?• Conservative• Focus on a black elite• Acceptance of ‘true womanhood’• Capitulation to middle class values• Sentimental and unchallenging• Legitimizes inequality
Miscegenation• Anti-miscegenation laws in US until 1967• Criminalised inter-racial marriage• Sometimes banned cohabitation or sexual relations• Ruled as unconstitutional by supreme court in 1967
May 18, 1896:The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregationin America was constitutional.
In Mississippi, fewer than9,000 of the 147,000voting-age AfricanAmericans were registeredafter 1890.In Louisiana, where morethan 130,000 black votershad been registered in1896, the number hadplummeted to 1,342 by1904.
I will say then that I am not, nor ever havebeen, in favor of bringing about in any waythe social and political equality of the whiteand black races, that I am not, nor ever havebeen, in favor of making voters or jurors ofnegroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office,nor to intermarry with white people; and I willsay in addition to this that there is a physicaldifference between the white and black raceswhich I believe will forever forbid the tworaces living together on terms of social andpolitical equality. And inasmuch as theycannot so live, while they do remain togetherthere must be the position of superior andinferior, and I as much as any other man am infavor of having the superior position assignedto the white race.Abraham Lincoln in the first Lincoln-Douglasdebate, 1858.
“white” is not a self-evident category Noel Ignatiev, ‘Immigrants and Whites’
“The problem of the nation”, continued Dr Gresham, “is notwhat men will do with the negro, but what will they do withthe reckless, lawless white men who murder, lynch and burntheir fellow-citizens.”
“To be,” continued Iola, “the leader of a race to higher planes ofthought and action, to teach men clearer views of life and duty,and to inspire their souls with loftier aims, is a far greaterprivilege than it is to open the gates of material prosperity andfill every home with sensuous enjoyment.”
“But it does rile me ter see dese mean white mencomin down yere an settin up dere grog-shops,tryin to fedder dere nests sellin licker to poreculled people. Deys de bery kine ob men dat usedter keep dorgs to ketch de runaways. Id be chokinfer a drink fore Id eber spen a cent wid dem, aspreadin dere traps to git de black folks money.”
“To be born white in thiscountry is to be born toan inheritance of privileges, tohold in yourhands the keys that openbefore you the doorsof every occupation,advantage, opportunity,and achievement.”