Sex and Gender by Irene Santiago

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Feminism: Defining equal rights and opportunities for young women
By: Ms. Irene M. Santiago, Chair Emerita and CEO, Mindanao Commission on Women

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
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  • Marginalization (economic sphere) Not equal pay for work of equal value Women last hired, first fired No/little opportunities for career advancement (training available or accessible to men only) Work at home not given any economic value, not considered as work Work outside the home that are considered extension of their home roles are valued less Subordination (political sphere) Few women in decision-making (incl. At home) Glass ceiling for women – promotions slow, some leadership positions not for women - 10% women in most legislatures Politics too dirty for women – di masikmura ng women Gender Stereotyping “ kinakahon” – men’s place, role, work, dress, color, etc. not women’s place, role, dress, color, etc. From womb to tomb – malikot sa tiyan/baby boy, maganda ang nanay/baby girl – boy’s games & toys/girl’s games & toys Prevents women from full enjoyment of rights and expression of her talents Like the air we breath – oftentimes subtle so we are socialized into it without realizing it – defined by our songs, textbooks, church sermons, advertisements Multiple burden 8 hr. work outside the home – 8 hrs. housework required by defined gender roles – little time for rest & recreation Men not expected to do housework (some do housework, but only when they want to.e.g. pasikat sa friends na marunong magluto ng pasta) Violence against women Whole range of violent acts – green jokes, sexual innuendos, sexual harassment, acts of lasciviousness, rape Women treated as sex objects Men socialized into thinking than women are virgins (they expect of their girlfriend, wives, daughters) or vamps (the women who provide them sexual favors) Some places (parks, bars,etc. or work (night work, work that requires travel) not for women - No woman is safe until all women are safe. Negative effect on personhood Women develop low self-esteem, no self-confidence No control over their bodies Women set low expectations of themselves, will not want to achieve more, will not want to outshine her man Will feel that without a man, she is nothing (pressures for women to get married, when married – must keep her man at all costs)
  • Sex and Gender by Irene Santiago

    1. 1. <ul><li>SEX and GENDER </li></ul>
    2. 5. What is gender ? What is sex? Gender is very much related to sex and many people are often confused about the distinction between sex and gender
    3. 6. SEX: a natural distinguishing variable based on biological attributes, such as - <ul><li>physical – genitalia, reproductive organs </li></ul><ul><li>genetic – chromosomes, hormones </li></ul>Sex is universal, biological & fixed
    4. 7. DETERMINANTS OF SEX FEMALE MALE GENITALIA vagina, clitoris penis, scrotum INTERNAL REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS uterus, ovaries testes CHROMOSOMES XX XY HORMONES estrogen, progesterone testosterone
    5. 8. SEX GENDER What makes one male or female What is masculine or feminine Biologically- determined Socially-determined; culturally-defined Refers to physical characteristics Refers to learned behavior
    6. 9. SEX GENDER Constant across time Changes over time Constant/same across different societies and cultures May vary in different societies and cultures Gender differences are created, produced, reproduced & maintained by social institutions Gender is multi-dimensional, influencing economic, political & social interactions and needs
    7. 10. INSTITUTIONS THAT PERPETUATE GENDER POWER RELATIONS FAMILY SCHOOL CHURCH / RELIGION MEDIA BUSINESS MARKET STATE
    8. 11. Because of uneven and unjust GENDER POWER RELATIONS women and men are boxed into situations – which constrain their Capacity to do and to be
    9. 12. GENDER BIASES AGAINST MEN Inherently aggressive and violent Don’t feel pain/incapable of experiencing human relations Inherently expressive in their sexuality Don’t need closeness, reassurance and attention etc.
    10. 13. Gender issues & biases affect women more
    11. 14. VIOLENCE MARGINALIZAT ION SUBORDINATION MULTIPLE BURDEN GENDER STEREOTYPING Manifestations of gender biases NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON PERSONHOOD
    12. 15. Patriarchal social structures are <ul><li>1.  Male dominated- - which doesn't mean that all men are powerful or all women are powerless--only that the most powerful roles in most sectors of society are held predominantly by men, and the least powerful roles are held predominantly by women </li></ul>
    13. 16. <ul><li>2. Organized around an obsession with control , with men elevated in the social structure because of their presumed ability to exert control (whether rationally or through violence or the threat of violence) and women devalued for their supposed lack of control--women are assumed to need men's supervision, protection, or control. </li></ul>
    14. 17. <ul><li>3.  Male identified:   aspects of society and personal attributes that are highly valued are associated with men, while devalued attributes and social activities are associated with women.  There is a sense of threat to the social structure of patriarchies when these gendered associations are destabilized--and the response in patriarchy is to increase the level of control, often by exerting control over women (as well as groups who are devalued by virtue of race, ethnicity, sexuality, or class).  </li></ul>
    15. 18. <ul><li>4.  Male centered:  It is taken for granted that the center of attention is the natural place for men and boys, and that women should occupy the margins.  Public attention is focused on men.  (To test this, take a look at any daily newspaper; what do you find on the front page about men?  about women?) </li></ul>
    16. 19. <ul><li>Functions of Gender </li></ul><ul><li>An ideology </li></ul><ul><li>A means of social control </li></ul><ul><li>A maintainer of social distance </li></ul><ul><li>An organizing principle in society: structural, </li></ul><ul><li>social, political, and economic relations </li></ul><ul><li>A determinant of femininity and masculinity </li></ul><ul><li>A determinant of social relationships </li></ul><ul><li>A determinant of power relations </li></ul><ul><li>A determinant of relationships between women </li></ul><ul><li>and men </li></ul><ul><li>A shaper of values and attitudes toward society </li></ul>
    17. 20. <ul><li>Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>A set of beliefs to explain the past, justify, support, and organize the present, and offer a view of the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Habit or ritual of showing respect to certain formulas which, for reasons of emotional safety we have strong ties, but whose meanings and consequences we have no understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Justifications that mask specific interests or widely held viewpoints. </li></ul><ul><li>Social formulas or belief systems that can be used to mobilize people for action. </li></ul>
    18. 21. Social Control <ul><ul><li>Means through which society encourages and enforces conformity to its norms and expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social mechanisms by which a group or society exercises its dominion over component individuals and enforces conformity to its norms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulating institutions that ensure that individual behavior be in conformity with group demands . Law, customs, folkways and even fashion operate to enforce conformity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social control is internalized so that the moral demands of society become constitutive elements of an individual’s personality. Social control mechanisms ensure that most individuals in most situations like to do the things they have to do </li></ul></ul>
    19. 22. Social Distance <ul><li>Social distance is a feeling of separation </li></ul><ul><li>or actual separation between and among groups . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul></ul>

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