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Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea
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Status of multicultural education in korea and its future direction insil chang, global hr forum 2010, seoul, korea

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This study contemplates how multicultural education, a frequently discussed subject today, is taking root in Korea by delving into how the Korean society shifted itself into a multicultural one, the …

This study contemplates how multicultural education, a frequently discussed subject today, is taking root in Korea by delving into how the Korean society shifted itself into a multicultural one, the concept of multicultural families, and the direction of studies and policies concerning multicultural education. On the basis of such theoretical discussions and by addressing the issues they set forth, this study aims at discovering a direction for the development of multicultural education in Korea.
The prevailing concept of multicultural education in Korea opens up various discussions. The first issue is that in Korea, the main focus of this kind of education tends to be on teaching how to understand other culture. Another point of discussion is that it is basically targeted on a small group of minorities. Furthermore, there are voices calling for a Korean-type multicultural education, reasoning that Korean theories on this subject are different from that of other countries. When it comes to Korea’s multicultural education policies, most programs, aside from teachers training, are for multicultural families. In addition, they focus on teaching these families to adapt to Korean society rather than promoting a general understanding of and respect for other cultures. It was found that even at schools, a majority of these programs involved teaching about culture.
On the basis of the abovementioned issues, this study concludes new directions for the development of multicultural education. First of all, the Korean society needs to establish a clearer concept of multicultural education. In addition, the transformation of the existing framework of multicultural education, which is currently concentrated on minorities, into one that encompasses all members of society is essential. Moreover, school administrators and teachers should also be subject to such education. Careful studies on the identity of children from multicultural families are also required. Also, in terms of supporting multicultural education, it is recommendable that a single government agency has charge of this task rather than have it shared among a number of different agencies. Lastly, this study emphasizes the need for developing a program that can promote better awareness of the advantages of multicultural families.

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  • 1. Status of MulticulturalStatus of Multicultural Education in Korea andEducation in Korea and Its Future DirectionIts Future Direction Insil ChangInsil Chang Gyeongin National University of EducationGyeongin National University of Education
  • 2. IntroductionIntroduction KoreanKorean –– Homogeneous ethnicityHomogeneous ethnicity or‘Pureor‘Pure bloodedness’ of its members?bloodedness’ of its members? Foreign population(2010) 1 million and 130 thousandForeign population(2010) 1 million and 130 thousand (2.3% of Korean residents)(2.3% of Korean residents) –– increase of foreignincrease of foreign workers and interracial marriagesworkers and interracial marriages Difficulty in letting go of single ethnicity.Difficulty in letting go of single ethnicity.
  • 3. Historical BackgroundHistorical Background GoguryeoGoguryeo Dynasty(37 BCDynasty(37 BC--AD 668)AD 668) -- multiracial countrymultiracial country Japanese immigrants in 1876, 1910Japanese immigrants in 1876, 1910 Chinese immigrants from 1882Chinese immigrants from 1882 BalhaeBalhae(AD 698(AD 698--926)926) -- YemaekYemaek ++ MoheMohe tribetribe American soldier & Korean womenAmerican soldier & Korean women-- twigitwigi(cross(cross--bred animal)bred animal) Long history of migrants from abroadLong history of migrants from abroad
  • 4. Labor shortage in 3DLabor shortage in 3D Government adopted a systemGovernment adopted a system permitting foreign employees in 2004permitting foreign employees in 2004 Training program through which KoreanTraining program through which Korean companies operating overseas cancompanies operating overseas can invite local employees for industrialinvite local employees for industrial training in 1991training in 1991--extended in 1994extended in 1994 Transition toTransition to Multicultural SocietyMulticultural Society
  • 5. Rural communities lacked femaleRural communities lacked female population for their bachelorspopulation for their bachelors Growing number of single womenGrowing number of single women avoiding marriageavoiding marriage Increasing Interracial marriage fromIncreasing Interracial marriage from China, Japan, southeast Asia, etc.China, Japan, southeast Asia, etc. Worsening imbalance of the maleWorsening imbalance of the male--toto-- female ratio in Koreafemale ratio in Korea Transition toTransition to Multicultural SocietyMulticultural Society
  • 6. Purpose of StudyPurpose of Study How the Korea society shifted itself into aHow the Korea society shifted itself into a multicultural one,multicultural one, The direction of studies and policiesThe direction of studies and policies concerning multicultural education,concerning multicultural education, Aims at seeking a direction for theAims at seeking a direction for the development of ME in Korea.development of ME in Korea. The concept of multicultural families,The concept of multicultural families, Concepts and Misconceptions of ME,Concepts and Misconceptions of ME,
