MOTIVATION  PRESENTED BY      MINAB.ED 1ST SEMESTER                    1
Motivation•   Define motivation?•   Basic characteristics of motivation.•   Elements of motivation.•   How to motivate stu...
Define motivation?“Motivation is a process that brings forth, controls definite behaviors. Motivation is a group of phenom...
Basic Characteristics of          Motivation• Effort. This refers to the strength of a persons  work-related behaviour.• P...
Three Elements      of  Motivation                 5
ELEMENTS OF MOTIVATIONMotivation starts with the desire to be free.To be free from dependency on others.Freedom to live th...
7
Motivation is built on three basic               elements:Motivation starts with a need, vision, dream or desire to achiev...
Motivation is built on three basic              elements• Develop a love-to-learn, become involved  with risky ventures an...
Motivation is built on three basic              elements• Developing the ability to overcome barriers  and to bounce back ...
A loss of any one part and motivation             is on the rocks.If you like to be creative and love to learn but   canno...
A loss of any one part and motivation             is on the rocks.• If you have a unique idea but don’t like taking  risks...
How to motivate studentsWithout motivation Ss certainly fail to make the necessary effort.• Are all Ss motivated in the sa...
14
Extrinsic and Intrinsic            Motivation    Distinguish between intrinsic and           extrinsic motivation.• Extrin...
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION• It is caused by any number of outside factor:• need to pass an exam• the hope of financial reward• p...
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION• By contrast, comes from within the individual• the enjoyment of the learning process itself• a desir...
PRAISE STUDENTS• ENCOURAGING STUDENTS INPUT FOR      CLASSROOM PROCEDURES                                   18
The teacher:• ASSIST IN SETTING AND MONITORING GOALS                                       19
1.Talk to Ss humanely and sensitively.2.Foment confidence in the classroom in order  to have a warm and enjoyable atmosphe...
• Be approachable and supportive. While  encouraging Ss to help each other, you need  to create an atmosphere in which Ss ...
• Plan work and classroom activities so that Ss may  take roles of varying levels of responsibility.• Take care to select ...
Sense of humor• Since HUMOR:1.Provides motivation and enhance mood and  spirit2.Decreases stress3.Induces relaxation      ...
The method:• The way in which teaching and learning take place is VITAL.                                           24
• CREATE A SAFE CLASSROOM ATMOSPHERE                                       25
• The average S has an attention span of 20-30  minutes. Therefore, vary the lesson with  different techniques and strateg...
Seven Rules of Motivation1. Set a major goal, but follow a path. The path has   mini goals that go in many directions. Whe...
Seven Rules of Motivation4. Learn how to learn. Dependency on others for knowledge     supports the habit of procrastinati...
Motivation             29
Maslow         30
Maslow’s Theory                  31
Drucker          32
LikertLikert developed a refined classification, breaking down organizationsinto four management systems.1st System – Prim...
TaylorFrederick W. Taylor designed a 4-step Method  It begins with breaking the job into its smallest pieces.  The second ...
Argyris          35
HerzbergFrederick Herzberg has tried to modify Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory. Histheory is also known as two-factor theor...
Herzberg Two Factors                Theory           MOTIVATIONAL FACTORSHYGIENE           Achievement  FACTORS         ...
McClellandDavid McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs :1.   Need for Power2.   Need for Aff...
McGregor           39
McGregor Theory X and YUnder the assumptions of theory X :• Employees inherently do not like work  and whenever possible, ...
McGregor Theory X and YIn contrast under the assumptions of  theory Y :   Physical and mental effort at work is as    nat...
MayoTendency to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that theact will be followed by a given ou...
SUMMARY• Behavior is purposeful, directed towards  some end. That is, it is motivated. The driving  force is need. The dir...
