Architect CPD Session Laurence Dallinger-Mills (Household  Renew  Project Officer) 18 th  February 2010 Domestic Renewable...
AGENDA <ul><li>Climate Change Plan  </li></ul><ul><li>RENEW Project </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation & Efficiency </li></ul>...
Renew Project Overview <ul><li>Project financed by the Climate Challenge Fund (CCF) to March 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Core ...
What Assistance is Available? <ul><li>Information Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Local network members- direct advice from pers...
Tariffs - Explained
Enhanced Tariffs 2010  ROC-FIT NEW- Tariff for renewable heat incentives (from April 2011) to encompass solar thermal, sol...
The following shows a thermographic survey of a modern Scottish house selected randomly by the BBC.  It was occupied in Fe...
Triple-glazed bedroom window Conservatory wing Ceiling
The Corner of the  Humid Kitchen Underneath the window This house, randomly selected - has an NHBC Certificate  and does n...
... and it doesn’t matter how much we spend .... Conservation and efficiency are the best ways to save money and must be t...
<ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on consumer protection.  Designed to inspire public c...
<ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>REAL Assurance Scheme Consumer Code covers all the </li></ul><ul><li>fa...
Solar Thermal: Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal   Easi...
Photovoltaics- Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Photovoltaics ...
Biomass: Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass   Open fires are v...
<ul><li>Lochaber Environmental Group:  </li></ul><ul><li>DOMESTIC BIOMASS OPEN DAY EVENT </li></ul><ul><li>Where?  Highlan...
Heat Pumps: Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Pumps (HP)  Use la...
Wind Power- Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Turbines (<15kW)  ...
Micro Hydro- Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-Hydro (<100kW)  ...
CO2 Emissions
Climate Change Motivations  Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations (in parts per million) for the last 1100 years,  measure...
Why Discuss Energy? <ul><li>Left Chart :  UK net electricity supplied, by source, in kWh per day per person.  (Another 0.9...
Housing & Property Service  Planning & Development  Transport, Environment  & Community Service Finance Service
Top 3 = 44%
Lochaber RE ‘Services’ Guide <ul><li>June 2010 Planned Publication & distribution to Lochaber householders. </li></ul><ul>...
Join Our Free Network
Local Events- Get Involved Group visits to view installed technology (see website) Climate Change film showings: Sunart Ce...
Units and Conversions Energy 1 joule  = 1 watt second 1 calorie = 4.1855 J 1 BTU = 1055.06 J 1 kWh = 3,600,000 J Power  1 ...
Energy content of fuels Fuel Energy content (kWh) Coal (tonne) 7,500 kWh / tonne Fuel oil (litre) 11.8 kWh / litre Natural...
Carbon and CO 2  Factors Fuel replaced C Factor  kgC/kWh CO 2  Factor kgCO 2 /kWh Gas (natural) 0.052 0.19 Electricity 0.1...
Thank You <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
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Climate Change Mitigation &amp; Adaptation


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Climate Change Plan
Renewable Technologies
Financial Assistance
Conservation &amp; Efficiency
Mitigation with Technology
Global Climate Change
UK Energy Supply &amp; Climate
Scotland\'s Projected Climate Changes
Climate Change Adaptation &amp; Forward Planning

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  • Hello and thank you for your consideration to see me this afternoon….
  • SCOTLAND SETTING UNPRECEDENTED MORAL GLOBAL STANDARD- no other country has matched our challenge. Alongside the Climate Change (Scotland) Act, Scottish Government have also produced a Climate Change Delivery Plan which identifies the high-level measures required to meet the emission reduction targets- above is one such commitment in the shorter term. This is a legally binding document. AIM (Highland Council): by 2010 reduce energy use (and CO2) by 15%; save £3.8m in energy costs; increase the installed capacity of renewables by min. 4,000kW.
  • Signposting householders to facilitate all available grants, loans and financial incentives. Open forum within network between members to directly share specific local experiences and knowledge Provide links (where possible) relevant local RE businesses- trade, architects, regulatory bodies etc. ESS : The Energy Saving Trust in Scotland provides free, impartial advice on how to reduce your carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and save money. Can also help you access grants and offers to make your home warmer and to generate your own energy. CES : are an independent Scottish Charity, actively supporting and funding community groups throughout Scotland to develop sustainable energy projects.  We deliver CARES , the Scottish Government&apos;s  Community and Renewable Energy Scheme across Scotland.
  • RENEW acts as a simple, no-nonsense information ‘gateway’ to promote unbiased, local knowledge of RE technology in Lochaber. Who better to take advice from but another local householder that has the technology installed and a not-for-profit local charity? Accredited Installers For micro-generation technologies (up to 50kW) there is an accreditation scheme which is designed to evaluate products and installers against robust criteria for micro-generation technologies. This is to ensure that protection is given to purchasers and users of the technologies and that a high quality service is provided by installers of micro-generation equipment. All projects that generate electricity and are grid connected can be eligible for ROC (Renewable Obligation Certificate) income if it is metered using an Ofgem accredited meter. FIT (Feed-in-tariff) from April 2010.