  • 7. Concept ofConcept of Multicultual FamiliesMulticultual Families A family consisting of members of differentA family consisting of members of different race or culturerace or culture The Citizens Movement for Health andThe Citizens Movement for Health and Family proposed MFFamily proposed MF Foreign workers, Marriage immigrants,Foreign workers, Marriage immigrants, North Korea refugees in academic worldNorth Korea refugees in academic world Called honhyula, twigi, Komerican,Called honhyula, twigi, Komerican, ainoko, Kosian, onnurrianainoko, Kosian, onnurrian
  • 8. Misconception ofMisconception of Multicultural FamiliesMulticultural Families Multicultural encompass not only race andMulticultural encompass not only race and ethnicity, but also gender, social status, culture,ethnicity, but also gender, social status, culture, language, religion, sexual orientation, disabilitieslanguage, religion, sexual orientation, disabilities and ideology (Banks;and ideology (Banks; SleeterSleeter & Grant)& Grant) All families are multicultural familiesAll families are multicultural families Children are distinguished according toChildren are distinguished according to their parents’ country of birththeir parents’ country of birth Current need to support these familiesCurrent need to support these families
  • 9. Registered number of aliens in KoreaRegistered number of aliens in Korea according to nationality (July, 2010)according to nationality (July, 2010) Native countryNative country Total registeredTotal registered number of aliensnumber of aliens LegalLegal IllegalIllegal TotalTotal 876,791(100%) 796577(91%) 80214(9%) ChinaChina 481,761(55%) 447559(93%) 34202(7%) Ethnic Koreans of otherEthnic Koreans of other nationalitiesnationalities 354,066(70%) 337449(95%) 16617(5%) VietnamVietnam 90,467(10%) 78731(87%) 11736(13%) The PhilippinesThe Philippines 38,976(4%) 31906(82%) 7070(18%) ThailandThailand 27,931(3%) 24467(88%) 3464(12%) IndonesiaIndonesia 26,810(3%) 22963(86%) 3847(14%) The United statesThe United states 30,914(4%) 29208(94%) 1706(6%) MongoliaMongolia 21,213(2%) 16612(78%) 4601(22%) TaiwanTaiwan 21,458(2%) 20880(97%) 578(3%) UzbekistanUzbekistan 17,634(2%) 15326(87%) 2308(13%) JapanJapan 19,164(2%) 18818(98%) 346(2%)
  • 10. Annual growth trends of marriage immigrants in Korea (July 31,2010) YearYear 20012001 20022002 20032003 20042004 20052005 No. of marriage immigrant 25,182 34,710 44,416 57,069 75.011 Year-on-year growth 37.8% 28.0% 28.5% 31.4% 20062006 20072007 20082008 20092009 20102010 93,786 110,362 122,552 125,087 137,448 25.0% 17.7% 11.0% 2.1% 9.5%
  • 11. Nationality of marriage immigrantsNationality of marriage immigrants (Korea immigration Service, 2010년 ) ChinaChina 48.4%48.4% VietnamVietnam 24.1%24.1% JapanJapan 7.4%7.4% PhilippinesPhilippines 5.1%5.1%
  • 12. Fulfilling equal education by reformingFulfilling equal education by reforming curriculum of schools and educationalcurriculum of schools and educational institutions (Banks, Bennett)institutions (Banks, Bennett) Social Justice (Bennett, 2011)Social Justice (Bennett, 2011) Equity PedagogyEquity Pedagogy Concepts ofConcepts of Multicultural EducationMulticultural Education Curriculum ReformCurriculum Reform Multicultural CompetenceMulticultural Competence
  • 13. Form of Education for InternationalForm of Education for International Understanding (EIU) combined with MEUnderstanding (EIU) combined with ME EIU goal is world peace rather thanEIU goal is world peace rather than equal educationequal education MisConcepts ofMisConcepts of Multicultural EducationMulticultural Education CrossCross--Cultural Awareness ProgramCultural Awareness Program (CCAP)(CCAP) --understanding other culturesunderstanding other cultures ME is a type of education that introducesME is a type of education that introduces the culture of other countriesthe culture of other countries
  • 14. ME is not for mainstream Koreans and isME is not for mainstream Koreans and is for multicultural families onlyfor multicultural families only minorityminority –– multicultural educationmulticultural education MisConcepts ofMisConcepts of Multicultural EducationMulticultural Education majoritymajority –– education for multiculturaleducation for multicultural understandingunderstanding ME involves both the majority andME involves both the majority and minority groupsminority groups
  • 15. Differs from other countries in terms of itsDiffers from other countries in terms of its theories on MEtheories on ME Conducted in different circumstancesConducted in different circumstances and conditionsand conditions –– South & North KoreaSouth & North Korea MisConcepts ofMisConcepts of Multicultural EducationMulticultural Education Whether put more weight on assimilationWhether put more weight on assimilation or on multiculturalism (Park & Kwak, 2009)or on multiculturalism (Park & Kwak, 2009) too much emphasis of assimilationtoo much emphasis of assimilation (integration?) distort multiculturalism(integration?) distort multiculturalism
  • 16. The first academic paper was published in 1980sThe first academic paper was published in 1980s ME concerning curriculum subjectsME concerning curriculum subjects Education Researches onEducation Researches on Multicultural Education in KoreaMulticultural Education in Korea Introducing ME of other countriesIntroducing ME of other countries Difficulties faced by multicultural families andDifficulties faced by multicultural families and children (Seo, 2010; Oh, 2009)children (Seo, 2010; Oh, 2009) Increasing significantly in 2006Increasing significantly in 2006 Analyzed School text books (Kim, 2008; Park &Analyzed School text books (Kim, 2008; Park & Kang, 2009)Kang, 2009)
