Gender-based Violence by Patricia Sarenas

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Understanding Gender-based Violence …

Understanding Gender-based Violence
By: Ms. Patricia M. Sarenas, Deputy Director, Mindanao Commission on Women

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  • 1. UNDERSTANDING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Presentation of Patricia M. Sarenas “ Vibrant Visions! Valiant Voices!” Mindanao Young Women Leaders Conference 21 October 2011
  • 2. WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? “ Violence involving men and women, in which the female is usually the victim and which arises from unequal power relationships between men and women.” … evolves in part from women’s subordinate gender status in society (traditional beliefs, norms and social institutions legitimize and therefore, perpetuate violence against women)
  • 3.
    • The use of the term gender-based violence (GBV) –
    • provides a new context in which to examine and understand the long-standing phenomenon of violence against women
    • shifts the focus from women as victims
      • to gender and the unequal power relationships between women and men
      • created and maintained by gender stereotypes as the basic underlying cause of violence against women (VAW)
  • 4.
    • FIVE INTER-RELATED TYPES OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE
    • PHYSICAL
    • VERBAL
    • SEXUAL
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL
    • SOCIO-ECONOMIC
    • GBV is difficult and complex issue and categorizing different types of violence can never be exact
    • all forms of GBV can occur both in the private sphere or in the public sphere
  • 5. PHYSICAL VIOLENCE
          • physical verbal sexual psychological socio-economic
    beating, kicking, punching, biting maiming, burning use of objects and weapons battering sexual assault forced abortion coercive or forced use of contraceptives Female genital mutilation or other traditional practices harmful to women female infanticide etc etc etc
  • 6.
          • physical verbal sexual psychological socio-economic
    VERBAL ABUSE Regular and systematic verbal attacks (often purposefully targeting sensitive spots Put-downs (in private or in front of others) Ridiculing, comments and green jokes (about the “stupidity” of women, sexual availability) Use of swear-words Humiliating Threatening Name-calling (e.g., queer, faggot, bayot/bakla) etc. etc. etc.
  • 7.
          • physical verbal sexual psychological socio-economic
    SEXUAL / SEXUALIZED VIOLENCE Using sexuality as a terrain for attack As with other forms of violence, is related to the power structure Rape (as broadly defined; including date rape and marital rape) Acts of lasciviousness Forcing to do or watch a sexual act Forced unsafe sex Sexual harassment Reproduction-related abuse – forced pregnancy, forced abortion, forced sterilization Withdrawal of sexual attention Prostitution
  • 8.
          • physical verbal sexual psychological socio-economic
    PSYCHOLOGICAL VIOLENCE “… acts or omissions causing or likely to cause mental or emotional suffering of the victim such as but not limited to intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage to property, public ridicule or humiliation, repeated verbal abuse and mental infidelity. It includes causing or allowing the victim to witness the physical, sexual or psychological abuse of a member of the family to which the victim belongs, or to witness pornography in any form or to witness abusive injury to pets or to unlawful or unwanted deprivation of the right to custody and/or visitation of common children. “ R.A. 9262 – VAWC Law
  • 9.
          • physical verbal sexual psychological socio-economic
    SOCIO-ECONOMIC VIOLENCE - means to make victim more vulnerable to other forms of violence - reason why other forms of violence are inflicted Taking away earnings of the victim Not allowing victim to have separate/independent income (denial of access to and control over productive resources) Exclusion from certain jobs Lower wages, lack of child care support/benefits Dowry-related violence
  • 10.
    • Violence against women may be any of the following:
    • physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, incest, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, violence by a person other than one's spouse, and violence related to exploitation;
    • Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, and trafficking in women and forced prostitution;
    • physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, such as custodial rape and torture done to women prisoners;
    • violation of women's human rights in situations of armed conflict, in particular murder, systematic rape, sexual slavery, and forced pregnancy; and
    • acts of violence such as forced abortion, coercive or forced use of contraceptives, female infanticide, and prenatal sex selection in which the fetus is aborted if tests reveal it to be female.
    VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN (VAW) - Any act of gender-based violence that results in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. 
  • 11. Phase Type Prenatal Prenatal sex selection, battering during pregnancy, coerced pregnancy (rape during war) Infancy Female infanticide, emotional and physical abuse, differential access to food and medical care Childhood Genital cutting/FGM; incest and sexual abuse; differential access to food, medical care, and education; child prostitution Adolescence Dating and courtship violence, economically coerced sex, sexual abuse in the workplace, rape, sexual harassment, forced prostitution Reproductive Abuse of women by intimate partners, marital rape, dowry abuse and murders, partner homicide, psychological abuse, sexual abuse in the workplace, sexual harassment, rape, abuse of women with disabilities Old Age Abuse of widows, elder abuse (which affects mostly women) Source: Heise, L. 1994. Violence Against Women: The Hidden Health Burden. World Bank Discussion Paper. Washington. D.C. The World Bank Gender discrimination throughout a woman's life
  • 12. 3 UNDERLYING CAUSES OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE FIRST: there is learning to abuse SECOND: after someone learns to be violent, they must have the opportunity to abuse . This model is consistent with the risk factors noted that would provide the opportunity to abuse: power differences and isolation THIRD: given learning and opportunity, the abuser must choose to abuse
  • 13.
    • Learning to resort to violence comes from three factors:
    • instruction by others to act in violent or threatening ways,
    • modeling of violent or controlling behavior, and
    • reward (or absence of punishment) of controlling and threatening behavior
    1 st – Learning to abuse .
  • 14.
    • consistent with the risk factors in that instruction and modeling could both be associated with a history of past abuse or witnessing of abuse.
    • Such abuse could teach that the batterer is entitled to use violence to achieve his desires (Burke and Follingstad, 1999).
    • reward for violent behavior can be directly given to the abuser, or be observed in the case of others who act in threatening ways and are rewarded.
    • The "flip side of the coin" may also come into play where there is no reward , but also no punishment or consequence. For example, if police are called to a domestic disturbance and leave without making any intervention, the batterer may learn that outside intervention in the couple is nothing to be concerned about or feared
  • 15. 2 nd - have the opportunity to abuse consistent with the risk factors would provide the opportunity to abuse: power differences and isolation .  Power differences may stem from a number of factors, including: sexism homophobia racism income disparity educational disparity ageism disability health and HIV status Isolation means that: 1) the abuser is less likely to be caught, 2) conflict is more likely to escalate, and 3) the victim is more likely to become depressed and less likely to see any way out of the relationship.
  • 16.
    • consistent with the risk factors -
    • poor communication skills,
    • impulse control that is weakened by substance use, and
    • distorted ideas about gender roles and the permissibility of violence
    • that could all lead to the choice to resort to threats, control, and violence as a means to achieve one's wishes.
    3 rd – given learning and opportunity, the abuser must choose to abuse
  • 17. 3 UNDERLYING CAUSES OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE FIRST: there is learning to abuse SECOND: after someone learns to be violent, they must have the opportunity to abuse . This model is consistent with the risk factors noted that would provide the opportunity to abuse: power differences and isolation THIRD: given learning and opportunity, the abuser must choose to abuse
  • 18.  
  • 19.
    • Build-up Phase
    • increased tension
    • Stand-over Phase
    • control
    • fear
    • Remorse Phase
    • justification
    • minimization
    • guilt
    • Pursuit Phase
    • promises
    • helplessness
    • Honeymoon Phase
    • enmeshment
    • denial of previous difficulties
    CYCLE OF VIOLENCE EXPLOSION Planning/Fantasy/Set-up
  • 20.
    • Build-up Phase
    • increased tension
    • Stand-over Phase
    • control
    • fear
    • Remorse Phase
    • justification
    • minimization
    • guilt
    • Pursuit Phase
    • promises
    • helplessness
    • Honeymoon Phase
    • enmeshment
    • denial of previous difficulties
    CYCLE OF VIOLENCE EXPLOSION Planning/Fantasy/Set-up
  • 21. WHAT CAN BE DONE TO COMBAT GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? (some examples of actions) Awareness-raising Recognition and legal measures Effective mechanisms and processes for violence prevention National committees for gender advancement with a clear paln of action Equality ombud / gender ombud Effective legislation implemented to ensure legal and substantive equality Affirmative action (education, employment, etc.)
  • 22. WHAT CAN BE DONE BY THE YOUTH? ? ? ? ? ?