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Sql injection

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  • 1.  SQL Injection› Blind SQL Injection Vulnerable Code Exploit› Classic Login Page Vulnerability› Error Based Injection(SQL Server)› Union Based Injection› Injection SQL Command› Running CMD Command› Blind Injection Attack
  • 2.  How to Prevent› Parameterized Query› Use of Stored Procedure› Escaping All User Supplied Input› Additional Defenses(Configuration) Latest Privilege Isolate the Web Server Turning off Error Reporting PHP Configuration
  • 3.  A SQL injection attack consists of insertionor "injection" of a SQL query via the inputdata from the client to the application. A successful SQL injection exploit canread sensitive data from thedatabase, modify database data (Insert/Update/ Delete), execute administrationoperations on the database (such asshutdown the DBMS).
  • 4.  SQL Injection recover the content of a givenfile present on the DBMS file system and insome cases issue commands to the operatingsystem. SQL injection is a code injectiontechnique that exploits a securityvulnerability occurring in the databaselayer of an application. SQL injection is one of the oldest attacksagainst web applications.
  • 5.  Blind SQL injection is identical to normal SQLInjection except that when an attackerattempts to exploit an application rather thengetting a useful error message they get ageneric page specified by the developerinstead. This makes exploiting a potential SQLInjection attack more difficult but notimpossible. An attacker can still steal data by asking a seriesof True and False questions through SQLstatements.
  • 6.  SQL Injection happens when a developer acceptsuser input that is directly placed into a SQLstatement and doesnt properly filter out dangerouscharacters. This can allow an attacker to not only steal datafrom your database, but also modify and deleteit. Attackers commonly insert single quotes into aURLs query string, or into a forms input field totest for SQL Injection. Every code that uses user inputs to generate SQLqueries without sanitization is vulnerable to SQLinjections.
  • 7.  SQL Injection is very common with PHPand ASP applications due to theprevalence of older functional interfaces. Due to the nature of programmatic interfacesavailable, Java EE and ASP.NET applicationsare less likely to have easily exploited SQLinjections. SQL injection bugs is very various so it isvery difficult to identify the actual procedureof preventing SQL injection.
  • 8.  The attacker attempts to elicit exceptionconditions and anomalous behavior fromthe Web application by manipulating theidentified inputs.› Special Characters› White Space› SQL Keywords› Oversized request
  • 9.  Any unexpected reaction from the Webapplication is noted and investigated by theattackers.› Scripting Error Message possibly with snippets of code› Server Errors Error 500/ Error 513› Half Loader Page› Timed out Server Request
  • 10.  Attackers often try following inputs todetermine if web application has sql injectionbug or not.› › or 1=1› or 1=1—› " or 1=1—› or 1=1--› or a=a› " or "a"="a› ) or (a=a
  • 11.  Here is a login SQL query-› var sql = "select * from users whereusername = " + username + " andpassword = " + password + ""; In a normal login when user inputs arefollowings:› Username: John› Password: 1234 The query string is:› select * from users where username =John and password = 1234
  • 12.  But if user manipulates input like thefollowings:› Username: John› Password: i_dont_know or x=x Then the query becomes:› select * from users where username =John and password = i_dont_know orx=x‘ So where clause is true for every row of tableand user can login without knowing password!
  • 13.  If the user specifies the following:› Username: ; drop table users-- The users table will be deleted, denying accessto the application for all users.› The -- character sequence is the single linecomment sequence in Transact-SQL.› The ; character denotes the end of one query andthe beginning of another.› The -- at the end of the username field is required inorder for this particular query to terminate withouterror.
  • 14.  The attacker could log on as any user, giventhat they know the users name, using thefollowing input:› Username: admin‘-- The attacker could log in as the first user in theusers table, with the following input:› Username: or 1=1-- the attacker can log in as an entirely fictionaluser with the following input:› Username: union select1, fictional_user, some_password, 1--
  • 15.  This is the most common attack on MicrosoftSQL Server. This kind of attack is based on errormessage received from server. Error messages that are returned from theapplication, the attackers can determine thedetermine the entire structure of thedatabase or can get any value that can beread only by a user of that application.
