Global hr forum2007-youngsook_park-future of university and new hr strategyPresentation Transcript
ㅡThe Future of University and HR Global HR Forum, 25 Oct 2007, Seoul Korea Copyright ⓒ Youngsook Park 박영숙 한국대표 www.unfuture.org ▶ 현 호주대사관 문화공보실장 7년/영국대사관 공보관 18년 근무 ▶ 저서 “미래예측 리포트” 랜덤하우스 중앙출판 – “NEXT JOB-미래직업 대예측” 매경출판 – “UN미래보고서” 교보출판 – “2020 트랜스휴먼과 미래경제” 교보출판 – “전략적사고를 위한 미래예측” 교보출판
피에르알렝 쉬브 & 파비안 구보디망 발제 요약 및 의견• 피에르알렝 쉬브1. “미래인적자원 미래위험으로부터 생존전략: 미래위험 메가트렌드 1) 인구이동 2) 저출산 고령화 3) 환경오염 4) 첨단기술발전 적응- connectedness, 변화가속화, 신기술로 소멸 하는 직업, 국가쇄퇴 등 포함 5) 정부행정혁신2. OECD 미래프로젝트 1) 2000.10-2003년 Emerging Systemic Risks(미래부상위험요소) 2) 2003 5-7월 “Large-scale Disaters(미래 대규모 재해연구) 3) 2008년 10월까지 “Migration Project 미래 OECD국가로의 인구이동”- 2020년까지 16억명의 인구이동 예 측, 12년후에 북한의 변수발생, 북한주민 1천만 남하가능에 대비한 준비 시급. 4) 2007- 8년 실행, 2030 bioeconomy Project• 파비안느 구보디망1. 대학의 변화: 1) 문명의 발전이 목표로 인간중시, 다양한 책임감, 가치관중시, 세계를 이해시키는 교육 2) 학생중심교육: 인지공학, 배우는 방법을 스스로 배우는 교육, 정보 머리에 저장 불필요(암기교육의 종말), 미래의 주요변화 즉 메가트렌드만 공부, 지식생산 창조중심 교육2. (글로칼) 글로벌 로칼대학: 1) 미래변화 즉 transformation 중심교육으로 지역사회중심교 육이며 지구촌과 링크 2) 이동성강화로 이대학 저대학으로 옮겨다녀 3) 미래학, 인문이 공계 예술대 통합교육, 역사또한 매크로히스토리를 배워
Future of University/NewHR Strategy1) New emerging technologies change the Future of University-OECD and educational organisations have to identify emerging new technologies to build better infrastructures2) Overview of The Future of Universities: Scenarios3) Current operating examples of Intergrated global cyber universities: wikiversity, internet2, secondlife, open course ware MIT consortium4) World needs different people for HR: Gregor Wolbring’s new HR: IBM multiplayers wanted
MAJOR IT EVENTS• FIRST COMPUTER INSTALLATION(최초 컴퓨터 설치) 1964• COMPUTING TAUGHT AT UNIVERSITIES(대학에컴퓨터) 1967• BANKS INTRODUCE COMPUTERS (은행에 컴퓨터 사용) 1970• LUMP SUM DEPRECIATION FOR COMPUTERS 1977• MICROCOMPUTERS IN EDUCATION 1980• COMPUTERS USED FOR ELECTIONS (컴퓨터 선거 활용) 1982• CINTEC ESTB. 1984• COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPTS IN UNIVERSITIES 1985• INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ESTB. 1987• IT LAW COMMITTEE (IT 관련 법제정) 1986• ACADEMIC NETWORK LEARN 1990• EVIDENCE ( SP. PROV.) ACT 1995• INTERNET INTRODUCED ON A COMMERCIAL BASIS 1995• NATIONAL EDI COMMITTEE 1996• IT LAW CENTRE 1997• SL TELECOM PRIVATISED 1997• DUTY AND TT REMOVED 1997• IT YEAR 1998
A Personal Experience 컴퓨터 속도와 메모리 값 차이, 레이쿠즈웨일 2006년 시카고 세계미래회의 Measure MIT’s IBM 7094 Notebook Circa 2003Year 1967 2003Processor Speed (MIPS) 0.25 1,000Main Memory (K Bytes) 144 256,000Approximate Cost (2003 $) $11,000,000 $2,000 24 Doublings of Price-Performance in 36 years, doubling time: 18 months not including vastly greater RAM memory, disk storage, instruction set, etc.
Communications future미래 100불짜리 노트북, 50불, 공짜로•Google Earth, Google Map•Wikipedia, Wikinews, Wikis•Blogs, Vlogs, Podcasts•PDA, personal avatars•Wi-Fi, WiBro, WiMAX•RFID•GPS navegators•$100 laptop, $50 laptop, free laptop•MMORG•PAN, WAN, MAN, GAN
2010:Computers disappear 2010년 컴퓨터 소멸: 레이 쿠즈웨일 2006. 7. 30. 세계미래회의 연설• Images written directly to our retinas• 눈의 망막에 직접 이미지를 그려넣어• Ubiquitous high bandwidth connection to the Internet at all times• 인터넷이 24시간 365일 몸 안에 광대역 연결• Electronics so tiny it’s embedded in the environment, our clothing, our eyeglasses• 전자부품이 작아져서 옷, 안경, 몸, 환경 속으로 들어가• Full immersion visual-auditory virtual reality• 완전 잠입되는 비주얼 영상 음성 가상현실 가능• Augmented real reality• 가상현실이 진짜와 구분 힘들어져• Interaction with virtual personalities as a primary interface• 가상현실 인간들과 교제하고 교류를 우선적으로• Effective language technologies• 동시통역 가능하여 언어의 의미가 사실상 사라져
So What’s Ahead? IT 핸드폰의 미래?
