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Gothic art and architecture

Gothic art and architecture

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  • ARCHITECTONIC SYSTEM TO OFFERS A SUBLIMINAL FACE OF CHRIST

    In the church of Fraga (Aragon-Spain) were tested vaulted new techniques to suggest the Jesus face. http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/gotico-enigmatico.html

    SPANISH TEXT BELOW :

    ARQUITECTONICO SISTEMA PARA OFRECER UNA SUBLIMINAL CARA DE CRISTO

    En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) se ensayaron nuevas técnicas de abovedado para sugerir un rostro de Jesús. http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/gotico-enigmatico.html

    ROSTRO SUBLIMINAL: En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) ensayaron sugerir un rostro de Jesús. http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/gotico-enigmatico.html
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Gothic art n fall Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Romanesque vs. Gothic 1050-1200 1100-1500
    • Religion:
      • Christ is the judge
      • People live in fear
      • T he last judgment common subject
      • Crusades
      • Pilgrimages
    • Economics
      • Feudalism-little economic freedom
      • New trade routes
    • Rural society-
      • Monasteries
    • Architecture
      • Churches solid and grounded
      • Destination of pilgrimage route
    • Religion
      • God is less vengeful
      • Virgin Mary is the queen of heaven-intervener
      • Triumph of the papacy
    • Society
      • Emphasis on education and philosophy
      • Importance of women
      • Courtly love
      • Chivalry
    • Economics and politics
      • Trade
      • Craft guilds and unions
      • Emerging Kingdoms
    • Urbanization
      • Urban churches vertical thin and light
  • 2. Gothic Europe: Time of Turmoil and change
    • Prosperity and Urbanization
      • Power shift from rural monastery to city cathedral
      • Paris becomes the intellectual center of Europe
    • Death and Destruction
      • 100 year war began:1337 between England and France
      • Black Plague: 14th century
  • 3. Women Assume Prominent role
    • Cult of the Virgin Mary: high status
    • Eleanor of Aquitane (1st French Queen) supports literature that emphasizes courtly love and chivalry
  • 4. Gothic Advances
    • Space and verticality
    • Flying buttresses lead to thinner and less massive walls
    • More windows; use of stained glass
  • 5. Saint Denis 735,1137-1281
    • Saint Dionysis(3rd c) : an Apostle who brought Christianity to Gaul, and died a martyr.
    • St. Denis: originated as a Carolingian basilica(735)
      • France’s royal church and a symbol of the monarchy.
      • burial place of St.Denis and French Kings
      • too small & in disrepair
      • Remodeled to become the key monument of Early Gothic art
  • 6. Abbot Suger ( soo-gay the rebuilding of Saint Denis 1081-1151
    • Goals: increase prestige of Saint Denis and of the monarchy.
    • Rebuilt France’s royal church
      • Birthplace of French Gothic architecture
      • Shine with light
      • A way station on the road to paradise
  • 7. Saint Denis: vaults. Saint Denis, France1140-1144 art card #2
    • Lightweight vaults spring from slender columns.
    • Walls between chapels are eliminated and outer walls filled with stained glass
    • Thrust of arches is directed to buttresses
    Plan View Crypt
  • 8. Advantages of a pointed arch
    • Pointed arch:
      • crown of arches can all be the same level regardless of span
      • channel the thrust down instead of out
      • Look taller than round arch
      • Flexibility: vaulting of compartments of varying shapes
    • Less buttressing and larger windows
  • 9. Anagogical window, St. Denis
    • lux nova “ new light”
    • Metaphysical properties
    • Divine light: can be seen and felt, not touched
    • Metaphor for God
  • 10. Parts of the nave elevation
  • 11. Flying Buttresses
  • 12. France, Chartres, Chartres Cathedral (of Notre Dame) South View built 1134, burned 1194, rebuilt in high Gothic style 1194-1220 AC # 4
    • South tower: 1194 transition from Romanesque to Gothic
    • North Tower 1507: Late Gothic
  • 13. Chartres Cathedral West façade Chartres France
    • Tripartite organization
    • Lancet window above portals
    • Rose window above lancet
  • 14. Gothic from 1100
    • ART:A creative movement celebrating the heavenly city of God
      • Height and light
      • Stained glass windows
      • Statuary comes alive
    • Environment: Shift from rural to urban: monastery to cathedral
