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Post-secondary VET in KOREA
What is new and unique?
PostPost--secondary VET in KOREAsecondary VET in KOREA
What is new and...
4
AA3
2 Background/context of the Korean Study
Annex 1: Related Work
1 Purposes of the KRIVET‐OECD project
What is New & U...
To carry out a stock‐take and mapping of the post‐secondary sector 
within and across OECD countries
To provide a cross‐se...
1. Quick recovery from the recent global recession
☞ But face structural ‘lowered growth with increased disparity’
problem...
1.   Over‐investment in regular education, but under‐investment 
in LLL and post‐secondary VET 
Expansion of higher educat...
Ratio of participation in lifelong learning(Adults enrolled in education)
1.   Over‐investment in regular education, but u...
Employment/population ratios of youth population (15-24)
■ Key Trends and Current Situations
Year Korea Japan USA Canada U...
2.  Retirement of the baby boom cohort 
(born during 1955‐1963 in Korea)
Source: Statistics Korea
Below 4%: young populati...
□ OECD & ADB: addressed the VET of Korea, 
but focused on HS level of VET
‐ OECD (2009), Learning for Jobs, OECD (2009) Te...
high educational attainment
Strengths
leading performance in PISA
sustained strong policy initiatives for VET
32% of terti...
•“Green Growth” initiative
• New governance: M. of Labor and employment 
• Policies about the VET and skills 
‐ Vocational...
Higher Education
(University)
Skills demand
(Skill needs in workplace and labor market)
Skills Signal
(Qualification, etc....
Policy direction
Overall
Where does Korea stand in the global scene? 
‐ new issues vs. old issues 
Over‐investment in the ...
Policy Suggestions
Findings
• Substantial institution gaps and information gaps 
(maybe lack of public awareness as well)
...
Annex 1
Three working papers by KRIVET
15
Higher
Education
(University)
Skills demand
(Skill needs in workplace and labor market)
Skills Signal
(Qualification, etc....
Higher
Education
(University)
VET
(School & Training)
Lifelong Learning
(Adult learning & Work)
Skills Formation at post‐s...
Higher
Education
(University)
Skills Formation at post‐secondary Level
Working paper 2
* The research scope:  HRST in the ...
Skills demand
(Skill needs in workplace and labor market)
Skills Signal
(Qualification, etc.)
Information Market
Skills An...
Post secondary vet in korea; what is new and unique-cheon-sik woo, global hr forum 2010.pdf, seoul, korea
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Post secondary vet in korea; what is new and unique-cheon-sik woo, global hr forum 2010.pdf, seoul, korea

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This note sketches the background, objective, key research questions and interim findings of Post-Secondary VET(vocational education and training) in Korea, a study under way in the context of the OECD-KRIVET collaborative project Skills beyond Schools. Starting with critical stock taking of existing studies and Korea’s latest policy responses, the study seeks to re-illuminates the problems and prospects of Korea’s post-secondary VET issues from a global and dynamic perspective; highlights “new” and “unique” dimensions of the Korea’s situation, distinctive from Korea’s own past and from the rest of the world; and suggests areas and directions of Korea’s “strategic” choice and policy innovations in need
Making up skills through education and training as well as circulating skills in the labour market are becoming important for policymakers to support growth and sustainable development across the OECD countries. In Korea, policymakers have looked beyond secondary school to tertiary education to provide the skills needed in many of the fastest growing technical and professional jobs after the economic crisis in 1998. Also, being recently faced with the problem of skills gap or skills mismatch in the labour market caused from the expansion of higher education and the aging society, Korea began to recognise the importance of post-secondary VET that pays an important role in re-skilling and up-skilling adult.
The key areas of this study are twofold: skills formation and skills circulation. Inter-related to the demand and supply of skills, these areas depend upon each other for the function of skills transaction or skills signal in the labour market. This study seeks to analyze both skills formation in post-secondary VET and skill needs in the labour market in one framework. This paper specifically emphasizes the linkage between post-secondary VET and the labour market. The contents of this project deal with four parts: challenges and labour market needs, skills formation, skills signal system, and policy issues.
Big challenges emerge from both supply and demand sides for skills in the labour market. The trends of big challenges are related to three issues: requirement of higher-level employment skill, expansion of higher education cum high youth unemployment, and the reduction of population. These issues are the most significant trends that have affected skills development system.
Skills formation is a supply side for skills by education and training. By the definition of OECD, tertiary education (except academic education), vocational training and workplace training, lifelong learning, and etc. are contained in the scope of postsecondary VET. In Korea, skills formation in post-secondary VET level can divide with both initial VET for youth and continuous VET for adult.