Prefer it flexible? 모든 것이 융합:Merging of TV, Mobile,computer
Wind up and go… 모든 것이 융합무선, e-북, 오픈 소스로 정보는 공짜 How will the world be different when a billion children have a $100 laptop? Wireless Ebook reader Open source
Future of Paper 미래종이 전자종이 Electronic Paper
Innovation is Accelerating Measured by Speed of Market 100 Penetration Television Electricity Telephone Radio Automobile% Penetration VCR 50 PC Cellular et ern Int 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Years
Business Performance Transformation Services Optimizing business performance across the enterprise Autonomic Process IntegrationDynamic Supply Chain Telematics in Automotive and InsuranceRFID in Retail Targeted Treatment Solutions Health care Data Optimization Tools Media & Entertainment
Accelerating Advances in Technology
Federal Funding Focused on Life Sciences Broad Field of S&E 20000 Life Sciences 15000FY 2000 $m 10000 Engineering 5000 Phys Sciences Env Sciences Other Sciences 0 1970 1980 1990 2002 Source: NSF, Rand
Learn about strategic breakthroughs.
2035 Summary of Forecast Results Contact Deep Space Nuclear TechCast.org TechCast.org Fusion Life Span =100 2030 Child Traits Maglev Trains Men On Virtual Mars Grown Reality Organs Genetic 2025Most Likely Year to Enter Mainstream Therapy Automated Moon Base Organic Thought Highways Farming Power AI Distributed Cancer Cure Small Aircraft (Usually defined as 30% adoption level) Power Quantum Micro Computing Machines Artificial Organs Desalinization GMO 2020 Smart Personalized Hypersonic Biocomputing Alternative Robots Treatment Planes Energy Optical NanoTech On-Line Computers Aquaculture Publishing Modular Homes Pervasive Global Recycling Virtual Fuel Cell Networks Access Designed 2015 Education TeleMedicine Cars Materials Global Intelligent Grid Space Warming Interface E-Gov’t. Mass Intelligent Computing Tourism Customization Cars Green Utility B2B Hybrid Cars Business Computing Smart 2010 Precision E-Tailing Sensors Farming Broadband Entertainment Biometrics on-demand Smart Phone Online Convergence Finance Wireless 2005 Energy, & Information E-Commerce Manufacturing Medicine & Transportation Space Environment Technology & Robotics Biogenetics
The Intelligent Interface 음성인식기술 2010, 인공지능 의사결정 2015-20년Good Speech Recognition Common about 2010• IBM, Microsoft, MIT, DARPA programs to complete in 2010• 50% of firms use speech call centers, 100% will soon• Google/Yahoo use voice recognition search systems• GM’s OnStar has 2 million subscribers, growing 1-2 million/yearAI Able to Learn and Makes Decisions about 2015-20• IBM developing autonomic computers that manage themselves• Robot development• DARPA program developing hypersmart computer that learns and adapts• BCC study of AI market: $1 B in ’93, $12 B in ’02, $21 B in ’07• Bill Gates: “The future lies in computers that talk, see, listen, and learn”Flat Wall Monitors Common by 2010• Flat monitors beat CRTs. Dell: ”Ultimately, the flat panel is less expensive.”• Waldorf Astoria Hotel uses 4x7 Ft monitor for videoconferencingPC Power Supports Intelligent Systems• Intel and AMD have brought out first 64 bit processors• The Cell has 9 128 bit chips
Future of University/NewHR Strategy1) New emerging technologies change Future of University-OECD and educational organisations have to identify emerging new technologies to build better infrastructures2) Overview of The Future of Universities: Scenarios3) Current operating examples of Intergrated global cyber universities: wikiversity, internet2, secondlife, open course ware MIT consortium4) World needs different people for HR: Gregor Wolbring’s new HR: multiplayers wanted
Sooner Later Business Bookless Student led All have accessSooner Satellite Continuous Access without exam other Education Mentor Exchange Corporate Owned No University Multi-cultural Split Experience Teaching/Research Star Prof Degrees Multi mode No Intel Inside calendar No BowlLater The Harman Fan contains possible Special future states of universities. They have Interest been organized in chronological order Group from sooner to later in the evolution Holodeck process. By clicking on each of the states, a description can be obtained. Grasshopper Sample scenario >>
Business University• Programs custom-tailed to corporate needs• Outreach programs attempt to educate in all institutional locations• Skills increasingly tech-based and administration• Governmental university localized programs• Universities accommodate working individuals
Satellite UniversityDistance Learning University• Stay at home and graduate• Virtual classrooms• Students choose best programs on the WWW• Students pay well for super- instructors• Affordable learning
Continuous Education University• Increasing ‘professionalisation’ of school, as more mid-career students come back for ‘continuous learning’
Exchange University/ Multicultural University• Students leave home and live in other countries• Students have daily interactions with other cultures• Shift toward ‘deep’ multiculturalism in the structure and content of classes driven by new waves of imagination
End of Entrance Exams University• End of standardized testing (SAT, GRE, etc.)• Bookless University-Books are eliminated• No Bowl University (A university without athletics)-There will be no more athletic programs
Experience University• All learning is experimental• Universities that utilize life experiences to a greater detail. For example professors that have actually done the work• Experience degrees• A more ‘hands-on’ approach in Applied Sciences field• Universities become totally experimental, and focus on observational and intuitive ways of knowing, and research is done on answering the question ‘knowing what?’.
