World Genocides
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World Genocides

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World Genocides World Genocides Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • How is genocide defined?
    • The United Nations will label an event “genocide” only when:
      • There is a mental element present, which means there is an intent to target a specific group of people and,
      • A physical element of harming and killing members of the group.
      • Both must be present in order for the acts to be called genocide.
    • Armenians
    • One of the most ancient peoples on the planet
    • Christianized in early 4 th century
    • Largest non-Muslim population in Ottoman Empire
    • Turks/Armenians had peaceful relations
      • Ended when nat’lism swept over the Turks AND Armenians
    • 1908
    • Turkey was declining
    • Young Turks overthrew Sultan Abdul Hamid II
    • Officers in the Turkish Army > wanted modernization
      • Soon taken over by fanatical nat’lists
      • Led by Ismail Enver, Mehmed Talat, Ahmed Djemal
      • Plotted the extermination of Armenian pop.
      • Saw them as potential traitors
      • Saw WWI as opportunity to implement their plan
    Sultan Abdul Hamid II
  • Ahmed Djemal Ismail Enver Mehmed Talat
    • April 24, 1915
      • Slaughter began
      • 600 Armenian men rounded up in Istanbul and killed
    Genocide Memorial Day
    • Overwork hundreds of thousands of men in Turkish army > didn’t actually fight
      • Treated as “pack animals”
      • Loaded supplies on their backs
      • Driven by whips, bayonets
      • Barely ate or slept
      • If they fell, were left to die
    • Mass slaughter of remaining Armenian men
    • Killed able-bodied men
      • prevent new Armenian generations
      • leave behind weak as easy prey
    • In actuality, was exile
      • Same as the Armenian soldiers
        • Starved them
        • Fallen left to die
        • Starved or died of disease in camps in Syria and Iraq
  •  
    • Women given opportunity to convert to Islam
      • Only 1 K did so
      • Subsequently turned into slaves in Turkish homes
    • On the journey to Syria, Kurds and Turks were told to kill the Armenians
    • Estimates range from 1.1 to 1.8 M people.
  •  
    • Differences in culture
      • Armenians- best educated
      • Turks- mainly illiterate peasant farmers
    • Turkish gov’t used Turks’ illiteracy to their advtg > labeled Armenians as strangers > NATIONALISM
    • Rise in Islamic fundamentalism
    • Turks wanted to expand- Problem? > Armenians in their way
    • w/ no help from the outside world, Armenians fought back at the Battle of Sardarabad (May 21-24, 1918)
      • Won > Democratic Republic of Armenia
    • Regime fled to Germany
      • Armenians wanted trial but there wasn’t one
      • took matters into their own hands
        • assassination
    • Democratic Republic of Armenia
      • lasted 1918-1920
      • Ottomans meddled again, as did the Soviets (expectedly)
      • Presently an independent nation
    • Present day population – 13 M
    • Khmer- predominant ethnic group
      • Khmer Empire
    • French colony
      • Independence – November 9, 1953
    • After granted independence, 5-year civil war in Cambodia – POWER STRUGGLE
    • Khmer Rouge won April 17, 1975
      • Communist party led by Pol Pot
      • Captured Phnom Penh, capital
      • Wanted to “purify” which meant to restore the ag way of life before contact w/ West
        • Demanded evacuation in all cities
        • “ ag reeducation camps”
    • Khmer Rouge > strict Maoists
      • everyone put to work in rice patties
      • thousands died of malnutrition, overwork
      • anti-Western
      • education, healthcare shut down
    • Angkor > “Organization”
      • if you admitted to having a W. education, you would be forgiven by Angkor > DEATH
        • Irony? > Pol Pot educated in France
    • These issues began during Vietnam War
      • Lon Nol took power in Cambodia
        • Supported by U.S.
    • U.S. air power frequent in Cambodia
      • 750 K dead
    • Khmer Rouge
      • small guerrilla group led by Pol Pot
      • embraced by the people b/c they were fed up w/ American bombing
    • May 19, 1928
    • born into relatively wealthy family
    • educated in France
    • learned about Communism whilst in France
    • real name Saloth Sar
      • “ Pol Pot” comes from the name Pol itique pot entielle
      • “ brother number one” > humility?