The environment around skills formation is very complex. Skills formation is also affected by variable conditions of socio-economic environment – community development, traditional culture, local or region development, and etc. In Korea, social education and training to facilitate local community and culture community come on stage with the impetus of socio-economic development. The new figure of this education and training will be put into basis to create new jobs for the future of Korea.
Next, skills signal play a role to facilitate the linkage between education/training market and the labour market. In Korea, two types of signal system exist. One is the signal that occurs from the labour market, as represented by SHRDC (sector human resource development council) and NCS (national competency standards). The other is the signal created by the post secondary VET such as qualification, degree, and credit recognition, which are used by employers to identify the competencies and skills. Skill signals along the grounds of good information play a role in lowering transaction costs of skills, strengthening the linkage between VET and the la

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Transcript of "Post secondary vet in korea; what is new and unique-cheon-sik woo, global hr forum 2010.pdf, seoul, korea"

  1. 1. Post-secondary VET in KOREA What is new and unique? PostPost--secondary VET in KOREAsecondary VET in KOREA What is new and unique?What is new and unique? 27 October 201027 October 2010 Dr. Cheonsik WooDr. Cheonsik Woo Senior Analyst, OECD  secondant from KDI
  2. 2. 4 AA3 2 Background/context of the Korean Study Annex 1: Related Work 1 Purposes of the KRIVET‐OECD project What is New & Unique? 
  3. 3. To carry out a stock‐take and mapping of the post‐secondary sector  within and across OECD countries To provide a cross‐sectional analysis of the countries’ overall profiles and evolutionary paths of their policies and institutions To identify critical issues on Skill Strategy by providing a Korea case        and propose integrative solutions for both supply and demand sides To explore future skill strategy directions through comparing and  analyzing the key policy questions and issues the countries can focus on • Launched in July 2010 as a OECD ‐KRIVET joint initiative ‐ Foundation work to scope and re‐illuminate the Post‐secondary VET   issues in light of new socio‐economic conditions today 1. Purposes of the KRIVET‐OECD project 3
  4. 4. 1. Quick recovery from the recent global recession ☞ But face structural ‘lowered growth with increased disparity’ problem 2. New phase of global competition ☞ ‘Low‐level skills’ =>  ‘ high‐level, creative skills’ in business ☞ The skills gap in SMEs and micro‐businesses in particular Big challenges in both supply and demand sides for skills • Wide – spread skills gap • Mismatch ■ Key Trends and Current Situations 4 Human Resource as a critical impetus for growth and welfare 2. Background and Context of the Korean Study 1
  5. 5. 1.   Over‐investment in regular education, but under‐investment  in LLL and post‐secondary VET  Expansion of higher education and high youth unemployment Ratio of Higher Education Attendance (enrolled students/High school graduates) ’70 ’80 ’90 ’00 08 5.4% 27.2% 33.2% 83.8% 65.4% EliteElite MassMass UniversalUniversal Source: Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS, 2010) 2 5 ■ Key Trends and Current Situations 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study
  6. 6. Ratio of participation in lifelong learning(Adults enrolled in education) 1.   Over‐investment in regular education, but under‐investment  in LLL and post‐secondary VET  Expansion of higher education and high youth unemployment2 ■ Key Trends and Current Situations 6 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study
  7. 7. Employment/population ratios of youth population (15-24) ■ Key Trends and Current Situations Year Korea Japan USA Canada UK 2009 22.9 39.9 46.9 55.3 52.1 1995 34.6 44.7 58.3 59.6 59 7 Source: OECD Employment Outlook, 2010 2. Structural unemployment (and under‐) in labor market  Expansion of higher education and high youth unemployment2 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study
  8. 8. 2.  Retirement of the baby boom cohort  (born during 1955‐1963 in Korea) Source: Statistics Korea Below 4%: young population, Above 7%: aging population, above 14%: aged population, above 20%: super-aged population Old people (above 65)/ population ratio Total Fertility Rate Source: Statistics Korea 1.   School age cohorts dwindle (over‐supply of regular education) Low birth rates and aging society3 ■ Key Trends and Current Situations 8 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study
  9. 9. □ OECD & ADB: addressed the VET of Korea,  but focused on HS level of VET ‐ OECD (2009), Learning for Jobs, OECD (2009) Tertiary  Education for the Knowledge society (Vol. I and II) ‐ ADB (2007), Workforce Development in Korea □ KRIVET: studies limited to some specific areas  (vocational education, training, labor markets, etc.) ‐ A notable exception: comprehensive study on LLL (2006)  involving a dozen of leading Korean experts   ☞ Limited in scope(VET vs regular education vs LLL):  in perspective (local vs. global; VET vs macro) 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study ■ Existing Studies/Work 9