No university• Regressive university. Students learn at home, on their own, or with a company. Universities are not supported anymore, which leads to an instantaneous stagnation.
No Calendar University (24/7/365)• Asynchronous international university: the global university online• Elimination of academic calendar: one can enter university and graduate at any moment in time• You create your own contract and are graded on how much you stretched yourself in it.
Multi Mode University• The system for higher education: 1. Multimedia knowledge bases 2. Professors as personal mentors 3. Computer-aided testing• Non-professional/non-vocational subjects will be transformed into vacation experiences, out of university
Split Teaching and Research University• Universities focus either on teaching or on research. Both are given premium resources, either through private investments or tax-money.
Corporate Owned University• Vocationally oriented and owned by and for private corporations• Employees tied to corporation and vv• Universities lose market share to professional training corporations• Your job is your degree• End of liberal arts: only professional and technical universities exist
Student Led University• Universities that allow students to assist with the defining of the university goals.
All have access university• High education is paid by checks that are given out to everybody. Those who make use of them have to reimburse within 20 years.
Mentor University• Face to face tutoring back in vogue• Lifelong learning = lifelong tutoring
Star Prof University• Star teachers/professors• Hollywood University• Master teachers are the norm – accessed through Internet
Intel Inside University• University Brainchip for degrees.• Get program today!
Special Interest Group University• Creation of bioethics, nano-ethics, technology transfer type of programs as science yields greater fundamental insights
Grasshopper University• Universities become focused on learning compassion, peace and self-awareness. A new culture arose as a backlash against the virtual worlds of the 2050’s. By then, computers do it all; we can learn to love.
Other ideas• An international body regulates degrees• English language dominates on WWW• Tuition differences will be based on how is taught, rather than on prestige• Universities that personalize the learning experience. Smaller classrooms.• Dramatic expansion of small scale universities due to outside threats (terrorism etc.)• New learning societies formed based on worldview.
Sooner Later Bookless All have access SatelliteSooner Scenario: The tailor-made on-line university This scenario assumes that we move fro our current university towards more dis learning (satellite university), which sl replaces all hardcopy learning as we it today. While working with new media i become more and more easy to cater No calendar individual student schedules (everybo studies at his own rhythm) which will leaLater to a no calendar university. Since university will become widely accessible marginal extra costs and with higher marginal outputs per dollar invested, as as the overriding principle of democracy through the Internet, government will fin provide the means to give access to bot elite and low-income class students wit repayable grants, which will be deducte from income salaries during the profess << Back life of the graduates.
Future of University & NewHR Strategy1) New emerging technologies change Future of University-OECD and educational organisations have to identify emerging new technologies to build better infrastructures2) Overview of The Future of Universities: Scenarios3) Current operating examples of Intergrated global cyber universities: secondlife.com, wikiversity, internet2, open course ware MIT consortium4) World needs different people (HR strategy): Gregor Wolbring’s new HR: IBM multiplayers wanted
(1) www.secondlife.com• Second Life is a 3-D virtual world entirely created by its Residents. Since opening to the public in 2003, it has grown explosively and today is inhabited by millions of Residents from around the globe.• From the moment you enter the World youll discover a vast digital continent, teeming with people, entertainment, experiences and opportunity. Once youve explored a bit, perhaps youll find a perfect parcel of land to build your house or business.• Youll also be surrounded by the Creations of your fellow Residents. Because Residents retain the rights to their digital creations, they can buy, sell and trade with other Residents.• The Marketplace currently supports millions of US dollars in monthly transactions. This commerce is handled with the in-world unit-of-trade, the Linden dollar, which can be converted to US dollars at several thriving online Linden Dollar exchanges.• The Second Life Grid provides a unique and flexible platform for educators interested in distance learning, computer supported cooperative work, simulation, new media studies, and corporate training.• Create a safe environment to enhance experiential learning, allowing individuals to practice skills, try new ideas, and learn from their mistakes. Prepare your students or employees for real-world experiences by using Second Life as a simulation!• Students and educators can work together on the Second Life Grid from anywhere in the world as part of a globally networked virtual classroom environment. Using the Second Life Grid as a supplement to traditional classroom environments also provides new opportunities for enriching an existing curriculum. Many universities and educational institutions are already using the Second Life Grid, and you can find an updated list of them here.• There are many options for educators looking to explore and create learning spaces on the Second Life Grid. Here is a comprehensive list of resources to help you get started.• Join our Education Mailing List (SLED)• Additional Education-Related Mailing Lists• Second Life Education Wiki• Campus: Second Life• Permanent Education Space• Teen Second Life Important Reminder• Education & Non-Profit Organizations
www.secondlife.com 매주 20만명의 주민증가 가상국가, 현재 9백만명 국민 보유• Snapshot: Second Life- 가상국가 주민 Total Residents:8,339,156- 지난 2개월간 로그인 한 인구 Logged In Last 60 Days:1,682,527- 현재 온라인 인구 Online Now:37,567- 하루 미국달라로 10억 교류 US$ Spent Last 24h:$1,649,117-린덱스 즉 린든달라 하루 판매액 2억3천만원LindeX Activity Last 24h:$236,746http://secondlife.com- 2007년 7월 24일 현재 24 July 2007
www.secondlife.com최대 네델란드, 캐나다, 미국, 독일, 스위스, 영국, 중국, 오스트리 아, 스페인, 싱가폴, 노르웨이, 뉴질랜드, 일본 순
www.secondlife.com사회연예통신10.5%, 돈벌이8.5%, 독자오락 7.4%, 교육과 창의성 5.6%
Corporations in second life 세컨라이프 입주한 기업들
Univerisities in Secondlife
(2) www.internet2.org- global university• Internet2 is the foremost U.S. advanced networking consortium. Led by the research and education community since 1996, Internet2 promotes the missions of its members by providing both leading-edge network capabilities and unique partnership opportunities that together facilitate the development, deployment and use of revolutionary Internet technologies.• By bringing research and academia together with technology leaders from industry, government and the international community, Internet2 promotes collaboration and innovation that has a fundamental impact on the future of the Internet.• With an initial capacity of 100 Gigabits per second (Gbps) nationwide and a revolutionary Dynamic Circuit Network (DCN) providing dedicated bandwidth-on-demand capabilities, the new infrastructure provides the potential to transform radioastronomy, telemedicine, network research, and the performing arts.
