How can Behavioral
  M. Kravcik
                         and Cognitive Psychology inform
 R. Klamma
Z. Petrushyna         ...
Overview
                         Introduction (30 min)

  M. Kravcik
 R. Klamma
                         Collaboration:
Z...
Agenda


  M. Kravcik
 R. Klamma
Z. Petrushyna



                                      Heuristics &




                 ...
Motivation
                         Illusions:
                         • Optical
  M. Kravcik
 R. Klamma
Z. Petrushyna
  ...
Human Mind
                         S. Pinker: Our mind is made for fitness, not for truth
                         Meanin...
2 Kinds of Thinking
                         Automatic system (AS):                Reflective system (RS)
                ...
Heuristics & Biases
                             emerge from the interplay between AS & RS
                               ...
Survey on Present Learning

                         10 questions on 3 issues:

  M. Kravcik
 R. Klamma
Z. Petrushyna
    ...
Freedom of Learner

                         The more freedom for the   Too much freedom for
                         lear...
Pedagogical Support
                         Each learner should         Not everybody can be an
                         ...
Importance of Content & Form
                         In learning the      The form of the   Both content and
            ...
Necessity of Tutor
                         The tutor          It is always good   Tutors (teachers)
                     ...
Categories of Biases (1)
                         3 basic categories of biases (Thaler & Sunstein)
                       ...
Categories of Biases (2)
                         Self-control: our rationality and temptation may be in conflict

       ...
Categories of Biases (3)
                         Social influences: we are influenced by the behavior of other people

  ...
Uneasy Choices
                                         (Thaler & Sunstein)
                                            • ...
Choice Architecture
                                        (Thaler & Sunstein)
                                          ...
Proposed Solution
                         AS always wins over RS – do not confuse our AS
                         (Thaler...
ROLE Approach to the Design
                            of Learning Experiences
                                          ...
Overview
                         Introduction (30 min)

  M. Kravcik
 R. Klamma
                         Collaboration:
Z...
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How can Behavioral and Cognitive Psychology inform Design of Learning Experiences?

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JTEL Summer School Workshop

Psycho-pedagogical theories have a usually underestimated high impact on adaptive education. In the ROLE project, a primary goal is to identify functional and non-functional requirements specifications, with the aim to integrate them into a psycho-pedagogically sound framework as a basis for the development of a highly responsive open learning platform.

The results of behavioural and cognitive psychology show that humans make mistakes predictably and this knowledge can be harnessed to support them. Various biases emerge from the interplay between the automatic and reflective system driving our thinking processes. Apparently there are opportunities for choice architecture to influence options in a way that will support choosers to act in their own interest. The main challenge here is to offer nudges that will most likely help and least likely inflict harm, preserving freedom of choice.

In this workshop we demonstrate some of human cognitive biases and ask participants to elaborate in collaborative and interactive way on possible consequences for requirements specification of adaptive and recommender learning systems. Our aim is to raise awareness of some outcomes from behavioral and cognitive psychology that can be relevant for the design of future responsive learning solutions.

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  • A nice presentation, very informative and interesting!
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  • Great! We'll do that again in ROLE Developer Camp, related to Developers rather than learners.
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  • Workshop Information: http://www.prolearn-academy.org/Events/summer-school-2010/summer-school-2010/workshops/psychologpers
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How can Behavioral and Cognitive Psychology inform Design of Learning Experiences?