  • The Renewables Obligation Order came into force in April 2002 and requires power suppliers to derive from renewables a specified proportion of the electricity they supply to their customers. Eligible renewable generators receive Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs) for each MWh of electricity generated. These certificates can then be sold to suppliers, in order to fulfill their obligation. They have a market value of approx £50/MWh but this price does vary. Some suppliers are willing to pay microgenerators an additional sum on top of the unit export price in exchange for any ROCs or partial ROCs that the generated electricity is eligible for. Must use Ofgem accredited meter to gain access to ROC/FIT.  
  • This guaranteed income on top of the savings generated by the shift away from energy suppliers is hoped to provide a major financial incentive to both householders and communities wanting to invest in low carbon living. Designed to provide 5-8% ROI per annum- GUARANTEED LIFETIME.
  • Consideration of on-site energy production should begin first with a review of energy efficiency strategies- Every effort should be made to reduce demand- it’s much cheaper to save than generate energy.
  • Renew Project focus on indirectly encouraging local contacts to become MCS installers by creating increased domestic RE demand. Can be a ‘commissioned’ installer by the accredited MCS installer but the completion certificate must be signed by the MCS for grant authorisation purposes.
  • These include: – clear information on the systems planned and their performance – acceptable sales and marketing techniques – arrangements for installing and connecting the system – the selection and quality of goods supplied – details of the conditions of business that apply – the standard of any installation and other on-site work – guarantees, and any maintenance and after-sales services needed – what action will be taken to deal with any problems, and – arrangements for monitoring and continuously improving the Code.
  • Can provide 100 % of domestic hot water demand in summer / 50 % over the year Can be linked to complement existing system BUT need larger cylinder (250 litres) or an additional cylinder 1m 2 of panel can produce 50 litres hot water in summer = 450 kWh / yr 4m 2 = 1800kWh (typical installation Need roof space facing W- S -E Costs around £3500—4000 Planning permission not required Building warrant required if removing roof tiles Solar Twin panels (Scottish design &amp; company) have a small PV cell that uses solar power to run pump, making the system completely carbon neutral. Also does not have any anti-freeze and can pump directly into your existing cylinder. Graham Miller, West Coast Electrical is an accredited installer for SolarTwin. Solar thermal panels work on the principle of using the direct heat from the sun to heat water for use in buildings. Solar water heating systems have three phases; Collection of solar heat (radiation) via a collector (‘solar panel’) Transfer of the collected heat to the water Storage of the hot water in a hot water cylinder The solar panels are usually roof mounted and are connected via pipe-work to a hot water tank and control unit. Roof mounting will normally require drilling into existing tiles which can then be sealed with suitable sealants. For retrofitting, a survey should be carried out to determine the load bearing qualities of the roof. The heat absorbed by the solar panel collectors is transferred to water which is circulated around these collectors by a pump. The heated water is then stored in the tank which normally has provision for an electrically operated heater or other form of heating input. Some systems may require the replacement of your existing hot water tank (esp. combi boiler systems). When the levels of sunlight are low or demand for domestic hot water is high, the alternative heater is used to boost water temperature in the tank. For public installations it is necessary to ensure that the hot water in the tank reaches 62oC to prevent Legionnaire’s Disease. There are two main types of solar panel – evacuated tube and flat plate collector 1. Evacuated tubes Evacuated tubes works so that there are twin tubes with a vacuum between the tubes – and the inner one is normally coated in a material that absorbs heat well. The vacuum is heated by radiation from the sun which is then transferred to the inner tube and from there to an inner pipe network which works to heat water through a manifold exchange. This results in an efficient system as the vacuum prevents heat loss, and also there is often a high reflectivity membrane behind the tubes which increases capture of heat even further. Evacuated tube solar water heating tubes: Generally more expensive than Flat Plate. Good for areas where there is low amounts of sunshine. Can be affected by high winds- panels more delicate Flat plate collectors Flat plate collectors are generally cheaper than evacuated tube collectors, as their manufacturing process is cheaper. The standard flat plate collector consists of a system that has a collector sitting behind a highly absorptive panel. This collects the heat via a heat absorbing fluid and the water is heated by closed loop system in the hot water tank. Flat plate collectors: Relatively cheap compared to Evacuated Tubes. Good for areas that have a lot of sunshine. Deemed to be more stable for windier locations- panels are more robust However although evacuated tubes are more efficient per m2, flat plat collectors generally have greater surface area per panel so there is often not a great deal of extra energy to be collected to from an evacuated tube system. Appropriate areas for solar panels Solar panels are suitable for installation on buildings which have a large part of their roof facing in the general direction of south, and a moderate amount of sunlight. The pitch of the solar panel can be individualised on installation to either gain the maximum sunlight throughout the day as a whole, or to be able to generate more electricity/thermal energy in the morning or afternoon depending on your own energy consumption. The usual pitch of a solar panel in Scotland is between 30-40o from the horizontal. When deciding upon which type of solar panel is most appropriate to a project, it is always advisable to look at the amount of sunshine that could be received and the energy requirements of the project. It is important to match the product with the demand so as to operate with the most efficient system for the customer. 