44
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  • Presentation motivation

    1. 1. MOTIVATION PRESENTED BY MINAB.ED 1ST SEMESTER 1
    2. 2. Motivation• Define motivation?• Basic characteristics of motivation.• Elements of motivation.• How to motivate students?• Seven rules of motivation.• Motivation theories.• Maslow’s theory. 2
    3. 3. Define motivation?“Motivation is a process that brings forth, controls definite behaviors. Motivation is a group of phenomena affecting the nature of an individuals behaviour, the potency of the behaviour, and the determination of the behaviour. Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to individual beginning with a physiological or psychological need.” 3
    4. 4. Basic Characteristics of Motivation• Effort. This refers to the strength of a persons work-related behaviour.• Persistence. This refers to the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks.• Direction. This refers to the quality of a persons work related behaviour.• Goals. This refers to the ends towards which employees direct their effort 4
    5. 5. Three Elements of Motivation 5
    6. 6. ELEMENTS OF MOTIVATIONMotivation starts with the desire to be free.To be free from dependency on others.Freedom to live the lifestyle we dream of.Freedom to explore our ideas. Total freedom is not possible or desirable, but the struggle to achieve that ideal is the basis for motivation. 6
    7. 7. 7
    8. 8. Motivation is built on three basic elements:Motivation starts with a need, vision, dream or desire to achieve the seemingly impossible. Creativity is associated with ideas, projects and goals, which can be considered a path to freedom. 8
    9. 9. Motivation is built on three basic elements• Develop a love-to-learn, become involved with risky ventures and continually seek new opportunities. Success is based on learning what works and does not work. 9
    10. 10. Motivation is built on three basic elements• Developing the ability to overcome barriers and to bounce back from discouragement or failure. Achievers learn to tolerate the agony of failure. In any worthwhile endeavor, barriers and failure will be there. Bouncing back requires creative thinking as it is a learning process. In addition, bouncing back requires starting again at square one. 10
    11. 11. A loss of any one part and motivation is on the rocks.If you like to be creative and love to learn but cannot face up to failure, you will not go back and try again. Persistent is associated with bouncing back. 11
    12. 12. A loss of any one part and motivation is on the rocks.• If you have a unique idea but don’t like taking risks, ideas is all you will ever have.There must be something in your life that turns you on. You can start by analyzing the lifestyle of your dreams. Remember, money is not a goal, it is a reward for achieving a goal. 12
    13. 13. How to motivate studentsWithout motivation Ss certainly fail to make the necessary effort.• Are all Ss motivated in the same way?• What is the teacher’s role in a S’s motivation?• How motivation can be sustained? 13
    14. 14. 14
    15. 15. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.• Extrinsic Motivation: Stems from the work environment external to the task and it is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated.• Intrinsic Motivation: Stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and it is usually self-applied. 15
    16. 16. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION• It is caused by any number of outside factor:• need to pass an exam• the hope of financial reward• possibility or future travel 16
    17. 17. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION• By contrast, comes from within the individual• the enjoyment of the learning process itself• a desire to make themselves feel better. 17
    18. 18. PRAISE STUDENTS• ENCOURAGING STUDENTS INPUT FOR CLASSROOM PROCEDURES 18
    19. 19. The teacher:• ASSIST IN SETTING AND MONITORING GOALS 19
    20. 20. 1.Talk to Ss humanely and sensitively.2.Foment confidence in the classroom in order to have a warm and enjoyable atmosphere 20
    21. 21. • Be approachable and supportive. While encouraging Ss to help each other, you need to create an atmosphere in which Ss are not afraid to ask and speak in English, What really care is communication.• Some Ss can feel so nervous that might forget everything and their task performance could fail. 21
    22. 22. • Plan work and classroom activities so that Ss may take roles of varying levels of responsibility.• Take care to select materials and activities which are suitable for the student’s level. Classes are often multi-level.• Teachers need to consider stronger and weaker students and provide an easier option and /or extra materials for early finishers. 22
    23. 23. Sense of humor• Since HUMOR:1.Provides motivation and enhance mood and spirit2.Decreases stress3.Induces relaxation 23
    24. 24. The method:• The way in which teaching and learning take place is VITAL. 24
    25. 25. • CREATE A SAFE CLASSROOM ATMOSPHERE 25
    26. 26. • The average S has an attention span of 20-30 minutes. Therefore, vary the lesson with different techniques and strategies: pair/group work, time-limited tasks, etc.• Do not overload Ss. Give them time to prepare, think and consolidate knowledge. 26
