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Global hr forum2008-victoria marsick-developing a corporate culture of creativity
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Developing a corporate culture of creativity

Developing a corporate culture of creativity

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Global hr forum2008-victoria marsick-developing a corporate culture of creativity Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Developing a Corporate Culture of Creativity & Innovation Victoria J. Marsick, Professor Columbia University Teachers College J.M. Huber Institute for Learning in Organizations © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 1
  • 2. “Big Ideas” . . . [ Creativity & innovation are NOT THE SAME ¡ Creativity is individual ¡ Innovation requires group & organizational capabilities © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 2
  • 3. . . . “Big Ideas” [ Knowing what must change does not mean a company knows how to change [ Learning for innovation involves getting & using new ideas, often through cycles of experimentation [ Action Learning can “catalyze” creativity & innovation — for key talent & how they use project-based learning to generate new ideas and begin to change the organization © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 3
  • 4. Definitions [ Creativity — “production of novel, appropriate ideas” (Amabile et al.) ¡ Personality, e.g., aesthetic sensitivity, intuition, tolerance of ambiguity ¡ Domain expertise, creative thinking skills, intrinsic motivation [ Innovation — group & organizational capabilities needed to bring a new idea to market © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 4
  • 5. Developing the Right Culture [ Corporate culture: “set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practices that characterizes an institution or organization” ( ) ¡ Influencedby national and social culture of customers and employees ¡ Increasingly global and diverse © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 5
  • 6. Strategic Leverage through Learning© [ Framework for culture change work [ Starts with profile of capabilities, strengths and weaknesses in culture [ Examine gaps that guide choices about strategies and interventions ¡ Setvision of new culture ¡ Experimentation and change ¡ Customized metrics and measures to track change and make course corrections © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 6
  • 7. Strategic Leverage through Learning© [ Outcomes linked to innovation goals — learning, innovation, optimal alignment, commitment, knowledge & expertise creation [ Transformational supports & barriers — vision/mission, strategy, leadership, culture [ Transactional supports & barriers — management practices, structure, systems, work climate © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 7
  • 8. Creativity/Innovation Culture: Outcomes Innovation - Abundance of new ideas . . . Even when they conflict! - “Creative abrasion” & diversity Learning - Continuous improvement - Experimentation Knowledge/ - Talent with domain expertise, creative thinking skills, Expertise intrinsic motivation Optimum -Coordination and linkages without “segmentalizing” or Alignment too much control . . . Inside and outside the company - Open sharing of ideas across boundaries Commitment - Commitment to organization built around creativity, growth, entrepreneurship © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 8
  • 9. Creativity / Innovation Culture: Transformational Supports & Barriers Mission/ - Alert to changes affecting products, technology, customer preferences innovation Vision Strategy - Responsiveness to environment - Clear enough to guide choices Leadership - Transformational vs. transactional - Support questions, diversity, change - Model creativity & innovation Culture - Support for risk taking, idea generation - Collaboration, rewards, recognition - Freedom, autonomy © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 9
  • 10. Creativity / Innovation Culture: Transactional Supports & Barriers Management - Supervisory encouragement — Practices clear team goals, open interaction innovation Structure - Flexible, decentralized, shared decision making & authority Systems - Flow & frequency of communication - Appropriate learning systems - Work group & org. processes Work - Socio-emotional support Climate - Work group encouragement - Availability of right resources and technology © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 10
  • 11. Strategic Leverage through Learning© Transactional Management Leverage Points Practices Alignment Innovation Learning Structure Climate Knowledge / Expertise Creation Systems Commitment © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 11
  • 12. Strategic Leverage through Learning© Transformational Leverage Points Management Practices Mission/Vision Alignment Strategy Innovation Leadership Learning Structure Culture Climate Knowledge / Expertise Creation Systems Commitment © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 12
  • 13. Strategic Leverage through Learning© Transfor- mational Alignment Leverage Innovation Points Learning Knowledge / Expertise Creation Transactional Commitment Leverage Points © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 13
  • 14. Learning for Innovation [ Knowing “what” ≠ knowing “how” [ Iterative cycles of trial & error and experimentation over time [ Learning ≠education & training ¡ Integrated with work ¡ Often informal ¡ Directed as much at sense making and meaning making as knowledge and skill development ¡ Often firm specific © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 14
