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# Anton Kasyanov, Introduction to Python, Lecture2

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### Anton Kasyanov, Introduction to Python, Lecture2

1. 1. Introduction to Python Lecture 2 Kasyanov Anton IASA 2011
2. 2. Plan Variables Types Functions If operator
3. 3. Variables A variable is a name that refers to a value. Variables let us store and reuse values in several places. Python is dynamically typed. That means that we dont need to specify variables type.
4. 4. Variables, assignment Form: variable = expression  An expression is a legal sentence in python that can be evaluated.  So we will put math expressions into the shell and seen them be evaluated to single numbers. What it does:  1. Evaluate the expression on the RHS.(This value is a memory address)  2. Store the memory address in the variable.
5. 5. Variables, assignment What this means is that a variable is a name and a memory address. The name points to a memory address where the value is stored.
6. 6. Practice Lets play with python shell
7. 7. Functions Useful but simple to create. First lets think about what it means to define a function in math.  Consider f(x)=x^2. In python we can do the same with: def f(x): return x**2
8. 8. Functions A function definition has the form: def function_name(parameters): block  def is a python keyword; it cannot be used for naming functions or variables.  A parameter of a function is a variable. A function can have any number of parameters, including 0.  A block is a sequence of legal python statements.  A block must be indented.  If the block contains the keyword return, it returns a value; otherwise it returns the special value None.
9. 9. Functions documentation We can use the built-in function help() to get information on functions or modules. We can do this on functions that weve defined as well, but it doesnt give much information. We can add useful documentation with docstrings.  A docstring is surrounded by and must be the first line of a module or function.
10. 10. Docstrings If the first line of a function or module is a string, we call it a docstring.  Short for documentation string. Python saves the string to return if the help function is called. Convention: Leave a blank line after but not before a docstring. All functions should have docstrings.
11. 11. Naming conventions Naming rules and conventions apply to functions, variables and any other kind of name that you will see. Must start with a letter or underscore. Can include letters, numbers, and underscores and nothing else. Case matters, so age is not same name as Age.
12. 12. Name conventions For variables and functions pothole_case is used  variable_name, useful_function CamelCase is sometimes used, but not for variables and functions  MyClass
13. 13. Types Every variable has a type Use built-in function type() Type converting is available
14. 14. Booleans Can have two values True, False. Have three operations: not, and, or. not changes a True to a False and vice versa. and returns False unless all the arguments are True. or returns True unless all the arguments are False.
15. 15. Booleans We can use relational operators.  <,>,<=,>=,!=, == These are all comparison operators that return True or False. == is the equality operator. != is not equals.
16. 16. Practice Lets use Python shell and play with types.
17. 17. If statement The general form of an if statement is: if condition: block Example: if grade >=50: print “pass”
18. 18. If statement The general form of an if statement is: if condition: block The condition is a boolean expression. Recall that a block is a series of python statements. If the condition evaluates to true the block is executed.
19. 19. If statement If we want to execute different lines of code based on the outcome of the boolean expression we can use: if condition: block else: block The block under the else is executed if the condition evaluates to false.
20. 20. Elifif condition1: blockelif condition2: blockelif condition3: blockelse: block
21. 21. Practice Changing photo to make it look like its sunset using Python. Sunset is when red color is main on the photo. Lets decrease blue and green components of each pixel. We will use Python Imaging Library (PIL).
22. 22. Workflow Load an image Get its size Step through all pixels  Get color of this pixel  Change it  Put it back Save the image
23. 23. Home assignment Create all following functions: xor(bool, bool) – returns result of xor operation distance(int, int, int, int) – returns (float) distance between (x1,y1) and (x2, y2) percent(int, int) - if a<b then returns (int) percent of a according to b, else returns -1
24. 24. Home assignment Send to mind_master@ukr.net due to 17.10 (Monday) Just functions.py file First line is import math Math.sqrt() is useful
25. 25. Any questions?
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