www.internet2.org• "I am honored to succeed Larry Faulkner as chair of the Internet2 Board of Trustees and look forward to continuing the high standard set by my predecessors. In the coming months we will have a number of achievements to celebrate. The new Internet2 Network will bring us capabilities far exceeding those we currently enjoy, a new membership category will strengthen our community by formally acknowledging the critical role of state and regional networks, and a new governance structure will offer a broader, more transparent representation of our membership. I look forward to working with our community as we continue to drive innovation, collaboration, and new opportunities in support of advanced networking for research and education." Jeffrey S. Lehman, Chair, Internet2 Board of Trustees
www.internet2.org• Who We Are:• Internet2 is a not-for-profit advanced networking consortium comprising more than 200 U.S. universities in cooperation with 70 leading corporations, 45 government agencies, laboratories and other institutions of higher learning as well as over 50 international partner organizations. Our organization is governed by an executive Board of Trustees and strategic councils consisting of leaders who represent our broad membership• What We Do:• Internet2 members leverage our high-performance network infrastructure and extensive worldwide partnerships to support and enhance their educational and research missions. Beyond just providing network capacity, Internet2 actively engages our community in the development of important new technology including middleware, security, network research and performance measurement capabilities which are critical to the progress of the Internet• Why We Do It:• We have only begun to discover the potential of Internet technology, not only to the important work of the research and education community, but to commerce and business, to healthcare and science, to the arts and humanities and beyond. Unlike any other organization of its kind, the Internet2 community pioneers the use of advanced network applications and technologies, from their academic inception through their evolution to the commercial Internet.
(3) www.wikiversity.org• What is Wikiversity?• Wikiversity is a new Wikimedia project exploring ways to use the power of wiki to support online learning. This new project will be in beta phase during the first six months.• What is Wikiversity Beta?• Wikiversity Beta is a global platform aiming at coordinating Wikiversity projects in several languages. This multilingual coordination intends to deal with Wikiversitys mission and general guidelines of the projects scope (for example, about original research). Wikiversity Beta is also a place where Wikiversity projects which dont have a subdomain yet can develop.• Whats next?• Now we need people to take part in the discussions on Wikiversity Beta. People from existing separate projects and people willing to contribute to a future separate project should join the discussions and work together. People who do not speak English are encouraged to take part in discussions but we also need volunteer translators to translate the talk summaries.
(4)www.unesco.org/virtualuniversity• Developments in higher education - the virtual university• The virtual university constitutes an important example of the use of ICT to deliver higher education in both developed and developing countries. New initiatives are growing steadily as universities seek to reach a broader, and in many cases, an international student body. Indeed there appears to be an economic imperative in some initiatives. Various organizational models exist, from the online arm of a traditional university to a university operating completely in cyberspace, from respected and well known institutions to private profit making ventures. Most of these institutions base their instructional delivery on the Internet. They seek students regardless of their geographic location, and they teach and evaluate these students in a different manner from the traditional academic procedures established for on-campus students. Because of the different teaching and learning methods, virtual universities must develop policies and planning, management and financing procedures that are appropriate to their organization, resources and modes of operation. And because of their potential international reach, these institutions operate outside the higher education policy environment at the national level, with significant policy implications.
www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity • Exploring the phenomenon - the background study • In 2001, IIEP initiated a study to identify and illuminate the main policy, planning and management issues associated with the virtual university as indicative of a growing number of ICT supported initiatives in higher education. The exploratory study was based upon case studies selected to represent the main emerging institutional models: Newly created institutions; evolution of traditional universities; consortia; commercial enterprises. Cases were selected to represent different geographic regions as well, since differing situations may give rise to different problems and different approaches, and eventually, different policy and planning concerns. The case authors focussed on policy, planning and management related issues and were invited not only to describe their situation, but also to reflect upon lessons learned and to comment upon their implications.
www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity• Sharing the lessons - the web publication and resources• The publication was designed for presentation on the web in order to widely disseminate the information and the lessons learned. The release in 2006 of the second updated version of the publication in print is actually the by-product of the web publication, rather than the reverse. Designed to make the information easily accessible for the reader, the web format facilitates the updating and enhancing the content. The web publication contains four background chapters and ten cases studies. The cases make interesting and informative reading, and although there was a high level of diversity among them, a number of important requirements were identified as essential to promoting effective programme planning and implementation and these are summarized in the final chapter. In 2004, the site of the web publication was redesigned to serve as a resource site with three sections: Web Publication Forums Links The revised format was designed with both individual users as well as Communities of Interest in mind. The Forums and Links sections are intended to be dynamic and they are updated from time to time.