3.1.4 Checklist for solar thermal panels This section provides a selection of top tips for installing solar thermal panels. It should be noted this is not an exhaustive list and all projects present individual circumstances to consider. 1. The size and type of panel needs to be considered and matched with demand as does the size of hot water storage. 2. Mounting direction and panel angle is crucial to maximise heat input. 3. Surfaces and roofs where the panels are to be mounted must be capable of carrying the additional weight. 4. The system needs to be protected against frost and boiling. 5. Allow provision of a heat meter to show you how much energy you have gained from the sun. 6. The installation may require a new hot water tank to operate and provide sufficient storage. 7. There may be scope to provide some solar heating as well as domestic hot water if this is designed into the system. 8. Depending on what is expected of the system it may need some backup heating for the water such as an electric immersion heater ideally operated from a renewable source (or biomass stove). Solar works well as a supplementary source of energy to another primary source, so for example it can be integrated well with other renewable technologies through the use of a buffer or accumulator tank. 9. Remember the amount of water heated will change throughout the year as sunlight levels change.
  • Larger array required than Solar thermal- approx 8-16 sq.m for 1-2kW system. Typically 12 panels- 1.5kW installation. Permitted Development Rights for Domestic Renewables, March 2009 (no. 34, Town &amp; Country Planning) but building warrant required. 20cm protrusion off roof plane Flat roofs no closer than 1m from edge &amp; no higher than 1m off the roof plane Free-standing array less than the height from the boundary, one free-standing array only less than 4m in height &amp; 9sq.m. Everything else requires planning permission.
  • Use for room heating or to heat water for all heating needs Fed &amp; lit automatically with timer &amp; thermostat controls, weather compensation etc. Considered as Carbon neutral Can be 90 % efficient Need space for boiler and fuel storage outside Requires a large accumulator tank Little maintenance involved Pellets average £220/t (4.2 p / kWh) Planning permission &amp; building warrant not normally required Costs from £3,00 upwards Biomass heating using wood as a fuel works by combustion of the fuel in a boiler. Most boilers supplying heat up to 150kW work by an auger delivering fuel to a burner head in a combustion chamber. Modern biomass boilers are low maintenance with self cleaning functions and sensors that monitor the air content of the combustion to maximise efficiency. Efficiency &amp; Control: – control of air supply to combustion – extraction of heat from the combustion gases – electronic timers, thermostats etc Log stove &amp; boiler no grant available but fire front greatly improves the efficiency, improved further by back boile Stove / Boiler provides all hot water, radiators and underfloor heating requirements For those of you that are interested would encourage you to visit the HWE Showroom at Torlundy Rural Complex (opposite Farm Shop)
  • Coefficient of Performance (CoP) 2.5-5.0 Lower flow temperature will increase CoP Heat sources—ground, air, water, exhaust Heat pumps are more efficient with under floor heating than radiators due to lower flow temps 45 O Require electricity but Economy 10 tariffs available Heat pumps can reduce carbon emissions by running on green tariff or by sourcing electricity from PV or wind turbine Extra costs involved if digging a borehole Highly suitable for new build projects Heat pumps works on the principle of drawing heat out of a source and transferring it to a heating system like radiators or under-floor heating. A heat pump works in a similar fashion to a refrigerator in reverse. Heat pumps consist of 3 elements A. A heat source and the means of extracting heat, B. The circuit of working fluid within the heat pump itself and a power source, C. A distribution system to deliver the energy in the required form The heat is extracted using a sealed pipe network installed in the heat source which can be either ground loops in soil, loops in water, boreholes in bedrock and groundwater, the intake of ambient air over a finned heat exchanger The sealed pipe network is filled with a mixture of water and an anti-freeze solution such as Glycol As heat pumps work on a low grade heat supply they are more suited to highly energy efficient buildings. Draughty or poorly insulated buildings generally require a higher grade heat source to maintain comfort. Buildings with poor energy efficiency will have to be brought up to current regulatory standards to maximise the potential gains of a heat pump. When thinking about installing a heat pump, consideration needs to be given to what the heat demands of the building are. Heat pumps work best at providing low grade heat constantly but cannot provide an instantaneous heat boost if required immediately. There is a time lag – usually of several hours – between a heat pump system turning on and providing maximum heat output. Similarly between switching off and cooling down. The type of distribution system also needs to be considered. Conventional radiators require circulation temperatures of between 55-80°C so are unsuitable for efficient use of a heat pump. Under floor heating and larger ambient temperature radiators are suited to heat pumps. Although heat pumps draw their energy from a free heat source (soil, air or water), the pumps require electricity to operate. It is therefore common practice to install heat pumps as a hybrid system of micro-generators e.g. install a wind turbine to help power the pumps. The efficiency of heat pumps is assessed by its Coefficient of Performance or COP. This is a ratio between the heat energy supplied in relation to the electrical energy consumed by the pumps. For example a COP of 4 means that for 1 kW of electricity used to power the heat pumps, 4 kW of heat energy is supplied. Exhaust air heat recovery units work on the same principle to air source heat pumps, and are often very similar designs. The main difference is that while air source systems draw in air from outside buildings, exhaust air systems draw warm air from within the building, using ducting from warm areas such as kitchens and bathrooms. This type of system can be particularly beneficial if those living in or using the building are asthmatic or suffer from other respiratory conditions as the units usually incorporate filters to clean the air and remove any particulates.
