The Need For Studies of Sequence Sequencing refers to the arrangement of learning objectives (LOs) for a course into a logical teaching sequence. Sequence learning is arguably the most dominant form of human and animal learning. Sequences play a critical role in classical studies of instrumental conditioning, in human skill learning, and in human high- level problem solving and reasoning. In the past, hierarchical, logical sequencing was not shown to be superior to other modes of instruction, and the interaction of imagery, and sequencing had not been examined. In 1969, there were many experiments with different sequences in program based instruction and computer based instruction. A proper sequence provides the learners with a pattern of relationship so that each activity will have a definite purpose. The more meaningful the content, the easier it is to learn and, consequently, the more effective the instruction.
Cont’d.. Proper sequencing also helps to avoid conflicts in the content of the instruction. When material is carefully sequenced, duplication is far less likely. Developmentalist mentioned that cognitive capacities of learners, emphasizing that sequence should be planned from the learner’s point of view rather than a priori. Robert Gagne’s findings showed that increasing complexity is not always the best criterion for ordering material. James Kallison, provided that the most important way to judge sequence is that it reveals the relationship among parts.
sequencing methods Some of the techniques and considerations used in sequencing are:-Job Performance Order: The learning objectives (LOs) are taught in the order in which the dutiesand tasks are performed. In other words, the sequence is the same as thejob sequence.-From Simple to Complex:Objectives may be sequenced in terms of increasing complexity- Critical Sequence:Objects are ordered in terms of their relative importance- Chronological order:The sequencing of LOs is done in a way that is consistent with the orderin which the events occur in time.
Sequencing Methods- Comparative sequence: The familiar topics are taught before unfamiliar ones.- Relationships between objectives :The sequencing is done through a dependent or supportiverelationship between the LOs.- Part to whole :A set of LOs (the parts) are taught and mastered before the sets In 1976,Gerald Posner and Kenneth Strike brought another four types of sequencing: concept-related, inquiry related, learning- related, and utilization related.
The Need for Analyzing Educational Objectives As early as 1956 Educational Psychologist Benjamin Bloom divided what and how we learn into three separate domains of learning. There are different objectives according to each domain of curriculum. Cognitive Domain includes content knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts and concepts that serve developing intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, starting from the simplest behavior (recalling facts) to the most complex (Evaluation). It was found that in cognitive domain, the synthesis and evaluation of the categories did not depend on integration with lower level behaviors.
Cont’d Current research casts doubt on uncertain conceptions of skill hierarchies and spiraled curriculum. A few evidence support hierarchies such as those in Bloom’s taxonomy. Some people believe that increasing the complexity of the content and task may increase the diversity of application and providing adequate support for learning. Affective domain includes feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. Psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. The classification of objectives in the psychomotor and affective domain was completed after 1969.
Major Categories in the Taxonomy of EducationalObjectives (Bloom 1956)Cognitive Domain Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
Cont’d… During the last decade the cognitive process has been greatly strengthen by these studies:1- Metacognitive processes : Knowledge of when and why to usevarious strategies for problem solving.2- The cognitive process underlying the act of planning, sentencegenerations and revising3- The process involved in mathematic activities. Evidence of the change in curriculum development as a result of cognitive psychology supplanting behaviorism can be found in military curriculum development.
The Need for Process-Product Research Process-product research is a method of quantitative research. It differs from other forms of quantitative in that questions are more concerned with the average amount of learning or achievement accomplished by a group than with measuring, predicting or explaining individual differences in learning due to teachers behavior. Process-product research attempts to relate instructional variables to learner achievement and the curriculum planning process to improved instruction and learning. During 1960 to 1969 most of the process-product research dealt with instructional objectives. An instructional objective describes the specific teaching outcome, the behavior required to perform it and determines the means for measuring or evaluating it.
Problems with past process-product research According to Goodlad there were two problems with this king of research: Methodological and Theoretical- It was not always clear what established the process or treatment and also it was not recognized that the treatment had been carried out as required. (Methodological)- It was often difficult to know the importance of small manageable process-product equation within some large frame of explanation.(Theoretical)
Problems with present process-product research1. Research into instructional effectiveness by means of input-output approach has not produced consistent results.2. There is no variable or resource which is shown to exert a powerful influence on learning because of emphasizing on generalization.3. Investigators did not look for unique personal characteristic4. Researchers assume that certain instructional variables are directly relate to student achievement.
Current trends in process-product research1- Making clear distinction between curriculum issues andinstructional methods used. Curriculum content must be held in orderto study instructional methods.2- Refining measurement instrument in order to measure how wellsomething is done and to assess molar instructional sequencesinstead of separate behaviors .Considering the limited range of measures that have been used toassess curriculum, it is inadvisable to connect curriculum effects inachievement with effectiveness.3- Considering untapped questions such as what makes an effectiveunit of instruction and how best to accommodate individualdifferences.
References Ron Sun, C. Lee Giles, “Sequence Learning: From Recognition and Prediction to Sequential Decision Making” Christopher M.Clark , “Five Faces of Reseach on Teaching” Learning Domains or Blooms Taxonomy http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/ Srivastava H.S. and J.P. Shourie (1989). Instructional Objectives of School Subjects, NCERT, New Delhi.