (SEEK‐FIND‐TRAIN)‐ SEEK business opportunities, opportunities and jobs through domestic and international labor market intelligence; ii) FIND the right people fit for the jobs; and iii) TRAIN the right people for the available jobs using quality standards developed i consultation with i d t d l d in lt ti ith industry. • Lifelong Learning Mechanism/Ladderization and Articulation‐ Institutionalize the PNQF as the basis for the articulation of TVET across the educational system. • Expanding Scholarships and Other Incentive Support System‐ Improve equity and access for students and trainers to scholarships and incentive support. 18
    • • Competency‐Based VTET‐ Implement the principles of multiple entry and exit self paced/modular learning industry learning and exit, self‐paced/modular learning, assessment, recognition of prior learning, and national recognition/accreditation for acquired competencies. • Enhancing Quality Assurance Mechanisms Institutionalize QA and Mechanisms‐ accreditation system and give recognition for institutions meeting quality standards, expand access of private providers to courseware materials and capability b ildi programme. t i l d bilit building • Entrepreneurship/Technopreneurship in VTET‐ integrate relevant  g module in VTET curricula and enhance access to credit/financing  facilities. • Convergence in VTET‐ expand industry partnerships with VTET, provide recognition and incentives for successful dual training partnerships, expand community‐based training programs for special groups, and provide capability building on culturally and gender sensitive VTET issues issues. 19
    • Well known for excellent and efficient services. Increasing employment sectors in services have attracted  g p y youths to pursue their careers in these areas. A small country (4 million), high GDP per capita ($50k), low  unemployment rate (3%). Electronics, chemicals, financial services, aircraft Electronics  chemicals  financial services  aircraft 20
    • With a youth audience that is growing increasingly  individualistic, better informed and technologically‐savvy,  TVET needs to redefine and reinvent its educational  approach, teaching and learning environment, and modes of  h h dl d d f student engagement.   Prepare students to enter labor market and at the same time  P   t d t  t   t  l b   k t  d  t th    ti   also for continuing education. Cultivating human potentials by providing excellent TVET  C lti ating h man potentials b  pro iding e cellent TVET  programs for non‐college bound (motto “Thinking Hands  Create Success ) Create Success”) 21
    • Autonomy and flexibility for Colleges to run its  operations according to their own strategic  ti   di  t  th i     t t i   directions in line with its Mission, Vision and  Values. V l The Colleges will also differentiate themselves  by identifying their own niche areas and core  competencies. Students can look forward to the unique ITE  Brand of College Education which will develop  them into  Hands‐on, Minds‐on and Hearts‐on them into “Hands‐on  Minds‐on and Hearts‐on” graduates who are ready to take on challenges  of the real world. of the real world 22
    • Widening industry partnerships to provide the  students with an authentic learning environment,  d h h i l i i and exposure to real‐life industry projects and  applications. li i More than implementing new systems, processes and  services that are responsive, effective and  i  th t    i   ff ti   d  environmentally sustainable, ITE will provide its  Colleges of the future with high technological  C ll   f th  f t   ith hi h t h l i l  capabilities and encourage College‐wide connectivity  for collaborative teaching and learning. for collaborative teaching and learning Image building by improving programs,  advertisement, and infrastructure advertisement  and infrastructure 23
    • College East College West Bus Advertisements MRT Advertisements 24
    • Major industries: tourism, textiles, tin and  j , , tungsten, tobacco, agricultural processing,  beverages, light manufacturing, cement,  beverages  light manufacturing  cement   automotive. Ratio between TVET/CTE and General  Education both secondary and tertiary is  40:60. (APEC, 2008). 25
    • Achieving harmonious and prosperous  g p p society. Thai workforce must possess the  necessary knowledge, skills, and moral and  necessary knowledge  skills  and moral and  ethical values. More efficient and responsive TVET  institutions. institutions Prepare workforce for domestic and overseas 26