  • The capture of wind energy is proportional to the area of swept rotor area. The larger the area the greater the amount of wind captured. When the blades turn this turns the shaft in the generator which creates electric current. The generator changes kinetic energy into electrical energy which can be used to supply power to a building (electricity system), heat a building (wind to heat system) or supply the national grid. Horizontal axis turbines are the most usual form and have turbine blades spinning perpendicular to the ground with the turbine shaft horizontal to the ground. Vertical axis turbines spin horizontal to the ground with the turbine shaft perpendicular to the ground Turbulence generated by local objects. Variability does mean guestimating, since wind speeds can be different within a short 100m distance. Best way is to perform wind speed monitoring at precise location with anemometer. Windspeed is measured in mph, metre per second (ms), beaufort scale. Annual wind speed is the first indicator of a good site. UK prevailing wind is SSW Poor= up to 5m/s Average = 5-7m/s Good= above 7 m/s (Impossible to get all energy out of the wind- theoretical maximum in efficiency, Betz limit 59.3%, overall efficiency normally 15-30%). Town &amp; Country Planning (General Permitted Development) (Domestic Generation) (Scotland) Order 2010 covers ASHP &amp; MWT for a limited range of settings. Current Planning applications may require: Photomontage for visual impact Location Plan Shadow flicker assessment Neighbour notification
  • Costs from £3,500 (1 kW) - £15,000 (10 kW) - £62,000 (50 kW)   Design &amp; sizing requires civil, mechanical and electrical engineering skills. Freeflow Hydro in Scotland provides a simple alternative for £345 will survey and (if applicable) install for free, you then use all the power you require- they benefit from the ROC/FITs payments directly. SEPA license £588, SNH involved in conservation areas (flora &amp; fauna impacts).
  • Massive amount of risk factors and reported impacts of Climate Change......however key to focus on mitigating (reducing &amp; preventing extremes) and adaptation (preparing for the worst). To summarise the facts as they stand today (moving ‘feast!’)....
  • Historical CO2 emissions League Table (arguably the table that shows which countries have contributed most to CC) the UK is second only to USA.
  • So what&apos;s going on? It is true that human emissions of CO 2 are small compared with natural sources. But the fact that CO 2 levels have remained steady until very recently shows that natural emissions are usually balanced by natural absorptions (into the ocean and atmosphere). Now slightly more CO 2 must be entering the atmosphere than is being soaked up by carbon &amp;quot;sinks&amp;quot;. With emissions unabated the reality of a 4-7 degree rise in global temperature before the end of this century has now been scientifically confirmed. The temperature rises will not be spread evenly across the globe. The Met Office Hadley Centre has recently developed a climate change model and out of 34 different scenario runs, 23 resulted in a temperature increase exceeding 4 degrees (the range was 3.2-6.7). This will have major repercussions on many levels (which is why the term “climate change” is generally preferred over “global warming”. (over 40 years an increase of 3 degrees would result in the extinction for 30% of all living species and could lead to as many as 250 million people becoming ‘eco refugees’). Until recently there were those that doubted that the phenomenon of climate change even existed- the facts have emerged in a piecemeal fashion (it is only a few decades since experts were forecasting a new ice age). Today, the debate is closed- 000’s of experts from more than 130 countries have rallied in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) set up by the United Nations Environment Program- awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. The existence of global warming is beyond doubt its cause directly linked to the greenhouse gas emissions produced by human activities. There are still a number of details that need clarification and the experts envisage a variety of different scenarios for the end of the century, with temperature increases of between 2-6 degrees. But the greatest uncertainty has nothing to do with science. It is political &amp; social: we will manage to react quickly and will it be enough? Kyoto Protocol (38 industrialised countries signed up) but still countries that fail to respect it. Expires in 2012, challenge is to enlist the support of USA &amp; Japan as well as new nations such as China &amp; Brazil which are not yet on board. Copenhagen, December 2009 is that start of this new protocol. Governments are not the only ones that can take action- local environment groups, businesses and homeowners can all play a significant part- the latter is where LEG &amp; the Renew project come in! Elaine Hanton, joint head of energy at Highlands and Islands Enterprise, recently stated that “The renewable sector in Scotland has the potential to create at least 16,000 jobs in the next ten years, with the Scottish Government report recently revealing that there are already 3,000 jobs in renewables north of the Border. So the economic benefits that the development of the renewable energy industry can bring are extremely significant.”
