Global hr forum2008-kimberly johnston-matching talent with need-the u.s

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  • 1. Matching Talent with Need: The U.S. Higher Education Admission Example Kimberly Johnston NACAC Past-President Senior Associate Director of Admission University of Maine
  • 2. Introduction Varied Higher Education Options in the U.S. • 4,314 degree-granting universities • 2,629 four-year universities • 1,685 two-year universities • Other institutions, such as for-profit colleges, fill market demand for certificates and licenses
  • 3. Admission Model Decentralized System of Admission Decisions and Postsecondary Advising • Colleges individually establish admission requirements • College admission counseling professionals assist students and families with post- secondary advising and search • High school-based counselors, independent counselors and college admission officers • Average student-to-counselor ratio in high schools is 311:1
  • 4. Admission Model Factors in Admission Decisions • Strength of high school curriculum • Grades in college preparatory classes • Standardized test scores • Overall grade point average • Application essay • Class rank • Demonstrated interest in institution • Teacher or counselor recommendations • Student background information
  • 5. course units required and recommended by colleges: 2007 (continued) Admission Model Required and Recommended Credits for University Entrance Total academic Foreign units History English language Req. Rec. Req. Rec. Req. Rec. Req. Rec. Total 16.0 18.1 1.6 2.2 3.9 4.0 2.1 2.4 Academic Social Math elective studies Science Req. Rec. Req. Rec. Req. Rec. Req. Rec. Total 2.9 3.4 3.3 3.3 2.3 2.7 2.4 3.0
  • 6. Admission Model The College Choice Process • Development of student aspirations begins early • Student predisposition stage: student begins to focus occupational and educational aspirations • Student engagement in relevant coursework for college preparations (approximately 8th grade) • College planning and research: Students search for college presenting the right “fit” 9th-11th grade • College application process begins 12th grade
  • 7. Admission Model University Interests in Recruiting In addition to academic achievement, colleges seek a variety of attributes in student body: • Geographic diversity • Socio-economic diversity • Racial/ethnic diversity • Gender balance • Age • First-generation college students • International students • Special talents and academic interests
  • 8. Admission Model University Selectivity • Only 17 percent of four-year universities accept fewer than 50 percent of applicants • Nearly 40 percent of four-year universities accept more than 75 percent of applicants • Average acceptance rate for four-year universities is 68 percent
  • 9. Admission Model Evolution of Differing Admission Models No “one-size-fits all” approach for admission at U.S. universities: • Some universities evolved as highly selective colleges • Other universities evolved to serve public interest, are either nearly-open or entirely open admission • Post-World War II era in the U.S. contained dramatic growth in post-secondary enrollment in all types of institution
  • 10. SOURCE: NACAC Admission Trends Survey, 2007. Admission Model Factors Considered Key to Post-Secondary Success Considerable Moderate Limited No Factor importance importance importance importance Grades in college prep courses 79.9% 14.4% 2.9% 2.7% Strength oftest scores (SAT, Admission curriculum 63.8 23.9 8.0 4.3 ACT) 58.5 30.9 8.0 2.7 Grades in all courses 51.6 40.1 6.1 2.1 Essay or writing sample 25.8 37.9 19.9 16.4 Class rank 23.4 43.8 23.4 9.4 Student’s demonstrated interest 22.0 30.3 23.9 23.9 Counselor recommendation 21.1 40.4 28.1 10.4 Teacher recommendation 20.8 40.0 28.6 10.5 Interview 10.8 23.7 35.8 29.8 Subject test scores (AP, IB) 6.8 32.2 34.9 26.2 Extracurricular activities 6.5 45.7 32.8 15.1 SAT II scores 6.2 13.8 28.2 51.8 State graduation exam scores 4.4 13.7 28.7 53.3 Work 1.9 24.2 46.8 27.2
  • 11. Organization of Admission Office Structure of Admission Offices • Young, entry-level staff, often recent graduates of the institution, are generally called admission officers or counselors • Staff are organized geographically, with each member responsible for a group of states or a certain region. • More experienced staff are called associate directors of admission • Senior staff can be the dean, director, or vice president of admission or enrollment management
  • 12. Organization of Admission Office Budget and Staff Budget • Publications and mailings for prospective and admitted students • Staff travel for recruitment and yield-related purposes • Application printing and processing • Web site maintenance and upgrades
  • 13. Organization of Admission Office Budget and Staff Staff • Average officer responsible for reading 393 applications • Staff generally read and rate applications, then meet as a committee to make final admission decisions • Staff at public schools read nearly three times as many applications as their private school counterparts • More selective institutions also have higher application volumes • Salaries vary widely based on the position held and institutional budgets
  • 14. Organization of Admission Office Cost to Recruit Students In 2006, an average admission office spent… • $484 in recruitment and office costs for each student who applied • $704 for each admitted student • $1,904 for each enrolled students …not including staff salaries and benefits
  • 15. Organization of Admission Office Cost to Recruit Students • Private colleges spent more than twice as much than public colleges to recruit applicants, admitted students and enrolled students • Costs to recruit were nearly four times higher at the smallest institutions compared to the largest • More selective colleges spent less to recruit applicants, but spent about the same as less-selective colleges on admitted and enrolled students. • Institutions with lower yield rates spent more on their enrolled students than those with higher yield rates.
  • 16. Organization of Admission Office Qualifications of Admission Professionals Education • Entry-level staff are usually required to have a Bachelor’s degree • Senior staff are often required to have advanced or terminal degrees • Experience in marketing or business is increasingly prized over student affairs or higher education administration
  • 17. Limitations of Admission Model • Standardized tests may not adequately reflect high school achievement and knowledge of subject matter • Non-cognitive assessments may be considered as admission factors in the future • Regardless of tools used by admission offices, “fit” between student and institutional interests is paramount in decision to admit students to higher education
  • 18. About NACAC About NACAC • Founded in 1937 by a group of university professionals and school counselors to create a code of ethics for the college admission and counseling profession. • Members include secondary school counselors, college and university admission and financial aid professionals and related individuals • More than 10,600 members nationwide and in 25 foreign countries
  • 19. About NACAC Vision Statement To be the leader in shaping the counseling, admission and enrollment processes that impact the formulation and realization of students’ postsecondary educational goals. With changing technological, global and demographic trends, NACAC will institute policies and initiate programs and services that support the development of all professionals involved in this continuum.
  • 20. About NACAC Mission Statement The National Association for College Admission Counseling will support and advance the work of counseling and enrollment professionals as they help all students realize their full educational potential, with particular emphasis on the transition to postsecondary education. NACAC is committed to promoting high professional standards that foster ethical and social responsibility.
  • 21. About NACAC Statement of Principles of Good Practice • Ethics in college admission is the cornerstone of NACAC’s existence. • The association’s code of ethics is known today as the Statement of Principles of Good Practice (SPGP). • The document is continually revised as the admission process becomes more complex and new issues arise. • NACAC is the only association protecting students’ rights in the transition to postsecondary education. • The SPGP includes both mandatory and recommended practices, along with interpretations of such practices.
  • 22. Matching Talent with Need: The U.S. Higher Education Admission Example Kimberly Johnston NACAC Past-President Senior Associate Director of Admission University of Maine