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Global hr forum2008-ensuring universal basic education-the india experience
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Global hr forum2008-ensuring universal basic education-the india experience



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  • 1. Ensuring Universal Basic Education: The India Experience Dr. Venita Kaul, Senior Education Specialist The World Bank Global HR Forum, November 4-6, 2008, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2. The Presentation • Global development and the role of education-- international commitments • The India story in 1990s and 2000’s • Changing role of development aid and its value addition • Progress over the decade • Remaining challenges
  • 3. Global development-essentials • Global development requires both economic and human development Ø A growth promoting macro economic environment - across countries Ø A critical mass of educated, skilled population to meet the relevant labor needs Ø Both are interdependent
  • 4. Global development -role of education Global Evidence affirms significant returns of investment in basic education in terms of accumulation of human capital -----with returns higher if : • Started at the right age : net enrolment • System Efficiency is high –primary completion rate • System quality is good –high learning levels in terms of cognitive and non cognitive skills.
  • 5. Global potential to be ‘tapped’ - Demographic changes and interdependence across countries • Asia --more ‘youth power’ compared to the west --- Europe having one third population above 65 years! • Developed countries will be more ‘Rainbow countries’ with increasing immigration • Globalisation and shrinking distances -- particularly with IT • Therefore demand for skilled manpower is global–eg BPOs, nurses, doctors, teachers etc
  • 6. International commitments thus reflect global needs Education for All Goals( EFA) –Jomtien (1990) &-Dhakar (2000) • ECCE • Universal access & primary education completion of good quality- literacy, numeracy and life skills Millennium Dev. Goals (MDG) ( 2000 &2008) - 8 goals adopted by 189 nations to be fulfilled by 2015 • Achieve universal primary education • Promote gender equality and empower women As outcome, External Assistance to primary education enhanced since 1990’s
  • 7. The India Story • India has 28 states and 7 union territories and 15 official languages • India’s population over a billion-almost 20 percent of world’s population!! • It’s economy is growing with 7-8 percent growth rate; and yet 1/3 of world’s poor are in India • Overall literacy rate is 61 percent but female literacy is only 47.8 percent • Huge diversity in educational outputs and outcomes , spatially and across social groups • Yet, there is significant progress!!
  • 8. India’ story : ‘80s - now Schooling efficiency indicators - Overall 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% total primary completed total primary completed + Of those who ever enrolled, (among those ever enrolled) currently primary attending attending above primary now among ever enrolled 42nd rd: 1986/87 52nd rd: 1995/96 61st rd: 2004/05 Upper primary completion and transition rates 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% total primary completed total middle completed Of those who ever (among ever enrolled) (among ever enrolled) enrolled, attending secondary Source: Sankar, D (2007) 42nd rd: 1986/87 52nd rd: 1995/96 61st rd: 2004/05
  • 9. What is the story behind this progress?
  • 10. India in 1990’s --Role of Development Aid Ø Post Jomtien-- External Aid –WB; DFID; EC; Netherlands---- multiple projects; parallel financing with 80 percent external funds. Ø Some innovative projects: • Lok Jumbish ---micro planning and school mapping • Shiksha karmi -- para teachers • District Primary Education program(DPEP) -7 projects Ø Under DPEP each DP had own rules and disbursement procedures but supervision was joint with GOI.
  • 11. How did this Development Aid add value? • Main value added was innovations and contextualisation Ø Primary education came center stage Ø Girls education became priority Ø Decentralised planning introduced Ø Curricular innovations led to ‘child centered’ textbooks Ø Participatory methods of training emerged Ø Innovative approaches –alternative schooling contextualised to reach specific ‘hard to reach’ groups Ø On -site support provided through decentralised academic resource centers
  • 12. INDIA in 2000s: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA) • SSA (2001-2010) –GoI ‘s Flagship Program • Constitutional Amendment (2002) to make 8 years of elementary education a fundamental right for all children between 6-14 years • Targets: Ø all children in school by 2003 Ø all children complete grade 5 by 2007 Ø all children complete grade 8 by 2010 Ø education to be of satisfactory quality
  • 13. Coverage /challenge • SSA a centrally/federally sponsored program while states have major responsibility for education. • Covers entire country with 35 states and union territories. • Allocations to elementary education stepped up manifold • In 2002 there were 160 million children enrolled and 25 million out of school. • Wide disparities across provinces , social groups— gender, caste and religious minorities
  • 14. DP’s Partnership • IDA: $500 Million (14.3%) • EC: $200 Million (5.7%) • DFID: $346 Million (10%) • Central Govt: $1.58 Billion (45%) • States: $875 Million (25%) • Total: $3.5 Billion June 2004-Dec 2007 • 2008 onwards- second phase
  • 15. INDIA in 2000’s—DP mode of support changed • Moved from ring fenced to SWAp approach -Paris Declaration on harmonisation of support • Moved to Supporting GOI’s program (not Bank project) which has full govt. ownership & comprehensive framework • Moved to providing a slice of total outlay with major funding from GOI and states –only 10 percent from DPs. • Moved towards accepting GOI’s fiduciary procedures and strengthening, instead of imposing DPs own procedures. • Moved towards making DPs support more complementary and focused and reducing administrative costs through complete harmonisation of DPs disbursement and monitoring /supervision procedures.