  • December - Last decade warmest on record, says Met Office The last 10 years have been &apos;by far&apos; the warmest decade the world has experienced since modern records began, the UK&apos;s Met Office announced in Copenhagen on 8 December. It said the figures showed that the world continues to see global temperature rise most of which is due to increasing emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.   It added that the data clearly show that the argument that global warming has stopped is flawed.   In a separate announcement , the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) revealed that this year was on track to join the ranks of the 10 warmest years according latest figures, with a provisional warming of 0.44 °C above the long-term average of 14.0 °C.   It is expected to become the fifth warmest year since instrumental records began in 1850, the Met Office said, and will be warmer than 2008 because of the emergence of El Nino weather patterns in the Pacific Ocean which contribute to warmer temperatures.   The 160-year record is maintained by the Met Office Hadley Centre and the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, which has been at the centre of a row over leaked emails which climate sceptics show scientists attempting to manipulate data to support the theory of man-made global warming.   The Met Office pointed out that similar results had been found in independent analyses made by the USA’s National Climatic Data Centre (NCDC) and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).
  • 3 different motivations drive today’s energy discussions. First, fossil fuels are a finite resource. It seems possible that cheap oil and gas will run out in our lifetime, so we seek alternative energy sources. Given that fossil fuels are a valuable resource, useful for manufacture of plastics and all sorts of other creative stuff, it could be argued that perhaps we should save them for better uses than simply setting fire to them. Second, we’re interested in security of energy supply. Even if fossil fuels are still available somewhere in the world, perhaps we don’t want to depend on them if that would make our economy vulnerable to negotiations. Going by the top chart, it certainly looks as if “our” UK fossil fuels have peaked. The UK has a particular security-of-supply problem looming, known as the “energy gap.” A substantial number of old coal power stations and nuclear power stations will be closing down during the next decade (bottom right chart), so there is a risk that electricity demand will sometimes exceed electricity supply, if adequate plans are not implemented (recent announcement for proposed 10 nuclear power sites) Third, it’s very probable that using fossil fuels changes the climate. Climate change is blamed on several human activities, but the biggest contributor to climate change is the increase in greenhouse effect produced by carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Most of the carbon dioxide emissions come from fossil-fuel burning. And the main reason we burn fossil fuels is for energy. So to fix climate change, we need to sort out a new way of getting energy. The climate problem is mostly an energy problem Nuclear 10 years to build- last for 40-60 yrs. Cost of decommissioning stands at £73 Billion &amp; is expected to rise.
  • Recently attended Climate Change Projections event hosted by Highland Council- 3 Step Adaptation Framework: Provide the evidence base Equip decision makers with the skills &amp; tools Integrate adaptation into regulation and public policy
  • Climate change UKCP09 projections suggest average summer temperatures in the Highland Region might become like those in North Yorkshire in the 2020s and like the south coast of England by the 2050s. Temperature extremes in the Highland Region -Minima The lowest temperature ever recorded in the Highland Region is -27.2oC at Altnaharra (Highland Region) on 20 December 1995 (equalling the UK record observed at Braemar on 11 February 1895 and 10 January 1982) Using satellite observations it appears that on 10 January 1982 the temperature at Nethy Bridge (Highland Region) fell to -31.3oC. This year a low of -22.3oC was recorded at Altnaharra on 8 January 2010. Thus despite climate warming it is still possible to observe very low temperatures on a few occasions. Mountain summit minimum temperatures do not fall as low as those in the valleys. The lowest temperature observed on Cairngorm summit (1245m) was -16.5oC on 12 January 1987. Temperature extremes in Highland Region -Maxima The highest temperature ever recorded in the Highlands was 32.1oC at Onich on 1 August 1995. This is close to the Scottish record of 32.9oC recorded at Greycrook in the Scottish Borders (9 August 2003). (The UK record is 38.5oC at Brogdale in Kent on 10 August 2003) The Highland Region does hold the UK record for the highest temperatures in December ( 18.3oC at Achnashellach on 2 December 1948 ). The highest temperature recorded on Cairngorm summit was 22.8oCon 26 June 1986.
  • Even if we completely cut out carbon emissions now we would face warming to the same rate until 2040 due to the carbon cycle timelines.