(5) http://ocw.mit.edu• Our History•• MIT OpenCourseWare is an idea—and an ideal—developed, supported, and embraced by the MIT faculty, who share the Institutes mission to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology, and other areas of scholarship to best serve the nation and the world. In 1999 the Faculty considered how to take best advantage of the Internet to advance education, and in 2000 proposed OCW.• 2001: OCW announced in The New York Times 2002: 50 Courses/ Pilot version goes live with 50 courses. Spanish and Portuguese translations added. 2003: 500 Official launch in October 2003./Chinese translations added. 2004: 900 OCW adopts Creative Commons license./ Other institutions work with MIT to create their own OCWs. First mirror site established in Africa. 2005:1250 OCW begins updating previously published courses./OCW wins over a dozen major awards./penCourseWare Consortium formed. 2006: 1550 OCW Consortium meets in Kyoto, portal launched./OCW Secondary Education concept developed./Thai translations added. 2007:1800 OCW Web site traffic sets new monthly record: Over 2 million visits./Publication of virtually all MIT courses completed. 2008:Transition to “Steady State”—200 new & updated courses per year.
www.ocwconsortium.org• About Us• An OpenCourseWare is a free and open digital publication of high quality educational materials, organized as courses. The OpenCourseWare Consortium is a collaboration of more than 100 higher education institutions and associated organizations from around the world creating a broad and deep body of open educational content using a shared model. The mission of the OpenCourseWare Consortium is to advance education and empower people worldwide through opencourseware.• The Goals of the Consortium• Extend the reach and impact of opencourseware by encouraging the adoption and adaptation of open educational materials around the world.• Foster the development of additional opencourseware projects.• Ensure the long-term sustainability of opencourseware projects by identifying ways to improve effectiveness and reduce costs.• Participation Requirements• In order to participate in Consortium activities, institutions must have committed to publishing, under the institutions name, materials from at least 10 courses in a format that meets the agreed-upon definition of an opencourseware. Organizations that do not publish their own content but whose activities further Consortium goals—such as translation and distribution affiliates—also participate in Consortium activities.• For more information on Consortium activities or participation requirements, please visit us at the OCW Consortium Forum (make sure to register to comment). You may also contact us directly at firstname.lastname@example.org.
www.ocwconsortium.org• OpenCourseWare is a bold idea. Often, faculty members and academic leaders regard their primary course materials as the "crown jewels" of the instructional program – the essence of what they offer to students, the products that generate tuition revenues, and the substance of what they publish in textbooks. It can be challenging to persuade colleagues that publishing course materials freely and openly over the Internet is a good idea. There are hurdles to mounting an OpenCourseWare effort, and people will raise legitimate concerns. Yet we believe there is a strong case that the benefits of OpenCourseWare far outweigh the costs and concerns, and we have demonstrated that the obstacles are manageable.• An OpenCourseWare initiative aligns closely with the educational and public service missions of a non-profit institution of higher learning. More importantly, such an effort resonates deeply with faculty who have a passion for teaching and who have dedicated their lives to the advancement and dissemination of knowledge. This is why a key factor for success of an OpenCourseWare initiative is to ensure that a core group of faculty stand squarely behind the effort and can serve as champions of the idea.• The principal components of the case for OpenCourseWare are:• Benefits for users and for global society• OpenCourseWare helps advance knowledge by providing resources for educators, who may draw on them for teaching purposes, as well as students and self-learners, for their personal knowledge development. These resources may be particularly helpful for people in developing regions of the world
(6) www.phoenix.edu• Founded in 1976 on an innovative idea: make higher education highly accessible for working students. Still guided by this idea, University of Phoenix has helped transform the landscape of higher education in widely recognized ways. Many of the conveniences that 21st-century students now take for granted—evening classes, flexible scheduling, continuous enrollment, a student-centered environment, practitioner faculty, online classes, online library, ebooks, computer simulations—were pioneered or made acceptable through University of Phoenixs efforts.• Not surprisingly, our unique approach has helped us grow from our humble origins as an upstart institution serving the unrecognized needs of working students. Today, University of Phoenix is the largest private university in North America, with nearly 200 convenient locations, as well as Internet delivery in most countries around the world.• Were also a comprehensive university. University of Phoenix has more than 100 degree programs at the associates, bachelors, masters and doctoral levels in much-desired employment areas, from business and technology to health care and education.• Most importantly, were constantly innovating to help students balance education and life in a rapidly changing world.• The University currently has a faculty of more than 20,000 Associate Faculty and approximately 1,500 Core Faculty members, and some 200,000 students.
www.phoenix.edu• History• When University of Phoenix was founded more than three decades ago, the leading edge of the Baby Boom generation was just turning 30 and the first personal computers were introduced.• It was in this context that Dr. John Sperling, a Cambridge- educated economist and professor-turned-entrepreneur, anticipated the confluence of technological, economic and demographic forces that would herald the return of working adults to higher education.• He saw a growing need for institutions that were sensitive to and designed around the learning characteristics and life situations of the working adult population. He suggested how institutions would pioneer new approaches to curricular and program design, teaching methods and student services. These beliefs eventually resulted in the creation of University of Phoenix and they continue to inspire the University’s mission, purposes and strategies today.