  • 17. Ways to support teaching and learning forWays to support teaching and learning for children (Oh, 2008; Won, 2009)children (Oh, 2008; Won, 2009) Wider range of subjects compared to the pastWider range of subjects compared to the past Education Researches onEducation Researches on Multicultural Education in KoreaMulticultural Education in Korea Effectiveness of ME programEffectiveness of ME program (Chang &Jeong, 2009)(Chang &Jeong, 2009) Observed the awareness of majority (Mo, 2009;Observed the awareness of majority (Mo, 2009; Choi, 2009)Choi, 2009) Not many studies on ME for the majority groupNot many studies on ME for the majority group
  • 18. The Nationality Act, Immigration Control ActThe Nationality Act, Immigration Control Act Act on the Employment of Foreign WorkersAct on the Employment of Foreign Workers LegalLegal system for foreignerssystem for foreigners in Koreain Korea Act on the Immigration and Legal Status ofAct on the Immigration and Legal Status of Overseas KoreansOverseas Koreans The Framework Act on Treatment of ForeignersThe Framework Act on Treatment of Foreigners Residing in the Republic of Korea (MOJ)Residing in the Republic of Korea (MOJ) Laws that prohibit discrimination against countryLaws that prohibit discrimination against country of birth, ethnicity, race, and skin color, etc.(NHRCK)of birth, ethnicity, race, and skin color, etc.(NHRCK) The Support for Multicultural Families ActThe Support for Multicultural Families Act (MOGEF)(MOGEF)
  • 19. The UN Conventions on human rights includingThe UN Conventions on human rights including the International Convention on the Protectionthe International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers andof the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (1991)Members of Their Families (1991) LegalLegal system for foreignerssystem for foreigners in Koreain Korea The Enforcement Decree of the Elementary andThe Enforcement Decree of the Elementary and Secondary Education (MEST)Secondary Education (MEST) The Framework Act on Education (MEST)The Framework Act on Education (MEST) The Convention on the Rights of Children (1991)The Convention on the Rights of Children (1991) Equipped with a legal system for protection theEquipped with a legal system for protection the basic rights of foreigners, yet discriminationbasic rights of foreigners, yet discrimination against race and ethnicity still existsagainst race and ethnicity still exists
  • 20. The Ministry of Education, Science and TechnologyThe Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST)(MEST) Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry andMinistry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(MIFAFF)Fisheries(MIFAFF) Policies on MulticulturalPolicies on Multicultural Education in KoreaEducation in Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare(MOHW)Ministry of Health and Welfare(MOHW) Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (MOGEF)Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (MOGEF) Ministry of Justice(MOJ)Ministry of Justice(MOJ) Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MCST)Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MCST)
  • 21. Majority of the programs were for parents andMajority of the programs were for parents and children of MFchildren of MF Teachers: Teacher training, operation of schoolsTeachers: Teacher training, operation of schools for multicultural studies, distribution offor multicultural studies, distribution of materials and support for textbookmaterials and support for textbook Policies on MulticulturalPolicies on Multicultural Education in KoreaEducation in Korea Parents in MF: Korean classes, counseling, KoreanParents in MF: Korean classes, counseling, Korean cultureculture Children in MF: mentoring, experiencing KoreanChildren in MF: mentoring, experiencing Korean culture, Korean classes, special classesculture, Korean classes, special classes
  • 22. Parents: 2/15, training program for parents, joint campaigns Problem do not continue for a long period of time and often end up as one-time events Education Researches onEducation Researches on Multicultural Education in KoreaMulticultural Education in Korea Comprehensive ME projects: ME center and camp Children: CCAP, class for learning foreign culture, book purchasing
  • 23. Build a clearer concept of MEBuild a clearer concept of ME Curriculum reform is requiredCurriculum reform is required –– addictiveaddictive or transformative approachor transformative approach School administrators and teachers shouldSchool administrators and teachers should be subject to MEbe subject to ME ME is not just for minorities, but forME is not just for minorities, but for majorities as wellmajorities as well Directions for the development ofDirections for the development of Multicultural Education in KoreaMulticultural Education in Korea
  • 24. Studies on the identity of parents andStudies on the identity of parents and children of MFchildren of MF Single government agency takesSingle government agency takes responsibilityresponsibility Education Researches onEducation Researches on Multicultural Education in KoreaMulticultural Education in Korea Program that can emphasize the strengthProgram that can emphasize the strength of MFof MF

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