  • Providing the current evidence base and applying the UKCP09 Projection Software to provide predictive models for future climate projections.
  • Building budgets to compensate for existing, non-adaptive housing stock.
  • To book just call me on 01397 700090 or e-mail (need to prepare for tea/coffee &amp; cake!)
  • 1 J (joule) = 1 Ws = 0.2388 cal 1 GJ (gigajoule) = 10 9 J 1 TJ (terajoule) = 10 12 J 1 PJ (petajoule) = 10 15 J 1 kWh (kilowatt hour) = 3,600,000 Joule 1 toe (tonne oil equivalent) = 7.4 barrels of crude oil in primary energy = 7.8 barrels in total final consumption = 1270 m 3 of natural gas = 2.3 metric tonnes of coal 1 Mtoe (million tonne oil equivalent) = 41.868 PJ
  • Often able to work out how much fuel is / was used. Gas and electricity is metered Bags of coal per week. Litres of oil a year
  • EST figures ?? For Scotland C or CO2 X 44 / 12 C to CO2 x by 3.66666
  • What are the main challenges of climate change for people in the region? • What are the opportunities for the region in a low-carbon life style? • What are the obstacles to change? Recommended next steps? Join Renew? Know of clients that would benefit from information? RE Installations? Look at installing energy efficient light bulbs? Purchase an electricity reading meter- OWL etc (awareness of power consumption) Standby power consumption accounts for roughly 8% of residential electricity- turn off electricity sucking vampires! Try ( Quote from David King, UK Chief Scientist, 2007 “Avoiding dangerous climate change” is impossible- dangerous climate change is already here. The question is, can we avoid CATATROPHIC climate change?
  • Climate Change Mitigation &amp; Adaptation

    1. 1. Architect CPD Session Laurence Dallinger-Mills (Household Renew Project Officer) 18 th February 2010 Domestic Renewable Energy: mitigation and adaptation to climate change
    2. 2. AGENDA <ul><li>Climate Change Plan </li></ul><ul><li>RENEW Project </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation & Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation with Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Global Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>UK Energy Supply & Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland’s Projected Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation with Forward Planning </li></ul>UK Targets: Lower carbon dioxide emissions by 34% by 2020 (from 1990 levels). Scotland Targets : Lower carbon dioxide emissions by 42% by 2020 (from 1990 levels) by generating 50% of electricity from renewable sources with an interim target of 31% by 2011, 80% by 2050
    3. 6. Renew Project Overview <ul><li>Project financed by the Climate Challenge Fund (CCF) to March 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Core Objective to Mitigate & build adaptation to Climate Change by: </li></ul><ul><li>Raise local awareness and understanding of climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a Lochaber domestic renewable energy (RE) network. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage with local professionals- produce service booklet. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage increased installation of domestic RE equipment in Lochaber. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate work and report to voluntary Board and CCF. </li></ul><ul><li>Working in partnership with Energy Saving Scotland (ESSacH&I) & </li></ul><ul><li>Community Energy Scotland (CES): to evaluate, share & improve. </li></ul>
    4. 7. What Assistance is Available? <ul><li>Information Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Local network members- direct advice from personal experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Signposting to local services, suppliers, accredited installers, certified products, other advice. </li></ul><ul><li>Attend local meetings and events to view installations and find out about how the technology performs in Lochaber. </li></ul><ul><li>Free home energy visit & advice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EAP Free Insulation Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate Change/RE DVD’s, literature & reference books library for LEG members. </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>30% grant up to £4k (max 2 per household, 8 for trade). </li></ul><ul><li>£500 - £10,000 interest-free energy saving / RE loan. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to grants for home energy saving measures and cavity wall, loft insulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual payment - every unit (kWh) of power generated in addition to units exported to grid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Av.11-14p/unit cost from grid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROC’s to April 2010 9p/unit for generated plus 5p for exported. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEW!!! FIT’s April 2010……. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 8. Tariffs - Explained
    6. 9. Enhanced Tariffs 2010 ROC-FIT NEW- Tariff for renewable heat incentives (from April 2011) to encompass solar thermal, solid biomass, ground & air source heat pumps. 121% 300% 197%
    7. 10. The following shows a thermographic survey of a modern Scottish house selected randomly by the BBC. It was occupied in February 2006 and the Gaia Architects (Edinburgh) survey occurred in April 2006………….. Building regulations governing the energy efficiency of new buildings are in the process of being revised in line with the recommendations of the Sullivan Report: BBC Survey Efficiency & Conservation
    8. 11. Triple-glazed bedroom window Conservatory wing Ceiling
    9. 12. The Corner of the Humid Kitchen Underneath the window This house, randomly selected - has an NHBC Certificate and does not even meet the Building Regulations. Roof had 100mm insulation - even though the spec. was for 200mm
    10. 13. ... and it doesn’t matter how much we spend .... Conservation and efficiency are the best ways to save money and must be the primary focus before power generation is considered….