(7) THE BOLOGNA PROCESS by 2010 유럽 45개국 6000개대학 통합-스티븐 아담스 호주교육미래포럼에서GLOBALISATION: Demography, cross-border education, masseducation, drive for competitiveness, university autonomy + fundingreductions ...THE BOLOGNA PROCESS: (a reaction to globalisation and antiquatededucational systems and practices) A (non European Commission) reformprocess building the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010유럽대학 학점교차인정 2010년– Involves 45 countries (6,000 universities, 32 million students) + impacts outside the Europe region 45개국 6천 개대학 32백만 대학생 통합대학에서 공부– Encompasses comparable degrees + common approaches to quality assurance, credits, lifelong learning, institutional reform, research, mobility, recognition, etc. (attractiveness of the EHEA) 평생교육, 대학혁신, 연구개발공 동추진, 학점인정, 교통발달로 급속인 인구이동, 대학품질인증시스템구축– Profound impact (European and global) on qualifications-recognition- mobility– 유럽대학통합은 세계대학통합으로 이어지는 엄청난 영향. 인터넷 사이버 통합대학 및 재택 근무 교직원보편화, 엄청난 대학생인구이동
유럽통합대학 블로냐 프로세스문제점: 고품질교육인증기관설립, 대학생이동 176%증가-스티븐 아담스 호주QUALIFICATIONS: 학점인증, 고품격 교육인증 유럽대학QA기관 ENQA – Adoption of qualifications framework (national + overarching) – European set of level/cycles descriptors – Common European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) ‘standards and guidelines’ for quality assuranceRECOGNITION: 2005년까지 고등학교 디플로마 보충문서준비 – Adoption of the Council of Europe/UNESCO ‘Convention on the recognition of qualifications concerning higher education in the European region‘ (Lisbon 1997) – Issuing of Diploma Supplement to all students by 2005 – Increasing role for recognition networks (NARIC-ENIC)MOBILITY: 학생이동장벽 제거 후 2011년까지 176%증가, 더 많은 공동학제, 자유시간제 재택근무, 사이버강좌 이수, 학교 론이나 그란트 용이 – Plans to increase student mobility (e.g. Erasmus Mundus, + new EU mobility target – up 176% by 2011 ) + reduce barriers – More joint degrees; mobile staff, modules and courses (credits) – Portable grants and loans
THE BOLOGNA PROCESS 유럽통합대학 통합운영 및 협력 사이트 학점인증 협회 ENQA, 다양한 사이트 참조, 스티븐 아담스Bologna Secretariat website: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/bolognaBologna Bergen website: http://www.bologna-bergen2005.noCouncil of Europe website (Bologna, Higher Education, recognition): http://coe.intEurope Unit (UK): www.europeunit.ac.ukEuropean Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA):www.enqa.netEuropean Commission:http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/education_culture/index_en.htmEuropean Universities Association (EUA): www.eua.beEuropean gateway to recognition (ENICNARIC):http://www.enic-naric.net/Lisbon Recognition Convention: http://conventions.coe.intRecognition text: Sjur Bergan ed, (2003) Recognition issues in the Bologna Process,Council of Europe ISBN92-871-5150-4.UNESCO Cross border education guidelines:http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=44134&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
The VTE sector is much larger than the university sector전문대가 대학교보다 훨씬 많다 VTE 1,595,200 students (8% of the population in 2004 SCHOOLS HIGHER 3,331,964 students EDUCATION (17% of the population in 944,977 students 2004) (5% of the pop. in 2004)
VTE: People of all ages participate 호주 전문대특징, 모든 연령대 참여 2003년 통계 VTE Engagement by Age Group 2003 25.0 20.0 Percentage of tota 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 <15 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 59-59 60-64 65+
More jobs may need VTE skills than university qualifications 대학졸업자보다 전문대졸이 취업율 훨씬높아 Current profile of Potential pathway forQualification population (현재분포) jobs (미래분포) % of 15-64 population % of employmentUniversity(대졸) 19.3 21.7VTE(전문대 졸) 29.1 62.8No tertiary(고졸) 51.6 15.5
Future of University/NewHR Strategy1) New emerging technologies change Future of University-OECD and educational organisations have to identify emerging new technologies to build better infrastructures2) Overview of The Future of Universities: Scenarios3) Current operating examples of Intergrated global cyber universities: wikiversity, internet2, secondlife, open course ware MIT consortium4) World needs different people for HR: Gregor Wolbring’s new HR: IBM multiplayers wanted
Helios Report for EDEN유명한 EDEN보고서 교육의 미래2010, 학생이 학습커뮤니티창조, 학습툴 개발, 창의성과 고품질 교육은 지역사회가 담당, 교사는 학습동기유발 하는 사람 i-L 2000 i-e-L 2010Distributes consolidated knowledge generates new knowledgeIs still e-teaching is owned by the learnerMay isolate the learner creates learning communitiesIs provided by single provider/institution is result of and tool for partnershipsIgnores learner content/ previous work builds on learner context and effortsDepresses learner creativity stimulates creativity and playFocuses on technology and content focuses on quality and processSubstitutes classroom sessions embedded in social processesPrivileges those who already learn teaches and motivates those not learning
The future of Education 미래의 교육변화, 그레고 울브링박사 방한 2006 교육부 강연• Education system of the future will be different in deliverance and content• NBICS will change the capabilities of students and teachers• The speed of change is increasing• Silo thinking is out• Trans-disciplinary thinking as an individual and as a team is in.• Foresight exercises are in• Look at Social cohesion essential• An ability divide and a knowledge divide could hap pen. Question is how big and for whom?
Confluence of Influence미래사람들은 정보획득 아닌 스스로 정보생산을 희망, 토 마스 프레이, 다빈치 연구소 소장• People are no longer satisfied with just receiving information, they want to help create it.