    • ECONOMIC: Guilds (precursors to unions)
      • Book production from monastery to secular for profit
    • SOCIAL:
      • Role of women: no longer handmaidens of the devil
      • Cult of the Virgin replaced Eve the great sinner
    • Romantic love
      • Poetry and music French courts
    • POLITICAL: Beginnings of European boundaries and countries
  • 15. Iconography of Chartres The City as the center of learning
    • Center of town: high on a hill
    • St. Augustine: summa: summary of law, philosophy and theology
    • Combination of the secular and the spiritual
      • The Bible in stone and glass
        • Nature: plant and animal forms
        • Instruction: teaching of the seven liberal arts
        • History: from Adam and Eve to the last judgement
        • Morality: virtue and vice; wise and foolish, saved and damned
  • 16. Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155
    • Copied the “Royal” portals of Saint Denis
      • Statues of kings and Queens flank the doorways
    • Sculpture proclaims majesty and power of Christ
      • Mary is prominent (Cult of the virgin Mary)
    • Figures integrated with the architecture and stand as individuals
  • 17. Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155 left portal slide
    • Left Portal
      • Tympanum: Close of Christ’s days on earth and his ascension
      • Archivolts: signs of the zodiac, labors of the months (symbols of cosmic and earthly worlds
  • 18. Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155
    • Center Portal: Christ in mandorla, signs of 4 evangelists
      • Tympanum: second coming of Christ (the last Judgment)
      • Lintel:, 24 elders of the Apocalypse, 12 Apostles
  • 19. Right Portal, Christ in Mary’s lap art card #5
      • Archivolts: 7 female liberal arts and male champions
      • Tympanum: Christ’s early life
  • 20. Right Portal Archivolts, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155
    • Outer archivolt
      • Ptolemy: invented calendar and clock
      • Grammar
      • Donatus (Anc. Roman grammarian)
    • Inner Archivolt:
      • Music (striking bells of perfect intervals)
      • Pythagoras
  • 21. Chartres Cathedral central Jamb Statues
    • Columns of Kings and Queens of the old testament flank 3 doors
      • ancestors of Christ
      • Jamb statues destroyed during French revolution, why?
    • How are they different than classical caryatids?
      • Attached to columns
    • Different from Romanesque?
      • New naturalism 3D personalities
    • More naturalistic although still elongated
    • Stand out from the wall-3D
    • no dangling feet
    • Kindly human faces
  • 22. Laon Cathedral 1160-1200 Early Gothic
    • What makes it Gothic?
      • Pointed arches
      • Rose window
      • deep portals
      • open structure of towers
  • 23. Laon Cathedral Laon, France 1190 Early Gothic
    • Romanesque features:
      • nave bays w/ 6 part rib vaults
      • Module system:
        • ¼ crossing square
        • 2 groin vaulted squares in each aisle
  • 24. Laon 1190
    • Early Gothic Features
      • Pointed rib vault w/ pointed arch
      • triforium
  • 25. Laon
      • 4 story Early Gothic Elevation:
        • nave arcade, vaulted gallery, triforium, clerestory with lancets
      • more unified space, not compartmentalized
      • Romanesque: alternate support system(above nave piers), vaulted gallery
  • 26. Notre Dame of Paris 1163-1250
    • Louis VI moves his official residence to Paris
    • Building activity and commercial growth
    • New Cathedral built
    • Flying buttresses
  • 27. High Gothic 1194-1300: standard is height and luminosity
    • Chartres completed 1220 118’
    • Reims: 1211-1290 Nave 125’ tall
    • Amiens: begun 1220, nave= 144 ft
    • Ratio of height to width continues to increase
    Chartres Reims Amiens Laon Paris Nave arcade gallery clerestory triforium Clerestory: Oculi and lancet windows
  • 28. France, Chartres, Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Plan Rebuilt 1194-122
    • 1194 fire destroys parts of Chartres Cathedral
    • New plan: the first high Gothic building: planned from the beginning with flying buttresses
  • 29. High Gothic : Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame, Chartres, France, Nave 1194-1222
    • No alternate support system
    • Unified interior: Vast continuous space flowing quality
    • Tripartite Elevation: arcade, triforium and clerestory(emphasized; double lancet with oculus)
      • Gallery( which acted as a buttress) eliminated in favor of triforium
  • 30. St. Sernin 1010, St. Etienne1067, Chartres 1194 (E. Romanesque) (L. Romanesque) Gothic
