How Do We Define Curriculum? Curriculum is that which is taught at school. Curriculum is a set of performance objectives. Curriculum is all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the school. John Delnay (1959) Curriculum is a design PLAN for learning that requires the purposeful and proactive ,organization sequencing, and management of the interactions among the teacher, the students and the content knowledge we want students to acquire..
How Do We Define Curriculum?Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum as ”allexperiences children have under the guidance of .”teachers Smith, Stanley and Shores defined curriculum ”as a sequence of potentialexperiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining childrenacting“. in group ways of thinking and
Definition of Curriculum planningCurriculum planning is simply the design by whichschools fulfill their responsibilities on behalf of .children and society as wellHowever, plans may exist on a continuum from hastily prepared and superficially developed to.carefully and thoughtfully constructedWe can have a curriculum planning according to.different models of curriculum
Definition of Curriculum planning When planning for curriculum improvement, some categories of bases should be understood, those that are institutional in nature and those that affect people directly . The institutional bases for curriculum planning include planning domains, the context or characteristics of the school situation, the impact of current trends and issues, and the use of strategic planning. (Doll ,1996)
The Bases for Curriculum Planning History Philosophy Social forces Psychology Religion Contemporary Issues
History of Curriculum PlanningHistory has an important message to convey aboutantecedents of the contemporary career and technicalcurriculum and provides a most meaningfulperspective to the curriculum planner. Curriculum aswe know it today ,has evolved over the years from anarrow set of disjointed offerings to a comprehensivearray of relevant student learning experiences.
History of Curriculum PlanningHistory of Curriculum in Iran1) Before appearance of Islam - Hakhamanesh Period (550 B.C) - Sassanid Period (651 A.D)2) After appearance of Islam (459 Loonar years )3) Pahlavi period (1920 – 1983)4) Islamic Revolution (1983 until now)
Hakhamanesh Period Teaching to children had begun from age 7 till 15. Students were separated in groups of girls and boys. Girls should learn some theoretical subjects, beside tailoring, housekeeping, and arts. Horse riding and shooting are also compulsory at that time. boys were divided into 3 groups:5. Special students6. Professional students7. Public students
Sassanid period In Sassanid period moral science also taught in schools. The focus of curriculum was on math and calculating. Corporal punishment was routine in schools. The first higher education institute was established in Iran, named Jondi Shapoor. Very limited fields were taught in this university such as philosophy, agriculture, medicine ,math , law and astronomy science.
After appearance of Islam In this period a new way of teaching was appear. Lots of schools were established and they taught Koran to students next to math, science and sports. In this period of time even if parents don’t have money to send their children to school they send them to mosques to learn Koran and memorizing it. The curriculum of this period is exactly rote learning. Mathematic was taught for its professional users. Some practical skills come into curriculum like farming , carpentry ,engraving…
Pahlavi period Appearance of kindergarten and first school for deaf people. Curriculum is changed in different school grades. lots of textbooks was published for elementary , secondary and high school students. Curriculum was focused on learning other languages especially English and French from elementary schools. Many high school students were sent to Europe for higher education and then came back to teach in universities.
Islamic Revolution period Rote learning is still seen in elementary schools. The idea of learning English as second language changes to Arabic and English, and it appears in secondary schools . Pre-school become compulsory for children. Textbooks changes to more colorful and pictured ones. Curriculum is based on Tyler’s model. Just in some universities and private schools we can see student-centered approach being used.
Philosophy and Curriculum Philosophy is central to curriculum. Studying philosophy allows us to better understand schools and their curricula. Philosophy is the beginning point in curriculum decision making . Philosophy reflects one’s background and experiences. Philosophy may be defined as general theory of education. It is a way of thinking that gives meaning to our lives.(Dewey)
Philosophy and CurriculumPhilosophy provides educators, teachers andcurriculum planners with framework for planning,.implementing and evaluating curriculum in schoolsIt helps in answering what school are for, what subjectsare important, how students should learn and what .materials and methods should be used
Major Philosophies- Idealism- Realism- Pragmatism- Existentialism
IDEALISM The realities of idealism are spiritual , moral or mental and unchanging. Idealism is a philosophical approach that has as its central tenet that ideas are the only true reality. Truth can be found through reasoning, intuition and religious revelation. Teacher’s role is to bring latent knowledge and ideas to consciousness. Teaching methods focus on handling ideas through lecture, discussion, and Socratic dialogue.