  • 16.  The UNION operator is used to combine theresult-set of two or more SELECT statements. In this kind of injection attacker tries to inject aunion operator to the query to change the resultto read information. Union based attacks look like this:› Username: junk union select1,2,3,4,... -- Notice that each SELECT statement within theUNION must have the same number ofcolumns.
  • 17.  Attacker can inject sql commands if the database supports stacked queries. In most of data bases it is possible toexecuting more than one query in onetransaction by using semicolon ( ;). Following example show how to create atable named foo which has a single columnline by injecting stacked query:› Username: create table foo (linevarchar(1000))--
  • 18.  This can only work on Microsoft SQL Server. Attacker can use stored procedures to dothings like executing commands. xp_cmdshell is a built-in extended storedprocedure that allows the execution ofarbitrary command lines. For example:› Username: ; execmaster..xp_cmdshell dir‘--
  • 19.  Some of MS-SQL Extended storedprocedures are listed below:› xp_cmdshell - execute shell commands› xp_enumgroups - enumerate NT user groups› xp_logininfo - current login info› xp_grantlogin - grant login rights› xp_getnetname - returns WINS server name› xp_regdeletekey - registry manipulation› xp_msver - SQL server version info
  • 20.  An attacker may verify whether a sent requestreturned True or False in a few ways:› (in)visible content: Having a simple page, whichdisplays article with given ID as theparameter, the attacker may perform a couple ofsimple tests if a page is vulnerable to SQL Injectionattack.› Example URL: http://newspaper.com/items.php?id=2› Sends the following query to the database: SELECT title, description, body FROMitems WHERE ID = 2
  • 21. › Timing Attack: A Timing Attack depends uponinjecting the following MySQL query: SELECT IF(expression, true, false)› Using some time-taking operation e.g.BENCHMARK(), will delay server responses ifthe expression is True. BENCHMARK(5000000,ENCODE(MSG,by 5seconds))› This will execute 5000000 times the ENCODEfunction.
  • 22.  Parameterized queries force the developerto first define all the SQL code, and thenpass in each parameter to the query later. This coding style allows the database todistinguish between code anddata, regardless of what user input issupplied. Prepared statements ensure that an attackeris not able to change the intent of aquery, even if SQL commands are insertedby an attacker.
  • 23.  Language specific recommendations:› Java EE – use PreparedStatement() with bindvariables› .NET – use parameterized queries likeSqlCommand() or OleDbCommand() with bindvariables› PHP – use PDO with strongly typedparameterized queries (using bindParam())› Hibernate - use createQuery() with bindvariables (called named parameters inHibernate)
  • 24.  Stored procedures have the same effect asthe use of prepared statements whenimplemented safely. They require the developer to define the SQLcode first, and then pass in the parametersafter. The difference between prepared statementsand stored procedures is that the SQL code for astored procedure is defined and stored in thedatabase itself, and then called from theapplication.
  • 25.  This is a technique to escape user inputbefore putting it in a query. This is a very useful method because this canbe applied with almost no effect on thestructure of the code. This actually removes some specialcharacters from the input data that arehighly vulnerable to the DBMS such as- * , `( ) - -- ;
  • 26.  Least Privilege› Web applications should not use one connectionfor all transactions to the database. Because if aSQL Injection bug has been exploited, it cangrant most access to the attacker. Isolate the Webserver› Design the network infrastructure to assumethat attackers will have full administrator accessto the machine, and then attempt to limit howthat can be leveraged to compromise otherthings.
  • 27.  Turning off error reporting› The default error reporting for someframeworks includes developer debugginginformation, and this cannot be shown tooutside users. PHP Configuration› PHP Configuration has a direct bearing on theseverity of attacks.› many “security” options in PHP are setincorrectly by default and give a false sense ofsecurity.