  • 31. Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Rose Window and lancets, n. transept 1194-122
    • Stone bar tracery
    • Narrative Scene
      • Center of Rose : Virgin Mary
      • Lancets: St. Anne and 4 Old testament prophets
    • Symbolism
      • Square and circle:heaven and earth
      • Rose= Virgin Mary
  • 32. Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Stained Glass Virgin and Child and Angels ; Chartres France 12-13 c.
    • Emphasis on Mary queen of heaven
    • Traditional frontal composition
  • 33. Hagia Sophia mosaic Gothic Stained glass Light reflecting light transmitting young and worldly Virgin and child Chartres cathedral
  • 34.
    • Maze of ThChartresTT
    On the left is a labyrinth, note it is #2 above. People would walk it as part of their pilgrimage to a holy site.
  • 35. Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Transept Portals Saints, 1220-1230
    • Classical revolution
    • Forceful projection ( fully in the round) from architecture
    • Individual personalities
    • of saints
    • Bodies turned at angles
    • Soft , not stiff drapery
  • 36. Saint Theodore, Jamb Statues Chartres 1230
    • Ideal Christian Knight (far left)
    • Gothic crusader costume
    • Pronounced movement in body
    • Note the suggested contrapposto pose because of the diagonal of the sword strap across one hip
  • 37. Romanesque Tympanum at Cathedral of Saint-Lazare The Last Judgment by Gislebertus, 1120 Note similarities, through the lines or bands that separate the levels of action, to ancient narrative art works such as the Column of Trajan or the Standard of Ur. While these works dealt with the subject of war and victory, Romanesque and Gothic art deal almost exclusively with stories from the bible and the life of Christ.
  • 38. Amiens Cathedral begun 1220 Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, Renaud de Cormont AC #14( plan and façade)
    • High Gothic Formula:
      • Rectangular bay system
      • 4 part rib vault
      • dissolution of heavy walls
      • excellent buttressing
  • 39. Amiens Nave, 144 feet high
    • Self sustaining skeletal architecture: perfect expression of Gothic spirituality
    • Nave arcade, triforium, clerestory
    • Buttressing eliminated mass
    • What would be its Byzantine counterpart?
  • 40. How did the focus of religious art change between the Romanesque and Gothic period?
    • ROMANESQUE
    • Emphasis on the damnation
    • Women-devils
    • Eve the sinner
    • Books produced by monks
    • Bible source of all knowledge
    • GOTHIC
    • Emphasis on salvation
    • Cult of the virgin
    • Mary the redeemer
    • Dedication to love
    • Books produced by secular sources
    • Emphasis on the intellectual- St. Thomas Aquinas
  • 41. Early Christian Youthful Byzantine: pantocrater- ruler of heaven and earth Consider these mosaics in comparison to stained glass windows
  • 42. Reims Cathedral Reims France 1225-1290
    • Kings gallery above Rose window
    • Openings taller, narrower, more intricate
    • Dematerialize the building
    • Glass replaces stone in tympanums
  • 43. Chartres 1194 Amiens 1220 Reims 1225 The development of Gothic architecture
  • 44. West façade Reims,-Visitation jamb statues 1230
    • Classical naturalistic style, appear to be conversing!
    • Detached from background, full bodied
    • Celebration of Mary’s life
  • 45.  
  • 46. Compare the four heads
  • 47. The Rayonnant Style “Radiant” 1250-1300
    • From the Royal Paris court
      • Wealthy, powerful, prestigious
    • Bar tracery and light
      • turns architecture into radiant light
  • 48. Sainte- Chapelle Paris France 1243-1248
    • Patron:Louis IX “The Saintly king”
    • Glass replaces whole building (6,450 sq ft of glass)
    • A Carved Reliquary for Christ’s crown of thorns
    6’ reliquary 1190 relics of 3 magi Cologne Germany
  • 49. Sainte Chapelle interior 1243-1248
    • Slender architectural forms
    • linearity
    • Rayonnant Style
  • 50. Virgin of Paris Notre Dame, Paris early14 c.
    • Worldly queen and son
    • Humanization
    • artificial “S” curve, body is lost
  • 51. Hermes and infant Dionysis high classical Greece Note similarities of the poses also note how the works reflect cultural values,
  • 52. Gothic Flamboyant Style Saint Maclou, Rouen France 1500-1514
    • Flame like tracery
    • 5 portals bend out in an arc
  • 53. Book illumination and Luxury Arts
    • Paris intellectual center
    • Fine books produced not by clergy but by urban factories
    • Dante: The Divine Comedy 1320
  • 54. Villard de Honnecourt 1220-1235 Ink on Vellum
    • Personal sketchbook
    • All sketches based on geometric forms