  • 16. DP’s support –where did it add value? • Brought in greater ‘outcome’ focus and a common results monitoring framework for center and states. • Monitoring rigor enhanced in both fiduciary and sectoral aspects—EMIS and PMIS. • More active partnership with govt. through Joint Review Missions which were govt. led. • A MOU between partners for better coordination-a best practice • International knowledge and technical support brought in .
  • 17. What has been achieved since 2003/04 under SSA ? • Credit disbursed 15 months in advance of closing date !! • Enrollments reached 94% or 187 million • Number of out of school children dropped from 25 to 7.4 million; much beyond target. • Drop out reduced by 7.6 percentage points • Equity gaps narrowed with increased gender parity in particular • Improvement in transition rates from primary to upper primary. • Learning levels..???
  • 18. Remaining challenges • Reducing drop out and increasing attendance rates –factors related to quality largely, and beyond. • Enhancing Learning levels- ensuring quality across the system–addressing classroom pedagogy, learning asessment; governance environments, teacher capacity and motivation at scale • Bringing in ‘Hardest to reach’ who are still out. • Shifting stress from Rote memorization to ‘higher order cognitive skills’ and ‘socio-emotional skills’ which requires shift in pedagogy. • Meeting demand for English as a link language – addressing inadequate facilities.
  • 19. Some Lessons Learned for EFA Overall • To achieve universal primary completion access and quality need to be addressed together & not sequentially—interdependence of both. • Challenges of ‘inclusion’ require addressing contextual and social diversities and needs –a multi sectoral approach –health, nutrition, family income, etc. • Ensuring effective service delivery at scale requires involving and empowering the community /parents, service providers and local CBOs in participatory planning, and overseeing the school management • Peer learning most effective stimulus for reform through sharing of experiences across states/districts under projects. • DPs harmonisation with common focus and procedures most effective modality for results, provided govt. is in the driving seat! Brings in outcome focus and rigor in monitoring, both sectoral and fiduciary aspects
  • 20. Access with equity Access is more than just NER-attendance and completion are important. This requires: • Basic learning conditions and some standardization of facilities. • Convergence of interventions to meet the diverse, multi dimensional needs of the hardest to reach and special focus groups eg. Poverty, health, nutrition, clothes, security etc. • Quality of service delivery --Perceived ‘value’ in community of schooling/education. • Easy access to next level of schooling.
  • 21. Quality reform requires a comprehensive approach with • Complementary administrative and pedagogical reform • Administrative reform Ø Conducive governance environment which addresses teacher motivation and accountability Ø A supportive system of supervision and management of teacher cadre Ø Continuous professional development and on site support mechanisms aligned to defined teachers standards. Ø Empowering of Parent teacher committees with some financial devolution and facilitation and providing them a key role in school management.
  • 22. Pedagogical reform • A school readiness program ( ECCE) for first generation learners particularly to compensate for home deprivation • Ensuring not only basic learning conditions but a sensitive and competent teacher to address diversities in the classroom and • handle creative, constructivist and open-ended activity based pedagogical approaches to engage children and develop higher order mental skills • Child friendly currriculum and graded learning materials to stimulate and sustain children’s interest and provide for individual paced learning • A system of classroom and systemic assessment of learning levels with some remediation integral to the learning cycle.
  • 23. Current areas of WB’s support • Second phase of support to SSA by DP consortium. • Supporting downward and upward linkages: Ø Early Childhood Care and Education for children below 6 years through a quality improvement project under ‘Integrated Child Development Services’. Ø Secondary education : In dialogue with GOI for supporting their new centrally -sponsored initiative, given demand created after SSA Ø Vocational Education: Supporting 500 Industrial Technical Institutes towards making design and delivery of training more labour market responsive. Ø Technical Education : Supporting reforms in technical education provided by professional institutions on a competitive basis.
  • 24. Thank You