    • Enhance moral education: improve and develop  curricula at all levels by offering moral‐based learning  l ll l l b ff l b dl activities, train teachers and educational human  resources to be ready for  the improvement of moral‐    b   d  f    h  i   f  l based curriculum development, and build up moral  network in every region of the country for relationship   t k i     i   f th   t  f   l ti hi activities with links to related ministries.  Accelerate decentralization to TVET in accordance   A l t  d t li ti  t  TVET i   d with the National Act of Education Collaboration with public, private, and local sectors Collaboration with public  private  and local sectors Piloting some Internationally Standard TVET  institutions 27
    • OVEC (Office for Vocational Education Commission) has declared 12  policies for TVET institutes in order to achieve TVET goal 1. Increase number of students (expanding secondary TVET);  2. Open vocational education in secondary schools;  3 Provide Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and Vocational  3. Qualifications from concrete competency;  4. Manage learning process in three levels : users, fixers or repairers, and  creators;  5. Improve learning‐teaching and assessment process;  6. Collaborate with industry councils and entrepreneurs;  7 Create new SME businesses;  7. 8. Develop careers with integration of management;  9. Focus on moral principles;  10.Manage finance, personal, and warehouse system with efficiency;  10 Manage finance  personal  and warehouse system with efficiency;  11.Inspire learners with industry visits in the first year of certificate and  diploma levels;  12.Manage knowledge and skills for life long learning.  12 Manage knowledge and skills for life long learning   28
    • ASEAN countries Korea Moving to more school autonomy i h l Strengthening Public Private Partnership Skilles gap exists Addressing TVET image Integrating “soft”, “common,” “life”, “employability skills Expanding lifelong learning  and sustainable development di lif l l i d i bl d l Indonesia, Thailand and Korea are piloting exemplary TVET  institutions 29
    • ASEAN countries Korea “Some are under educated” “Over educated”  Majority finished secondary schools Majority finished  university TVET is for addressing poverty and unemployment  TVET is for employment  issues  in some countries and economic  competitiveness Expanding TVET at secondary level (except  Making TVET more  Singapore) Strengthening entrepreneurship programs At some degree TVET is for domestic and overseas market (In., Ph.,  TVET is for domestic and overseas market (In  Ph   TVET for domestic market Th)  Singapore starts offering TVET at postsecondary  g p g p y TVET starts at secondary  y level. The other 4 conutries start at secondary level level 30
    • Education and Employment Gap (see next slide) More developed, more educated More developed, more high skilled work forces  p , g and professionals needed Skilled work forces are needed the most (biggest  portion of labor force) in both situations The gap between workforce skills and  employment needs exists in developing and  developed countries. developed countries TVET plays a major role in closing the gap. 31
    • : Education : Employment Professional Univesity /Manager University Skilled work  GAP GAP force GAP TVET GAP TVET Secondary Semi‐skilled Secondary Primary Primary Low skilled Developing countries Developed countries 32
    • TVET is a priority area in SEA, especially in Indonesia  (aiming for 60:40 ratio between VET and HS students),  Thailand (aiming for 50:50), Philippines and Malaysia are  Thailand (aiming for 50:50)  Philippines and Malaysia are  expanding their secondary TVET in last two years,  g p 5 y , 5 Singapore (65% students in ITE & Polytechnics, 25 to  university). In Korea, enrollment in secondary CTE/TVET is  low, 24.2%. TVET institutions are the major suppliers of skilled  workforce, the biggest chunk of the total workforce  p g p needed both in developing ad developed countries. Many common initiatives such as TVET expansion and at  the same time continuously improving the quality and  relevance of the programs, image rebranding by  relevance of the programs  image rebranding by  advertisement, improve infrastructures and facilities,  p partnerships with industries, create uniqueness and  p , q flexibility by giving ore autonomy. 33
    • Some major challenges: awareness and  j g image of TVET is low, requires big funding,  career progression has not been addressed  thoroughly through e.g. National  Qualification Framework, multi entry‐multi  exit, Recognition of prior learning, etc.  exit  Recognition of prior learning  etc   34
    • Strong commitments from the government, private  business and industries, and awareness of the  community towards TVET should  go hand‐in‐hand  to jointly address the issue of lacking skills  workforce, and to make TVET becomes attractive. What attractive to students may not be inline with  national economic priority or policy. Through  ASEAN+3, each member countries can complement  each other in terms of labor force exchanges. Some  trades or skills considered to be unattractive in one  country can be supplied from others. 35