    27. 27. Seven Rules of Motivation1. Set a major goal, but follow a path. The path has mini goals that go in many directions. When you learn to succeed at mini goals, you will be motivated to challenge grand goals.2. Finish what you start. A half finished project is of no use to anyone. Quitting is a habit. Develop the habit of finishing self-motivated projects.3. Socialize with others of similar interest. Mutual support is motivating. We will develop the attitudes of our five best friends. If they are losers, we will be a loser. If they are winners, we will be a winner. To be a cowboy we must associate with cowboys. 27
    28. 28. Seven Rules of Motivation4. Learn how to learn. Dependency on others for knowledge supports the habit of procrastination. Man has the ability to learn without instructors. In fact, when we learn the art of self- education we will find, if not create, opportunity to find success beyond our wildest dreams.5. Harmonize natural talent with interest that motivates. Natural talent creates motivation, motivation creates persistence and persistence gets the job done.6. Increase knowledge of subjects that inspires. The more we know about a subject, the more we want to learn about it. A self-propelled upward spiral develops.7. Take risk. Failure and bouncing back are elements of motivation. Failure is a learning tool. No one has ever succeeded at anything worthwhile without a string of failures 28
    29. 29. Motivation 29
    30. 30. Maslow 30
    31. 31. Maslow’s Theory 31
    32. 32. Drucker 32
    33. 33. LikertLikert developed a refined classification, breaking down organizationsinto four management systems.1st System – Primitive authoritarian2nd System – Benevolent authoritarian3rd System – Consultative4th System – ParticipativeAs per the opinion of Likert, the 4th system is the best, not only forprofit organizations, but also for non-profit firms. 33
    34. 34. TaylorFrederick W. Taylor designed a 4-step Method It begins with breaking the job into its smallest pieces. The second step is to select the most qualified employees to perform the job and train them to do it. Next, supervisors are used to monitor the employees to be sure they are following the methods prescribed. Finally, continue in this fashion, but only use employees who are getting the work done. 34
    35. 35. Argyris 35
    36. 36. HerzbergFrederick Herzberg has tried to modify Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory. Histheory is also known as two-factor theory or Hygiene theory.He devised his theory on the question : “What do people want from their jobs?” He asked people to describe in detail, such situations when they feltexceptionally good or exceptionally bad. From the responses that he received,he concluded that opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction.He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and thepresence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their non-presenceleads to De-motivation. In similar manner there are certain factors, the absenceof which causes no dissatisfaction, but their presence has motivational impact. 36
    37. 37. Herzberg Two Factors Theory MOTIVATIONAL FACTORSHYGIENE  Achievement FACTORS  Recognition• Conditions  Growth/Advancement  Interest in the job• Pay• Status• Security• Company policies 37
    38. 38. McClellandDavid McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs :1. Need for Power2. Need for Affiliation3. Need for Achievement 38
    39. 39. McGregor 39
    40. 40. McGregor Theory X and YUnder the assumptions of theory X :• Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.• Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.• Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued.• Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition. 40
    41. 41. McGregor Theory X and YIn contrast under the assumptions of theory Y : Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. People do exercise self-control and self- direction and if they are committed to those goals. Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization. That the way the things are organized, the average human being’s brainpower is only partly used. 41
    42. 42. MayoTendency to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that theact will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome tothe individual to make this simple, expectancy theory says that an employee can bemotivated to perform better when their is a belief that the better performance willlead to good performance appraisal and that this shall result into realization ofpersonal goal in form of some reward. Therefore an employee is :Motivation = Valence x Expectancy.The theory focuses on three things :Efforts and performance relationshipPerformance and reward relationshipRewards and personal goal relationship 42
    43. 43. SUMMARY• Behavior is purposeful, directed towards some end. That is, it is motivated. The driving force is need. The direction is towards perceived reward and away from perceived punishment. 43
    44. 44. 44

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