  • 55. God as architect of the world, folio 1 verso of a moralized Bible, from Paris , ca. 1220-1230. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 13 1/2" X 8 1/4”. By Sterreichische
    • Circle: eternity –one God
    • Sun , moon and matter
    • Using tools-industrious mortal
  • 56. Abraham and the Three Angels, Psalter of Saint Louis, PARIS 1253-1270
    • Same artists who made stained glass for St. Chapelle.
    • Architectural setting
    • Prefiguration of trinity
    • Parisian court style
      • Elegant proportion
      • Swaying pose
      • Facial expression
      • Theatrical gestures
  • 57. Master Honore Breviary of Phillippe le Bel, Paris France 1296
    • Pioneer of naturalism
      • Figures modeled
      • But lacking background
    • Court Style
    • Note similarities to Islamic and Celtic art in terms of pattern making
  • 58. Virgin of Jeanne D’Evreux Saint Denis, Silver gilt with enamel 1339, 27inches
    • Reliquary for the hair of the Virgin Mary
    • Gift from the Queen to the church
      • Holding fleur de Lis -symbol of Royalty
      • Crown is missing
    • Sophisticated and Elegant
      • S curve
      • “ hipshot” position
      • small head Gothic mannerism
      • heavy drapery
  • 59. Gothic Outside France
    • 2nd half of 13th cent. Gothic becomes international style (in Europe).
    • Modified to fit local preferences
  • 60. Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England ( View from NW) 1220-1258
    • Different from French?
      • Emphasis on length, not height
      • Crossing tower dominates, not W. facade
    • Similarities:
      • Lancet windows, blind arcades
    Superficial Gothic attributes, not structural logic or emphasis on height
  • 61. Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England1220-1258
    • Façade wider than interior, does not correspond to interior aisles
    • Double transept, no apse
  • 62. Interior Salisbury Cathedral
    • How does it depart from French gothic Style?
      • Pier colonnettes stop at spring line
      • Vault ribs rise from triforium
      • Two tone color
      • Horizontality
  • 63. English Gothic 14th Cent. The Perpendicular Style
    • Choir of Gloucester Cathedral
    • Verticality of decorative details
  • 64. Chapel of Henry VII Westminster Abbey, London 1503-1519
    • Perpendicular style disguises structure
    • Fan vault
    • hanging pendants
    • Decorative fancy
    • Kings tomb and portraits of Henry and Queen Elizabeth
      • Reminder of human mortality
  • 65. Germany
    • Architecture remained conservatively Romanesque until 13th Cent
    • German art is passionate and emotional
  • 66. Gerhard of Cologne, Cologne Cathedral, begun 1248 Germany nave, towers, façade 1880
  • 67.
    • Similar to Amiens
    • Light and height
    Choir from Nave Cologne Cathedral
  • 68. Death of the Virgin, Tympanum 1230, Strasbourg Cathedral
    • 12 apostles gather around a “gothic “ Mary
    • Christ holds Mother’s soul
    • Classical characteristics?
      • Organization
      • Natural drapery
    • Gothic Art
      • Humanized and natural
    • German Gothic
      • Passionate drama
    • Medieval or non-classicizing characteristics?
      • No space for bodies
      • Unnatural movement
  • 69. Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg Cathedral, Germany 1249-1255 6’2”
    • French Gothic
      • Attached to columns, below canopies
    • Period costumes
    • Changes from earlier
      • Drapery is accurate
      • Very realistic
      • Humanization
      • Secular
      • Real people(donors) in a church
  • 70. Virgin with Dead Christ, Germany 1300-1325 painted wood
    • Humanization of religious themes
    • Troubles of the 14 th century
      • War, plague, famine, social strife
    • Christ and Mary share human woes
    • Christ: Stunted and distorted , evokes feeling and compassion
  • 71. These two works represent the work of sculptors working in two different media, in two different cultural contexts and with different religious purposes in mind. Rottgen Pieta, 1300-1325, painted wood, 2’10” high Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux, Saint Denis, France 1339. Silver gilt and enamel
  • 72. Italy Gothic and Non Gothic
  • 73. Lorenzo Maitani, Orvieto Cathedral ,Orvieto Italy 1310
    • Regional Diversity
    • Gothic façade over E. Christian church
    • What is Gothic?
      • Pointed gables
      • Rose window
      • 4 pinnacles
  • 74. Orvieto, 1310; Miniato al Monte1062; Pisa cathedral 1063
  • 75. Milan Cathedral , Milan Italy 1386 Waning of the Gothic style
    • Built by committee; Italian proportion, Gothic décor, new Renaissance style
  • 76.