    11. 14. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on consumer protection. Designed to inspire public confidence in products, product improvement and encourage market growth </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an independent third party grant accreditation scheme accredited by UKAS and managed by EST. </li></ul><ul><li>£390 -1,800 installer fee (depending on number of technologies) </li></ul><ul><li>£390 -1,000 annual renewal fee (depending on number of technologies) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Standards- Solar Thermal, PV, Wind, Heat Pumps, Biomass (hydro in development) </li></ul><ul><li>Able to produce all documents pertaining to planning, design, </li></ul><ul><li>warranty, estimated power production etc. </li></ul>
    12. 15. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>REAL Assurance Scheme Consumer Code covers all the </li></ul><ul><li>factors that contribute to a high standard of consumer service, </li></ul><ul><li>before, during and after the contract is agreed </li></ul><ul><li>Approved by OFT </li></ul><ul><li>Dovetails with MCS </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsored by Renewable Energy Association </li></ul><ul><li>Searchable database </li></ul><ul><li>£120 for small companies (1-6 employees) </li></ul>
    13. 16. Solar Thermal: Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal Easiest & cheapest renewable </li></ul><ul><li>installation, capturing direct & ‘diffuse’ energy </li></ul><ul><li>for water heating - will provide 100% of </li></ul><ul><li>hot water demand in summer & about 50% </li></ul><ul><li>over course of year (Pic: Lorna Ungoed-Thomas, Camaghael). </li></ul><ul><li>Typical installation 3-4sq.m, cost £3,000 - £6,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Simple installation on roof </li></ul><ul><li>Little maintenance & low running costs </li></ul><ul><li>Raises water to 60 degrees (legionella) </li></ul><ul><li>Works with other heating systems* </li></ul><ul><li>Permitted development (from 12 th March 09) </li></ul><ul><li>RHI April 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>*May require larger or additional cylinder </li></ul>
    14. 17. Photovoltaics- Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Photovoltaics (PV) Direct or diffuse </li></ul><ul><li>light shines (cloudy 30% vs. sunny) on silicon </li></ul><ul><li>semi conductor cells producing electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Types- Poly/Monocrystalline the most efficient </li></ul><ul><li>being 14-17%. (Pic. John & Sheila Goodall, Glen Loy) </li></ul><ul><li>Visited Dec 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Retrofit to existing roof </li></ul><ul><li>Tilt or sloping roof (must not be shaded). </li></ul><ul><li>Free Standing or even PV roof tiles </li></ul><ul><li>ROC & FIT payments for generated and exported power- 37p/kWh & 3p/kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Permitted development (12 th March 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Little maintenance, low running costs. </li></ul>
    15. 18. Biomass: Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass Open fires are very inefficient </li></ul><ul><li><30%. Key to modern biomass heating </li></ul><ul><li>is efficiency & control (Pic: Kate & Neil Proctor, Strontian). </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Automated boilers & stoves- 30% grant </li></ul><ul><li>Pellet Stove 6-12kW £2,500 - £5,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Pellet Stove/Boiler 8-20kW £3 - £7,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Can supply all heat demand to a less well insulated property. </li></ul><ul><li>Servicing: ash removal (monthly), clean burner (annually). </li></ul><ul><li>RHI April 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Permission possibly for flue or boiler house </li></ul>
    16. 20. <ul><li>Lochaber Environmental Group: </li></ul><ul><li>DOMESTIC BIOMASS OPEN DAY EVENT </li></ul><ul><li>Where? Highland Wood Energy Biomass Showroom, Lochaber Rural Complex, Torlundy </li></ul><ul><li>When? Saturday 20 th February 2010 between 10AM – 2PM </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Save Money & the Environment- or simply learn something new! </li></ul><ul><li>PRIZE DRAW – £100 WORTH OF LOGS & FREE HOME DELIVERY </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLEMENTARY LUNCH & TEA, COFFEE PROVIDED BETWEEN 12-1PM </li></ul><ul><li>Come and learn about efficient wood fuel heating & grant-funded insulation in a relaxed, picturesque setting </li></ul><ul><li>See the Biomass Stoves / Boilers in action - wood pellet, chip & log varieties. </li></ul>
    17. 21. Heat Pumps: Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Pumps (HP) Use latent heat stored in the </li></ul><ul><li>ground/air/water. Highly efficient form of solar </li></ul><ul><li>not geothermal energy. Suited to new build. </li></ul><ul><li>(Pic. Graham Moss, ASHP, Glenfinnan). Visited Nov </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>75% free environmental energy + 25% electrical energy = 100% heating energy </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal complement in a hybrid system </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio of energy in, to heat out (CoP) 2.5 – 5. </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient with underfloor heating than radiators due to lower flow temps (40-45 deg.) </li></ul><ul><li>Economy 10 off-peak tariff available (SSE) </li></ul><ul><li>Water & Ground Source Heat Pump - PD </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Air Source HP PD Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>RHI April 2011 </li></ul>