  10. 10. high educational attainment Strengths leading performance in PISA sustained strong policy initiatives for VET 32% of tertiary students in Jr. & polytechnic colleges VET - de facto academic: curriculum & teachers Challenges limited engagement of business; if some, SR interested Inadequate policy coordination: horizontal and vertical Engage business – incentives/ awakening Recommendations Empower/upgrade teachers Qualifications/competence standards 10
  11. 11. •“Green Growth” initiative • New governance: M. of Labor and employment  • Policies about the VET and skills  ‐ Vocational High School reform  ‐ Lifelong Learning Accounts ‐ NCS (national competency standards) ☞ But  • Lack an integrated, “whole‐of‐the government’ approach  • Lack an objective/convincing analysis of where Korea  stands in the global scene and how to fix the problems => not ready enough for outstanding/emerging issues ■ Policy Responses 11 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study
  12. 12. Higher Education (University) Skills demand (Skill needs in workplace and labor market) Skills Signal (Qualification, etc.) Information Market Skills Analysis [Sector(industry)/  occupation/Macro Skills  Strategy VET (School & Training) Lifelong Learning (Adult learning & Work) Skills Formation at post‐secondary Level ☞ Basically aims ‘broad scoping’ & ‘issue‐raising’ with some details, all   needed for a subsequent, full‐scaled work   ■ Research Framework 3. What is new and unique?  12
  13. 13. Policy direction Overall Where does Korea stand in the global scene?  ‐ new issues vs. old issues  Over‐investment in the higher education & under‐investment in VET/LLL? Exactly what skills are deficient in Korea? Institutional gaps? Information failure? Specific How to improve VET system to help the vulnerable groups  (young unemployed; seniors; females; temporary workers etc.)  Quality assurance mechanisms relevant for post‐secondary VET & LLL? How do the skills delivery mechanisms work in the labor market?  Skills strategy to facilitate the development of social capital? How to link to general social services E&T programs?  How to design & implement successful changes (MRH dimension) ‐ incrementalism vs. reforms; old vs. new policies/programs ‐ governance issue: central vs. regional vs. local governments (vertical);  and across policy areas (horizontal)   ■ Key research questions will include: 4.  Findings Preview of the Korea study 13
  14. 14. Policy Suggestions Findings • Substantial institution gaps and information gaps  (maybe lack of public awareness as well) • Room to improve on policy scheme /strategy ‐ consistency beyond political cycles ‐ anchoring: highest level reform mandate, public consultation.  • Re‐orient higher education system (enhance the interface of academic and  vocational education; strengthen the community college function) • Consolidate quality assurance and skills information system • Rebuild funding system (e.g. reform of employment insurance)  • Maximum leverage on private sector suppliers (huge potential)  • Associate with related social services programs (growing sector) • Developing  social partnership: employer, labor unions, community  (particularly at local level; also cultural), etc.  ■ Tentative main findings and policy suggestions  4. Preview of the Korea study 14
  15. 15. Annex 1 Three working papers by KRIVET 15
  16. 16. Higher Education (University) Skills demand (Skill needs in workplace and labor market) Skills Signal (Qualification, etc.) Information Market Skills Analysis [Sector(industry)/ occupation/Macro Skills Strategy VET (School & Training) Lifelong Learning (Adult learning & Work) Skills Formation at post‐secondary Level ☞ Basically aims ‘broad scoping’ & ‘issue‐raising’ with some details, all   needed for a subsequent, full‐scaled work   ■ Research Framework of the KRIVET study 16 16
  17. 17. Higher Education (University) VET (School & Training) Lifelong Learning (Adult learning & Work) Skills Formation at post‐secondary Level Working paper 1 * The research Scope: Tertiary (and Post‐secondary VET) and  Lifelong learning * Key contents: Strategic use of two type of skill formation  (occupational skill and personal skill) for short and long‐ term outcomes in tertiary education and LLE
  18. 18. Higher Education (University) Skills Formation at post‐secondary Level Working paper 2 * The research scope:  HRST in the science and technology fields of Higher education * Key contents: Optional portfolio of  IV (innovative learning)  and VET, New combination of IL and VET 
  19. 19. Skills demand (Skill needs in workplace and labor market) Skills Signal (Qualification, etc.) Information Market Skills Analysis [Sector(industry)/ occupation/Macro Skills Strategy Working paper 3 * The  research scope: Skill information, Qualification, Multi‐ level Partnership * Key contents: flexible and secure labor markets, education  customized to meet industry needs, skills‐friendly lifelong  learn‐fare system 

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