R&D goals and stakeholders To set up a mycorrhizal germplasm reservoir of genetic diversity ofmycorrhizal fungi of jatropha-curcas with high oil yielding for biodieselproduction and the elimination of the toxicity of the meal]waste.Executing organization :BIOVALE ENERGIA – an emerging biodiesel company based in the MinasGerais in partnership with various stakeholders in the oil production chainCo-executing organizations:Federal University of Viçosa – DMB/BIOAGRO, ranked as the best universityof Minas Gerais State and 3rd in BrazilSECTES – Minas Gerais State Science and Technology SecretariatEPAMIG – EMPRESA DE PESQUISA DE AGROPECUÁRIA DE MINAS, nationalbench-mark in jatropha developmentItabira Munipality in cooperation with INDESI – Social and economicDevelopment institution
New Technologies, New Gains Biofuel production has become substantially more efficient over the last 25 years as Brazil and the United States have scaled up their industries. Such incremental gains are likely to continue for years to come.However, the greatest potential for biofuels lies in thedevelopment of new technologies that will significantly expandthe range of biomass feedstock, increase conversion efficiencies,and lower production costs.
Expected results Documentation, preservation and characterization of J. curcas and mycorrhizal fungi germplasm Development of micropropagated plants inoculated of ROC (Root Organ Culture) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their in vitro mass inoculum production Selection of jatropha genotypes with high oil yielding, envisaging the biodiesel production Toxicity elimination of the waste for animal feed Utilization and reclamation of industry created wastelandsThe mycorrhizal technology offers biological means of assuring plant health in aneconomically profitable and ecologically friendly manner. The only known fungal systemcategorized as a biofertilizer, mycorrhizae provide plant roots with extended arms thathelp them tap soil nutrients that are otherwise beyond their reach. This means greateravailability of other, enriching soil, increasing health, and decreasing dependence onchemical fertilizers.
Documentation, preservation and characterization of J. curcas and mycorrhizal fungi germplasmIt exists a wide diversity within the AM fungi which form associationwith the roots of almost 80% plant species and enhance mineralnutrient acquisition and water uptake, as well as increase tolerancetowards different environmental stresses conditions.To conserve and exploit their diversity, BioVale Project contemplatesto build J. curcas and mycorrhizal fungi culture depository housesand maintain cultures from different agro-ecological zones, indifferent areas of Brazil.The expected result is to trap isolate a variety of J. curcas andpolysporal/monosporal cultures, setting up a J. curcas andmycorrhizal fungi germplasm collection of genetic diversity ofagriculturally and industrially species for oil production .
Development of ROC of different AM fungi and their mass inoculum production under in vitroThe ROC (root organ culture) system is the mostattractive and advanced cultivation methodology forAM (arbuscular mycorrhizal ) fungi: it uses root-inducing transfer-DNA-transformed roots of a hostplant to develop the symbiosis on a specific mediumin vitro which provides pure, viable, contamination-free inoculum using reduced space.BioVale R&D Project aims at gaining expertise inROC for in vitro culture and utilize mass productionof AM fungi under in vitro.
Mass inoculum technologyAlthough the facts and figures of potential role of mycorrhizalassociation in enhanced nutritional and water needs of plants inlaboratories, the major bottleneck for its widespread applicationto reach the end-users is its bulk production to cater the hugerequirement. A known fact that culturing mycorrhizal fungi in laboratoryconditions like other microbes was not possible due to its strictbiotrophic nature of proliferation in the presence of suitablehost has been the major reservation of its future contribution inagriculture.The mass inoculum technology envisages to exploit thegenetically modified host roots using the Agrobacteriumumrhizogenes carrying Ri T-DNA plasmid. The technology offers themass production of viable, healthy, genetically pure and highquality fungal propagules, without any pathogenic contaminationunder in vitro environment.
More and earlier productivityJatropha has been identified as one the best plantalternative to offer clean fuel for achieving energysecurity. Jatropha seeds inoculated with in vitro-raised mycorrhiza exhibits early fruition andflowers from the 7th month onwards as against ayear with conventional clonal plantations and twoyears from seed raised plantations.The mycorrhized Jatropha also exhibited 20%–30%higher yields as compared to non-mycorrhizalplantations.The mycorrhized Jatropha will be widely testedcovering several agro-climatic regions in Brazil toprove their adaptation in diverse soils.
Environmental amelioration using mycorrhizal technologyMycorrhized Jatropha has been working on the reclamation ofenvironmentally vulnerable and uncultivable lands usingmycorrhizal technology for more than a decade in India. Thetechnology has proven its worth and potential in many sites,including fly ash overburdens, and land contaminated withdistillery effluents, tannery effluent affected sites and chlor?????alkali sludge.Mycorrhiza benefits both the plants and the environmentallyvulnerable sites. Plant benefits include augmentation of thesupply of phosphorus and trace elements and protection of plantroots from root diseases, high soil temperatures, and high saltconcentrations. The hyphae of mycorrhiza can also bind soilparticles, improve their aggregating capabilities, stabilize soilaggregates, and check leaching of important elements and heavymetals.
Incresing aggregated value of the residue J. curcas The oil expellThe seed kernels are rich in crude protein, CP (31–34.5%) and lipid(55–58%). The neutral detergent fibre contents of extracted J.curcas meals were between 3.9% and 4.5 % of dry matter (DM).The gross energy of kernels ranged from 31.1 to 31.6 MJ/kg DM.The contents of starch and total soluble sugars were below 6 %.The levels of essential amino acids, except lysine, were higherthan that of the FAO/WHO reference protein for a five year oldchild in all the meal samples on a dry matter basis.The common use of this residue is as soil organic fertilizer aftercomposting since it possesses a compound known as phorbol, thatis toxic to animals. Thus, the R&D aims at studying not only thecomposting process of J. curcas residues but also to evaluate thedetoxification potential of micro-organisms for production ofmushroom and animal feed. So, the residue can be transformed inother products with high added value.