    18. 22. Wind Power- Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Turbines (<15kW) Scotland is one of the </li></ul><ul><li>windiest countries in Europe, & wind one of the </li></ul><ul><li>most proven renewable technologies . Site location </li></ul><ul><li>is key: away from obstacles (turbulence) & height </li></ul><ul><li>off ground (9 to15M= +33% power @+10% cost). </li></ul><ul><li>(Pic. Jeff Forrester, Resipole) Visited Jan </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Grid connected or stand alone (batteries). </li></ul><ul><li>Payment for electricity generated (26.7-34.5p/p/kWh in addition to exported to grid (3p/p/kWh). {Av 11-14p/p/kWh from grid}. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind speed increases with height- consider planning issues and informing neighbours. </li></ul><ul><li>PD Domestic Micro-Wind Consultation (Feb 2010) </li></ul>
    19. 24. Micro Hydro- Local Installations <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-Hydro (<100kW) Converts potential </li></ul><ul><li>energy in water to mechanical & electrical </li></ul><ul><li>energy. Key factors are head (fall) and flow </li></ul><ul><li>(l/s body of water). (Pic. John & Sheila Goodall, Glen Loy) </li></ul><ul><li>Visited Dec . </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency ~ 50-70% </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable electricity (complements PV) </li></ul><ul><li>Good match in demand as maximum output in winter </li></ul><ul><li>FIT (April 2010) payment for power generated (19.9pkWh) and exported (3p) </li></ul><ul><li>SEPA, SNH license controls to minimise environmental impact </li></ul>Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy
    20. 26. CO2 Emissions
    21. 27. Climate Change Motivations Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations (in parts per million) for the last 1100 years, measured from air trapped in ice cores (up to 1977) and directly in Hawaii (from 1958 onwards). Something new happened between 1800 - 2000 AD. In 1769, James Watt patented his steam engine. (the start of the ‘Industrial Revolution’)
    22. 35. Why Discuss Energy? <ul><li>Left Chart : UK net electricity supplied, by source, in kWh per day per person. (Another 0.9 kWh/d/p is generated and used by the generators themselves.) </li></ul><ul><li>Right Chart : the “energy gap” created by UK power station closures, as projected by energy company EdF. </li></ul><ul><li>This graph shows the predicted capacity of nuclear, coal, and oil power stations, in kilowatt-hours per day per person. The capacity is the maximum deliverable power of a source. </li></ul><ul><li>Are “our” fossil fuels running out? </li></ul><ul><li>Total crude oil production from the North Sea, and oil price in 2006 dollars per barrel. </li></ul>
    23. 41. Housing & Property Service Planning & Development Transport, Environment & Community Service Finance Service
    24. 46. Top 3 = 44%
    25. 48. Lochaber RE ‘Services’ Guide <ul><li>June 2010 Planned Publication & distribution to Lochaber householders. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Renewable Energy Services/Contacts Booklet : Architects, Builders, Installers, Suppliers, Manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion? </li></ul><ul><li>Standardised Format – will need quantifying expertise & experience </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations on local businesses to include? </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas – suggestions? </li></ul>
    26. 49. Join Our Free Network
    27. 50. Local Events- Get Involved Group visits to view installed technology (see website) Climate Change film showings: Sunart Centre, Strontian TBC . (Free tea Biomass Open Day: Sat 20 th Feb Highland Wood Energy Showroom, Rural Complex, Torlundy. 10 - 2 PM. Refreshments 12-1PM. Prize Draw- 1 tonne FOC logs! Insulation, RE advice. Biomass units in action OR sign up to the network to receive notifications along with many other benefits.
    28. 51. Units and Conversions Energy 1 joule = 1 watt second 1 calorie = 4.1855 J 1 BTU = 1055.06 J 1 kWh = 3,600,000 J Power 1 watt (W) = 1 joule per second 1 horsepower = 746 W
    29. 52. Energy content of fuels Fuel Energy content (kWh) Coal (tonne) 7,500 kWh / tonne Fuel oil (litre) 11.8 kWh / litre Natural gas (m 3 ) 11.0 kWh / m 3 LPG (litre) 7.4 kWh / litre Wood pellets (tonne) 4,800 kWh / tonne Softwood (30%MC) (tonne) 3,530 kWh / tonne
    30. 53. Carbon and CO 2 Factors Fuel replaced C Factor kgC/kWh CO 2 Factor kgCO 2 /kWh Gas (natural) 0.052 0.19 Electricity 0.117 0.43 Oil 0.068 0.25 Coal 0.082 0.3 LPG 0.058 0.214
    31. 54. Thank You <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>