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Post secondary vet in korea; what is new and unique-cheon-sik woo, global hr forum 2010.pdf, seoul, korea

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This note sketches the background, objective, key research questions and interim findings of Post-Secondary VET(vocational education and training) in Korea, a study under way in the context of the ...

This note sketches the background, objective, key research questions and interim findings of Post-Secondary VET(vocational education and training) in Korea, a study under way in the context of the OECD-KRIVET collaborative project Skills beyond Schools. Starting with critical stock taking of existing studies and Korea’s latest policy responses, the study seeks to re-illuminates the problems and prospects of Korea’s post-secondary VET issues from a global and dynamic perspective; highlights “new” and “unique” dimensions of the Korea’s situation, distinctive from Korea’s own past and from the rest of the world; and suggests areas and directions of Korea’s “strategic” choice and policy innovations in need
Making up skills through education and training as well as circulating skills in the labour market are becoming important for policymakers to support growth and sustainable development across the OECD countries. In Korea, policymakers have looked beyond secondary school to tertiary education to provide the skills needed in many of the fastest growing technical and professional jobs after the economic crisis in 1998. Also, being recently faced with the problem of skills gap or skills mismatch in the labour market caused from the expansion of higher education and the aging society, Korea began to recognise the importance of post-secondary VET that pays an important role in re-skilling and up-skilling adult.
The key areas of this study are twofold: skills formation and skills circulation. Inter-related to the demand and supply of skills, these areas depend upon each other for the function of skills transaction or skills signal in the labour market. This study seeks to analyze both skills formation in post-secondary VET and skill needs in the labour market in one framework. This paper specifically emphasizes the linkage between post-secondary VET and the labour market. The contents of this project deal with four parts: challenges and labour market needs, skills formation, skills signal system, and policy issues.
Big challenges emerge from both supply and demand sides for skills in the labour market. The trends of big challenges are related to three issues: requirement of higher-level employment skill, expansion of higher education cum high youth unemployment, and the reduction of population. These issues are the most significant trends that have affected skills development system.
Skills formation is a supply side for skills by education and training. By the definition of OECD, tertiary education (except academic education), vocational training and workplace training, lifelong learning, and etc. are contained in the scope of postsecondary VET. In Korea, skills formation in post-secondary VET level can divide with both initial VET for youth and continuous VET for adult.
The environment around skills formation is very complex. Skills formation is also affected by variable conditions of socio-economic environment – community development, traditional culture, local or region development, and etc. In Korea, social education and training to facilitate local community and culture community come on stage with the impetus of socio-economic development. The new figure of this education and training will be put into basis to create new jobs for the future of Korea.
Next, skills signal play a role to facilitate the linkage between education/training market and the labour market. In Korea, two types of signal system exist. One is the signal that occurs from the labour market, as represented by SHRDC (sector human resource development council) and NCS (national competency standards). The other is the signal created by the post secondary VET such as qualification, degree, and credit recognition, which are used by employers to identify the competencies and skills. Skill signals along the grounds of good information play a role in lowering transaction costs of skills, strengthening the linkage between VET and the la

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    Post secondary vet in korea; what is new and unique-cheon-sik woo, global hr forum 2010.pdf, seoul, korea Post secondary vet in korea; what is new and unique-cheon-sik woo, global hr forum 2010.pdf, seoul, korea Presentation Transcript