IDEALISM (Cont’d) Learning is an intellectual process that involves recalling and working with ideas. In idealism, the aim of education is to discover and develop each individuals abilities and full moral excellence in order to better serve society. Curriculum is knowledge based and subject based. The most important subjects are philosophy , theology and mathematics because they cultivates abstract thinking.
REALISM It based on natural laws , objective and composed of matter. People can come to know the world through their senses and their reasons. Aristotle believed that everything had a purpose and humans’ purpose is to think. Teacher’s role is to be a moral and spiritual leader and to be an authority. Learning is just exercising the mind, and logical thinking are highest form.
REALISM (Cont’d) The Realist curriculum emphasizes the subject matter of the physical world, particularly science and mathematics. Teaching methods focus on mastery of facts and basic skills through demonstration and recitation. Curriculum is knowledge based and subject based. Most important subjects are humanistic and scientific subjects.
PRAGMATISM(EXPERIMENTALISM) It is based on change, process, and relativity. Learning occurs as the person engage in problem solving. Both learner and their environment are constantly changing. Teachers’ role is to focus on critical thinking. Teaching is more exploratory than explanatory. Curriculum was based on child’s experience and interests and also problem-solving activities.
EXISTENTIALISM The nature of reality for Existentialists is subjective, and lies within the individual. Existentialism is a philosophy concerned with finding self and the meaning of life through free will, choice, and personal responsibility. Teachers’ role is to cultivate personal choice and individual self-definition. Teachers view the individual as an entity within a social context in which the learner must confront others views to clarify his or her own.
EXISTENTIALISM (Cont’d) Existentialists are opposed to thinking about students as objects to be measured, tracked, or standardized. Such educators want the educational experience to focus on creating opportunities for self-direction and self actualization. They start with the student, rather than on curriculum content.
PERENNIALISM The oldest and most conservative educational philosophy. It is rooted in realism and relies on the past and stresses traditional values. the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western civilization. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, and are not changing.
PERENNIALISM(cont’d) The demanding curriculum focuses on attaining cultural literacy, stressing students growth in enduring disciplines. The perennialists curriculum is subject centered and constant. It emphasizes the great works of literature and art, the laws or principles of science.
ESSENTIALISM Traditional and conservative philosophy based on idealism and realism. This approach was in reaction to progressivist approaches. Essentialists believe that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way. The core of the curriculum is essential knowledge and skills and academic rigor.
ESSENTIALISM(cont’d) Essentialists accept the idea that this core curriculum may change. Schooling should be practical, preparing students to become valuable members of society. Teachers are to help students keep their non- productive instincts in check, such as aggression or mindlessness. Students should be taught hard work, respect for authority, and discipline.
PROGRESSIVISM It is developed from pragmatic philosophy. Progressivists believe that education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the content or the teacher. It is active, not passive. The learner is a problem solver and thinker who makes meaning through his or her individual experience in the physical and cultural context. Progressivism emphasized how to think, not what to think.
PROGRESSIVISM(cont’d) Curriculum content is derived from student interests and questions. John Dewey was its foremost proponent. One of his tenets was that the school should improve the way of life of our citizens through experiencing freedom and democracy in schools. Shared decision making, planning of teachers with students, student- selected topics are all aspects. Books are tools, rather than authority.
PROGRESSIVISM(cont’d) It is opposed to:2. Rote learning3. Authoritarian teaching4. Overreliance on textbook methods5. Intimidation or corporal punishment
RECONSTRUCTIONIVISM Based on socialistic ideas . Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education. According to Brameld, the founder of social reconstructionism, students and teachers must improve society. Curriculum must be transformed in keeping with a new social-economic-political education. Society is always changing and the curriculum has to change.
RECONSTRUCTIONIVISM (cont’d) For social reconstructionists and critical theorists, curriculum focuses on student experience and taking social action on real problems, such as violence, hunger, international terrorism, and inflation.
Conclusion Curriculum as a field of study-with its own methods, theories, and ways of solving problems- has influenced by history and philosophy. We believe that no single philosophy, old or new , should guide decisions about schools and curriculum. Curriculum planners need to help improve and design school practices in harmony with history of curriculum and philosophy of the school and community.