  1. 1. How can Behavioral M. Kravcik and Cognitive Psychology inform R. Klamma Z. Petrushyna Design of Learning Experiences? Workshop JTEL Summer School June 2010 Ohrid, June 2010 Slide 1 Milos Kravcik, Ralf Klamma, Zinayida Petrushyna Chair for Information Systems and Databases, RWTH Aachen University, Germany Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  2. 2. Overview Introduction (30 min) M. Kravcik R. Klamma Collaboration: Z. Petrushyna • discussion in groups of 4 (15 min) JTEL Summer School • presentation of outcomes (15 min) June 2010 Slide 2 • clustering of outcomes (15 min) Summary: • discussion & feedback (15 min) Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  3. 3. Agenda M. Kravcik R. Klamma Z. Petrushyna Heuristics & Architecture Motivation Proposed Solution JTEL Results Choice Survey Summer School June 2010 Biases Slide 3 Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  4. 4. Motivation Illusions: • Optical M. Kravcik R. Klamma Z. Petrushyna • Cognitive Rashomon (Akira Kurosawa, 1950) JTEL Summer School June 2010 Slide 4 The story of human communication Awareness Test Count how many times the white team passes the ball Right Brain vs Left Brain Test Do you see the dancer turning clockwise or anti- clockwise? Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  5. 5. Human Mind S. Pinker: Our mind is made for fitness, not for truth Meaning depends on (D. Gilbert): M. Kravcik R. Klamma • context Z. Petrushyna • frequency JTEL • recency Summer School June 2010 Slide 5 • preferences R. Thaler: Humans predictably err • this knowledge can be harnessed to help them Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  6. 6. 2 Kinds of Thinking Automatic system (AS): Reflective system (RS) – gut reaction: – conscious thought: • intuitive, rapid, instinctive • rational, deliberate, • associated with the oldest self-conscious M. Kravcik R. Klamma parts of the brain Z. Petrushyna JTEL Summer School June 2010 Slide 6 Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  7. 7. Heuristics & Biases emerge from the interplay between AS & RS • people prefer information that confirms their Confirmation bias preconceptions or hypotheses • people see events that have occurred, as more predictable Hindsight bias than they in fact were before they took place M. Kravcik R. Klamma • people are over-optimistic about the outcome of Optimism bias Z. Petrushyna planned actions JTEL • people overestimate the length or the intensity of Summer School Impact bias future feeling states June 2010 Slide 7 • as people usually see just the winners, not the losers, they Observation bias may misattribute the causes that led to the winning Planning fallacy • people underestimate task-completion times • creating a story post-hoc so that an event will seem Narrative fallacy to have an identifiable cause • believing that the unstructured randomness found in life Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 Ludic fallacy resembles the structured randomness found in games (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  8. 8. Survey on Present Learning 10 questions on 3 issues: M. Kravcik R. Klamma Z. Petrushyna • Freedom of learner • Pedagogical support JTEL • Importance of content & form Summer School June 2010 Slide 8 • Necessity of tutors (teachers) 31 participants, mostly students of the Summer School Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  9. 9. Freedom of Learner The more freedom for the Too much freedom for learner the better the learner may be M. Kravcik overwhelming and R. Klamma Z. Petrushyna contra productive JTEL Summer School June 2010 Slide 9 Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  10. 10. Pedagogical Support Each learner should Not everybody can be an have some pedagogical expert in education knowledge to be able to (teacher), therefore M. Kravcik R. Klamma learn without an external pedagogical assistance Z. Petrushyna help for the learner is required JTEL Summer School June 2010 Slide 10 Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  11. 11. Importance of Content & Form In learning the The form of the Both content and content is crucial learning form (org.) of the and the form experience is learning M. Kravcik R. Klamma (presentation, most important experience are Z. Petrushyna organization) of and the content equally important the learning is secondary for successful JTEL experience is learning Summer School June 2010 secondary Slide 11 Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  12. 12. Necessity of Tutor The tutor It is always good Tutors (teachers) (teacher) is not when the learner may be necessary in the has a competent successfully M. Kravcik R. Klamma present learning tutor (teacher) replaced by Z. Petrushyna peer-learners JTEL Summer School June 2010 Slide 12 Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  13. 13. Categories of Biases (1) 3 basic categories of biases (Thaler & Sunstein) Bounded rationality: our rationality is delimited • unrealistic optimism is M. Kravcik R. Klamma a pervasive feature of human life Z. Petrushyna JTEL Summer School • humans fear loss more than they love gain June 2010 Slide 13 • people have a tendency to stick with their current situation • choices depend on the way in which problems are stated Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  14. 14. Categories of Biases (2) Self-control: our rationality and temptation may be in conflict an individual is containing two M. Kravcik R. Klamma semiautonomous selves, which Z. Petrushyna means there is a two-system conception of self-control: JTEL Summer School June 2010 Slide 14 • planner (RS) • doer (AS) Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  15. 15. Categories of Biases (3) Social influences: we are influenced by the behavior of other people • information – on actions and thoughts of others (we tend to conform) M. Kravcik R. Klamma Z. Petrushyna • peer pressure – considering what other JTEL Summer School people think to avoid June 2010 Slide 15 their disapproval • priming – subtle influences can increase the ease with which certain info comes to mind (channel factors) Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  16. 16. Uneasy Choices (Thaler & Sunstein) • self-control issues arise when choices and Delayed effects their consequences are separated in time • many problems in life are difficult and there M. Kravcik Difficulty R. Klamma is no technology to help Z. Petrushyna JTEL • some decisions are rare, therefore there is Infrequency Summer School June 2010 Slide 16 a lack of practice • learning requires immediate and clear Poor feedback feedback after each try • ambiguous relation between a choice and Unclear impact its consequence Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  17. 17. Choice Architecture (Thaler & Sunstein) • they are very powerful, as usually a lot of people end up Default options with it M. Kravcik R. Klamma Expect error • a well designed system is as forgiving as possible Z. Petrushyna • it is the best way how to improve the performance of JTEL Give feedback humans Summer School June 2010 Slide 17 Understand mappings • options should be comprehensible from choice to welfare Structure complex • Elimination by aspects: eliminate the unsuitable alternatives choices • Collaborative filtering: use the judgements of similar people • put the right incentives on the right people – Who uses? Incentives Who chooses? Who pays? Who profits? Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  18. 18. Proposed Solution AS always wins over RS – do not confuse our AS (Thaler & Sunstein) Libertarian paternalism: M. Kravcik R. Klamma Z. Petrushyna preserves liberty and tries to influence choices in a way that will make choosers better off, as judged by JTEL themselves Summer School June 2010 Slide 18 • This influence can be realized via suitable alerts or nudges • A nudge should alert people’s behavior in a predictable way and at the same time it should be easy and cheap to avoid The golden rule of libertarian paternalism: Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 offer nudges that are most likely to help and least likely (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke to inflict harm
  19. 19. ROLE Approach to the Design of Learning Experiences Control & Responsibility guidance & Recommendation freedom of learner M. Kravcik R. Klamma Z. Petrushyna JTEL personalization motivation of Summer School & adaptability to learner (intrinsic, June 2010 learner & context What is the impact of extrinsic) Slide 19 these findings from behavioral & cognitive psychology on design of learning? collaboration & stimulation of Goal setting good practice learner’s meta- Planning sharing among cognition Reflection Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 peers (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
  20. 20. Overview Introduction (30 min) M. Kravcik R. Klamma Collaboration: Z. Petrushyna • discussion in groups of 4 (15 min) JTEL Summer School • presentation of outcomes (15 min) June 2010 Slide 20 • clustering of outcomes (15 min) Summary: • discussion & feedback (15 min) Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 (Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke
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