Life Extension: life-long education• Improved lifestyles/alternative medicine• Hormone replacement ? 홀몬 교체로 수명연장• Organ replacement 장기교체로 수명연장• Telemeres, enzymes, genes, etc. extend life• 효소 유전자 교체 등으로 수명연장• Nanotech, micro-medicine to repair the body• 나노공학, 마이크로의료기술로 장기교체• Kurzweil, de Grey: all causes of aging curable• 모든 노화현상은 질병, 질병은 치유가능• Some claim life spans are genetically fixed• 수명은 정해진 것으로 수명연장 불가능 주장하는 학자도 존재• CEO of Human Genome Sciences: “We can conceive of immortality”• 인간 지놈 과학자 영생가능 천명• TechCast - 100 years avg. span by 2037• 2037년 평균수명 100세 도달
NBICS Changing Content 나노, 바이오, 코그노공학 발달로 교육콘텐츠 변화 그레고 울브링 캘러리의대 교수 방한 2006년• Changing Content – No physical education as people have implants which makes most ph ysical education teaching difficult 모든 학생들이 신체 칩 임플랜트하여 체육교육 불필요, 불가능 – No languages education needed with universal translators appearance? 다언어통역기 활용, 언어칩 두뇌 내장하여 외국어교육 불필요 – May be less need for music, arts? 인간의 관심도변화로 음악 예술에 뺏기는 시간줄어 예술약화 – Changing image of certain groups in society 아동청소년 청년기 장년기 노인 고령인구의 이미지 변화 신속히 다가와• Ted Kahn, DesignWorlds for Learning Inc사의 사장과 스탠포드 리서치 연구 소 과학자인 잭 파크박사는 가상현실박물관(Virtual Museum of the Future)을 만들어 과학기술공학 등 자연과학분야의 중고등학교 과정을 통합한 ‘사이버 중고 등학교’ 개설. Knowledge Garden 미래에는 영재교육으로 이 사이트에만 들어 가면 중고등학교의 과학과정은 학교에서 교사에게 배울 필요가 없다. www.designworlds.com
(1) 적시학습(Just in time learning): 적시적소에서 최신 업데이트 된 집단지능(Collective Intelligence)을 이용,불필요한 암기과정을 줄이고, 몇 년, 몇 달씩 묵은 교사의 지식이나 교과서 지식 대체1) 전통적 도서관 소멸 2) 유비쿼터스 환경 조성(교육 소프트웨어 개발 필요) 3) 교사훈련이 변화 4) 학습연령구분 소멸 5) 교육 커리큘럼 변화 6) 교육교구변화(백과사전이 사라짐, 커뮤니티 데이터베이스 확립, 가상현실 이용증가)(2) 통합평생교육: 지식의 수명이 짧아져 지속적인 교육 업데이트 필요. 노동인구의 감소로 노령인구도 계속 경제인구로 남아야 하기 때문에 다양한 연령대와 경력, 배경을 가진 사람들을 위한 교육커리큘럼과 기관 필요1) 멀티플레이어에 대한 요구 증가. 노동력 감소로 개인이 여러 가지 역할을 수행하게 됨. 점차 다양한 기술보유자를 요구하게 됨 2) 새로운 학문 산업이 나오게 됨 3) 정부, NGO, 기업 등 학교 뿐 아니라 교육을 담당하는 기관의 다양화와 통합(3) 개인능력향상 물질(영양) 공급: 각 두뇌의 기능에 따라 기능을 항진하는 물질을 개발하여 특정 기능을 강화.자기 몸에 대한 자가진단도 가능하여 몸이 필요로 하는 양분을 선택공급, 신체건강 증진1) 공급방법 연구 필요(공급방법이 나오면 영양공급센터 이슈가 나옴, 두뇌영양 관리사 직종과 상업적 영양카페등도 출현가능)(4) 시뮬레이션 이용: 가상공간 활용 시뮬레이션교육 보편화, 기본적인 글쓰기나 수학은 게임이나 교육용 프로그램으로 대체 1) 즉각적 교육이 가능해지고 이를 위한 특성 교사훈련 필요 2) 교육 콘텐츠 개발 - 사회동력산업으로 육성 가능 3) 교육장소 제한 사라지며, 원거리학습 가능 4) 3D를 이용한 수업이 가능하고, 교육 소프트웨어시장 확대 5) 현실공간이 많이 필요 없어 학교건물 축소(5) Web 17.0: 집단지능 더욱 섬세하게 발달1) 집단지능(Collective Intelligence) 증가 2) 교사와 학생관계 변화: 학생도 교사만큼 전문적인 지식의 깊이에 접속할 수 있어 학생과 교사가 서로 함께 배우는 현상 발생(6) 두뇌 인지공학 발달: 컴퓨터처럼 인간의 뇌 업데이트. 뇌 전체에 대한 맵(map)이 완성되어 각 부분의 기능 및메커니즘 밝혀져 뇌 기능 강화. 치매 같은 뇌 질환도 사라지고 모두 높은 지능을 갖게 되어 개인 업무 수행력 향상
Likelihood of Education Possibilities––year 2030, 유엔미래포럼 혁신위 보고서 20072007년, 유엔미래포럼 교육부 혁신위 “교육비전2030” 보고서에 따르면, 2030년의 교육은 웹17.0으로 대부분의 교육이 웹상에서 이뤄지며, 평생교육으로 중년성인 학생수가 더 많고, 언어수리외의 과학과 사회는 “적시학습”으로 교과서나 교사교수의 지식을 가르치지 못하고 교육포탈 사이버 가상현실통합포탈에서 어제 업데이트된 정보를 꺼내와서 쓴다. 공공통신을 교육수단으로 사용하고, 시물레이션으로 항시 실험으로 연결되며 로봇등의 e러닝, 인간두뇌의성능강화를 위한 화학약품 영양분 칩등이 사용되며, 교육은 개인교습으로 이뤄지고 개인진도에따라 certificate를 주지 학년 학반이 중요하지 않다. 지구촌온라인 시물레이션이 시작되고 컴퓨터가 인간지능을 능가하며 인간의 지능 사고 행방을 RFID GPS등이 항시 감시 점금하고, 유전자조작으로 지능향상을 꾀한다.