  • 15. Innovative Companies & Strategic Learning [ Get & use new ideas ¡ Strategic visioning ¡ Seeking ideas from customers ¡ Pursue sources of business intelligence ¡ Infrastructure for idea generation © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 15
  • 16. Talent Management [ Identify high potentials early [ Carefully sequenced experiences ¡ Selfawareness ¡ Job assignments ¡ Benchmark against leadership profiles ¡ Developmental planning ¡ On-the-job learning in real business time ¡ Action learning © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 16
  • 17. Action Learning for Innovation [ Learning while working on actual challenge with peer support ¡ Individual stretch goal or innovation team project ¡ Champions & sponsors in organization ¡ Learning coach [ Individual talent development that can also develop innovation in groups and organization, but does not always do so [ Examples: PepsiCo, Cisco © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 17
  • 18. Design of Action Learning to Support Creativity & Innovation [ When using AL to catalyze innovation in mature organization, need to develop (Jeff Kuhn) ¡ Sensemaking ¡ Strategic thinking ¡ Critical thinking ¡ Divergent thinking ¡ Conceptual clarity ¡ Malleable (flexible) learning orientation © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 18
  • 19. Design of Action Learning to Support Creativity & Innovation [ Projects invite leaders to scan external environment & affect on strategy — high risk, high gain growth ventures with customers [ Modeling — executive sponsors, top leaders, facilitators, coaches — of new capabilities [ Participants selected with potential for creativity, divergent thinking, innovation as cohort © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 19
  • 20. Design of Action Learning to Support Creativity & Innovation [ Learning that supports deep questioning, challenging mindsets, crossing boundaries [ Projects develop organization capacity [ Experimentation in teams & in organization [ Use what learned in leading others [ Funding of qualified project solutions © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 20
  • 21. Using Action Learning Projects for Innovation PROJECT WORK Transfor- Alignment Innovation mational Learning Leverage Knowledge / Points Expertise Creation Transactional Commitment Leverage Points © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 21
  • 22. Action Learning for Innovation [ Push against culture: innovation as a precondition for innovation [ “Liberating structure” to “catalyze” change © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 22
  • 23. Action Learning for Innovation [ Challenge and support / “zone of proximal development” ¡ Push for “creative abrasion” ¡ Risk of “political suicide” [ Breakthrough innovation guidelines © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 23
  • 24. Breakthrough Innovation Guidelines: Hamel [ Unreasonable [ Non-traditional funding paths expectations [ Internal talent opportunity [ Elastic business markets that reward new definition thinking [ Allegiance to inspiring cause that goes [ Low-risk experimentation beyond growth or [ Flexible structure built on profits small revolutionary cells [ Attention to new voices [ Compensation based on [ Dynamic, internal entrepreneurship market for ideas © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 24
  • 25. AL Designed for Innovation: Critical Reflection Model Critical Reflection + Experiential, Scientific High Tacit Noise Experiential + Scientific, Tacit Scientific + Tacit Tacit Low Noise © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 25
  • 26. Selected Bibliography Amabile, T.M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity, Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 1154-1185 Egan, T.M. (2005). Factors influencing individual creativity in the workplace: An examination of quantitative empirical research. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(2), 160-181. Gephart, M. & Marsick, V. J. (2002b). Strategic organizational learning: How innovative companies use learning to address business challenges. New York: Columbia University, Teachers College, J.M. Huber Institute for Learning in Organizations. Hamel, G. (2000). Leading the revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Kanter, R.M. (1983). The change masters: Innovation for productivity in the American corporation. New York: Simon & Schuster. Kenny, B., & Reedy, E. (2006). The impact of organizational culture factors on innovation levels in SMEs: An empirical investigation, Irish Journal of Management, 27(2), 119-142. © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 26
  • 27. Selected Bibliography Kuhn, J., & Marsick, V.J. (2005). Action learning for strategic innovation in mature organizations: key cognitive, design, and contextual considerations, Action learning: Research and Practice, 2(1), 27-48. Leonard, D. (1998). Wellsprings of knowledge: Building and sustaining the sources of innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. McLean, L.D. (2005). Organizational culture’s influence on creativity and innovation: A review of the literature and implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(2), 226-246. O’Neil, J. & Marsick, V.J. (2007). Understanding action learning. New York: AMACOM. Tesluk, P.E., Faar, J.L., & Klein, S.R. (1997). Influences of organizational culture and climate on individual creativity, The Journal of Creative Behavior, 31(1), 21-24. Van de Ven, A.H., Angle, H.L., & Poole, M.S. (Eds.) (1989). Research on the management of innovation. New York: Harper & Row. © 2008 Victoria J. Marsick. All rights reserved. Slide 27