    • Post-secondary VET in KOREA Post-secondary What is new and unique? 27 October 2010 Dr. Cheonsik Woo Senior Analyst, OECD  secondant from KDI
    • 1 Purposes of the KRIVET‐OECD project 2 Background/context of the Korean Study 3 What is New & Unique?  A 4 Annex 1: Related Work
    • 1. Purposes of the KRIVET‐OECD project • Launched in July 2010 as a OECD ‐KRIVET joint initiative ‐ Foundation work to scope and re‐illuminate the Post‐secondary VET   issues in light of new socio‐economic conditions today To carry out a stock‐take and mapping of the post‐secondary sector  within and across OECD countries To provide a cross‐sectional analysis of the countries’ overall profiles and evolutionary paths of their policies and institutions To identify critical issues on Skill Strategy by providing a Korea case        and propose integrative solutions for both supply and demand sides To explore future skill strategy directions through comparing and  analyzing the key policy questions and issues the countries can focus on 3
    • 2. Background and Context of the Korean Study ■ Key Trends and Current Situations Big challenges in both supply and demand sides for skills • Wide – spread skills gap • Mismatch Human Resource as a critical impetus for growth and 1 welfare 1. Quick recovery from the recent global recession ☞ But face structural ‘lowered growth with increased disparity’ problem 2. New phase of global competition ☞ ‘Low‐level skills’ =>  ‘ high‐level, creative skills’ in business ☞ The skills gap in SMEs and micro‐businesses in particular 4
    • 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study ■ Key Trends and Current Situations Expansion of higher education and high youth 2 unemployment 1.   Over‐investment in regular education, but under‐investment  in LLL and post‐secondary VET  Ratio of Higher Education Attendance (enrolled students/High school graduates) 83.8% 65.4% 33.2% 27.2% 5.4% ’70 ’80 ’90 ’00 08 Elite Mass Universal Source: Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS, 2010) 5
    • 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study ■ Key Trends and Current Situations Expansion of higher education and high youth 2 unemployment 1.   Over‐investment in regular education, but under‐investment  in LLL and post‐secondary VET  Ratio of participation in lifelong learning(Adults enrolled in education) 6
    • 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study ■ Key Trends and Current Situations Expansion of higher education and high youth 2 unemployment 2. Structural unemployment (and under‐) in labor market  Employment/population ratios of youth population (15-24) Year Korea Japan USA Canada UK 2009 22.9 39.9 46.9 55.3 52.1 1995 34.6 44.7 58.3 59.6 59 Source: OECD Employment Outlook, 2010 7
    • 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study ■ Key Trends and Current Situations 3 Low birth rates and aging society 1.   School age cohorts dwindle (over‐supply of regular education) Total Fertility Rate Source: Statistics Korea 2.  Retirement of the baby boom cohort  (born during 1955‐1963 in Korea) Old people (above 65)/ population ratio Below 4%: young population, Above 7%: aging population, above 14%: aged population, above 20%: super-aged population 8 Source: Statistics Korea
    • 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study ■ Existing Studies/Work □ OECD & ADB: addressed the VET of Korea,  but focused on HS level of VET ‐ OECD (2009), Learning for Jobs, OECD (2009) Tertiary  Education for the Knowledge society (Vol. I and II) ‐ ADB (2007), Workforce Development in Korea □ KRIVET: studies limited to some specific areas  (vocational education, training, labor markets, etc.) ‐ A notable exception: comprehensive study on LLL (2006)  involving a dozen of leading Korean experts   ☞ Limited in scope(VET vs regular education vs LLL):  in perspective (local vs. global; VET vs macro) 9
    • Strengths high educational attainment 32% of tertiary students in Jr. & polytechnic colleges leading performance in PISA sustained strong policy initiatives for VET Challenges VET - de facto academic: curriculum & teachers limited engagement of business; if some, SR interested Inadequate policy coordination: horizontal and vertical Recommendations Engage business – incentives/ awakening Empower/upgrade teachers 10 Qualifications/competence standards
    • 2. Background and Context of the Korea Study ■ Policy Responses •“Green Growth” initiative • New governance: M. of Labor and employment  • Policies about the VET and skills  ‐ Vocational High School reform  ‐ Lifelong Learning Accounts ‐ NCS (national competency standards) ☞ But  • Lack an integrated, “whole‐of‐the government’ approach  • Lack an objective/convincing analysis of where Korea  stands in the global scene and how to fix the problems => not ready enough for outstanding/emerging issues 11
    • 3. What is new and unique?  ■ Research Framework Skills Formation at post‐secondary Level Higher Education VET Lifelong Learning (University) (School & Training) (Adult learning & Work) Skills Analysis Skills  Skills Signal [Sector(industry)/  (Qualification, etc.) occupation/Macro Strategy Information Market Skills demand (Skill needs in workplace and labor market) ☞ Basically aims ‘broad scoping’ & ‘issue‐raising’ with some details, all   needed for a subsequent, full‐scaled work   12
    • 4.  Findings Preview of the Korea study ■ Key research questions will include: Overall Where does Korea stand in the global scene?  ‐ new issues vs. old issues  Over‐investment in the higher education & under‐investment in VET/LLL? Exactly what skills are deficient in Korea? Institutional gaps? Information failure? Specific How to improve VET system to help the vulnerable groups  (young unemployed; seniors; females; temporary workers etc.)  Quality assurance mechanisms relevant for post‐secondary VET & LLL? How do the skills delivery mechanisms work in the labor market?  Skills strategy to facilitate the development of social capital? How to link to general social services E&T programs?  Policy direction How to design & implement successful changes (MRH dimension) ‐ incrementalism vs. reforms; old vs. new policies/programs ‐ governance issue: central vs. regional vs. local governments (vertical);  13 and across policy areas (horizontal)  
    • 4. Preview of the Korea study ■ Tentative main findings and policy suggestions  Findings • Substantial institution gaps and information gaps  (maybe lack of public awareness as well) • Room to improve on policy scheme /strategy ‐ consistency beyond political cycles ‐ anchoring: highest level reform mandate, public consultation.  Policy Suggestions • Re‐orient higher education system (enhance the interface of academic and  vocational education; strengthen the community college function) • Consolidate quality assurance and skills information system • Rebuild funding system (e.g. reform of employment insurance)  • Maximum leverage on private sector suppliers (huge potential)  • Associate with related social services programs (growing sector) • Developing  social partnership: employer, labor unions, community  (particularly at local level; also cultural), etc.  14
    • Annex 1 Three working papers by KRIVET 15
    • ■ Research Framework of the KRIVET study Skills Formation at post‐secondary Level Higher VET Lifelong Learning Education (School & Training) (Adult learning & Work) (University) Skills Analysis Skills Skills Signal [Sector(industry)/ (Qualification, etc.) occupation/Macro Strategy Information Market Skills demand (Skill needs in workplace and labor market) ☞ Basically aims ‘broad scoping’ & ‘issue‐raising’ with some details, all   needed for a subsequent, full‐scaled work   16 16
    • Working paper 1 Skills Formation at post‐secondary Level Higher VET Lifelong Learning Education (School & Training)(Adult learning & Work) (University) * The research Scope: Tertiary (and Post‐secondary VET) and  Lifelong learning * Key contents: Strategic use of two type of skill formation  (occupational skill and personal skill) for short and long‐ term outcomes in tertiary education and LLE
    • Working paper 2 Skills Formation at post‐secondary Level Higher Education (University) * The research scope:  HRST in the science and technology fields of Higher education * Key contents: Optional portfolio of  IV (innovative learning)  and VET, New combination of IL and VET 
    • Working paper 3 * The  research scope: Skill information, Qualification, Multi‐ level Partnership * Key contents: flexible and secure labor markets, education  customized to meet industry needs, skills‐friendly lifelong  learn‐fare system  Skills Analysis Skills Skills Signal [Sector(industry)/ (Qualification, etc.) occupation/Macro Strategy Information Market Skills demand (Skill needs in workplace and labor market)