Bionic Implant RFID Chip rfid 칩 넣은 부부, 사이 사이보그• When Kevin Warwick lifted his finger, his wife Irena felt as if a bolt of lightning ran down her palm and into her own finger. In what they billed as the first direct link between nervous systems, the couple had electrodes surgically implanted in their arms and linked by radio signals to a computer. Blindfolded for the experiment, they could feel when their spouses finger moved• 케빈워익부부 칩 팔의 신경조직에 삽입 라디오시그날로 컴퓨터로 연결, 남편손가락 들면 전기가 오면서 느끼고, 배고픔도 함께 느껴• Veri Chip• 베리라는 칩 삽입• Body Morphing/modification community,• Magnetic field sensor implants/Magnetic Vision
Kevin Warwick: I, Cyborg www.KevinWarwick.org
Speech not necessary컴퓨터언어로 인간은 말할 필요없어, 그레고 울브링• Speech: A system that converts nerve signals in the throat into computerized speech could soon allow people to speak without saying a word. The system that the researchers developed is a neural interface—a type of data link between the human nervous system and an external device, such as a computer or a remote- controlled machine.• It uses sensors placed under the chin and on either side of the "Adams apple"—the laryngeal prominence—to gather subvocal nerve signals and transfer them to a processor, then to a computer program that translates the signals into words.Subvocal speech is characterized by movement of the lips or other speech organs without accompanying audible sounds."A person using the subvocal system thinks of phrases and talks to himself so quietly, it cannot be heard, but the tongue and vocal chords do receive speech signals from the brain," says Jorgensen.
NBICS Changing people 나오, 바이오, 인지공학 발달로 변하는 인간, 그레고 울브링Changing People: – Applications from cognitive and neurological sciences in education systems – Collective intelligence (CI) New center at MIT for CI http:// cci.mit.edu/ How can people and computers be connected so that—collectively—they act more intelligently than any individuals, groups, or computers have ever done before? – Intelligence enhancing environments – Chemistry for brain enhancement – Physical training to enhance nervous system – Brain machine interfaces – Brain Chip – Knowledge Upload – Other implants – Drugs
Enhancement of Animals 동물도 인간처럼 지능강화가능, 그레고 울브링• Guido David Núñez-Mujica uses the following arguments in favor of enhancing animals• It will give to other species the ability to choose their own future.• It will help to make human beings aware that they are sharing the world with other beings.• It will help to understand better to ourselves.• Will enrich our lives with diversity of points of view, will give us new art and maybe new ways of thinking about the world.• Will give more rights to the Enhanced species• He states further that it would be unethical to not enhance apes.• Apes are sentient and self aware beings. If enhancing will give them better status and more rights than they have now, it would not be ethical prevent them from being modified and therefore, deny them rights.• The extinction of apes will be a terrible loss of diversity and will harm us, enhancing can be most effective way of avoiding it in a certain way.
NBICS triggered Paradigm changes 나노, 바이오, 인자공학 발달로인한 교육변화• Moving from Species-typical functioning to Beyond specie s-typical functioning• Moving from human rights to sentient rights?• Moving from ableism towards transhumanization of ableis m• Moving towards the generation of a new social groups (tec hno poor disabled) and towards an ability divide• Moving from understanding life to designing life?• Moving from dissecting life towards building life base-pair by base-pair• Moving from individual to collective education?(Borg Hive Mind)• Elimination of whole sectors of education (sports, arts, lan guage…) in the end of sectors taken over by technologies s uch as instantaneous universal translators?• Moving towards lifelong education?• Move towards a much faster change in curricula, much mor e fluid curricula?
NBICS Changing deliverance 나노, 바이오, 코그노공학 발달로 교육전달 변화, 그레고 울브링박사• Changing deliverance – Curriculum Design and access – Just in time knowledge – Global outsourcing – e-teachers on demand – Ubiquitous computing and education for all for life-lo ng learning – Self-paced. – Educational Technologies – Virtual reality simulations – Separation of kids with and without implants or other modifications as a co-teaching might not be possible – As kids might not be at a centralized place need for supervision might change
NBICS Changing Content 나노, 바이오, 코그노공학 발달로 교육콘텐츠 변화 그레고 울브링 캘러리의대 교수 방한 2006년• Changing Content – No physical education as people have implants which makes most physical education teaching difficult 모든 학생들이 신체 칩 임플랜트하여 체육교육 불필요, 불가능 – No languages education needed with universal transla tors appearance? 다언어통역기 활용, 언어칩 두뇌 내장하여 외국어교육 불필요 – May be less need for music, arts? 인간의 관심도변화로 음악 예술에 뺏기는 시간 줄어 예술약화 – Changing image of certain groups in society 아동청소년 청년기 장년기 노인 고령인구의 이미지 변화 신속 히 다가와