    • led Angkor
    • April 15, 1998
      • died of heart failure
        • speculation of suicide or poisoning
    • Doctors, lawyers, teachers, engineers, and their ext. families
    • People who wore glasses, spoke a foreign lang
    • Buddhist monks > religion was banned
    • Minority groups
      • Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai
    • Citizens
      • Laughing, crying
    • Each camp was independent
    • Little to no communication b/w them
    • PARANOIA amongst Party members
    • “ To spare you is no profit; to destroy you is no loss.”
    • Former school
    • used as a prison for “traitors” and their families
    • tortured until confession
      • Life and Death in Shanghai
    • Executions, disease, starvation
    • Roughly 30% of population
    • Prisoner at S-21
    • Beaten, tortured, almost starved to death
    • Painting skills saved his life
    • Painted portraits of Pol Pot
    • After fall of Khmer Rouge, painted prison life as he’d witnessed it
  •  
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    • 1978 – Vietnam invaded Cambodia
    • Khmer Rouge overthrown
      • Received aid, training, funds, and weapons from U.S. and U.K.
        • Hatred of Vietnam
    • Two K.R. leaders tried for genocide and found guilty
    • 7 M people
      • 2 ethnic groups
        • Hutu > majority > 70%
        • Tutsi > minority
          • Under Belgian colonial rule, Tutsi was the aristocracy
    • Rwanda > independence in 1962
      • Hutu majority reversed roles
        • systematic discrimination
        • acts of violence
          • 200 K Tutsis fled the country
          • formed rebel guerrilla army > Rwandan Patriotic Front
    • Hutus – shorter, broad face
    • Tutsis – taller, long, narrow face
    • 1990 – RPF invaded Rwanda
      • Forced Hutu Pres. Habyalimana to sign document that put into law > Hutu/Tutsis share power
    • October ’93
      • Ethnic tensions increased when first elected Hutu president of Burundi Melchior Ndadaye was assassinated
      • Supposedly Tutsis were responsible
    • April ‘94
      • RW pres Habyalimana and Burundi pres. Cyprian Ntaryamira
        • Held peace meetings w/ Tutsi rebels
    • April 6
      • Jet carrying the leaders shot down and killed by ground-fired missiles
    • Hutu Reaction
    • Rwanda > deep political violence after assassinations
      • Hutu extremists
        • targeted moderate Hutu politicians
        • Tutsi leaders
    • Hutus
      • went into countryside
      • Tutsi civilians
      • machetes, clubs, guns, grenades
      • all Rwandans carried “tribal” cards > IDs
    • Int’l Reaction
      • peacekeeping soldiers killed
      • American, French, Belgian, and Italian personnel evacuated Rwanda
      • U.S. and U.N. cautious to label genocide > to avoid emergency intervention
      • U.N. Security Council
        • voted unanimously to abandon Rwanda
          • only 200 soldiers in entire country
    • No more global opposition
    • Murders increased rapidly
    • Propaganda
      • State radio encouraged
      • Print
      • Tutsi > “inyenzi” for cockroach
      • Kangura
        • state newspaper
    • Tutsis
      • refuge in churches, mission compounds
      • hospitals > prime targets
    • “ Ten Hutu Commandments”
      • Tutsi women
      • Inferior, immoral, dishonest
      • Less desirable than Hutu women
      • Only useful as sex objects > RAPE
    • Between 250 and 500 K raped, often in plain view
    • Many of the Hutu men had HIV/AIDS > mass rape is the main reason for the HIV/AIDS problem in present-day Rwanda
    • Over 1 M people in 100 days
    • 10 K daily
    • 400/hr
    • 7/minute
    • 300 K Tutsis survived
    • Thousands of widows
    • Rape victims > HIV positive
    • 400 K orphans
    • August 20, 1942
    • Schenectady, NY
    • Ivy League education
    • Human rights activist
    • Historian
    • 1999- published Leave None to Tell The Story: Genocide in Rwanda
    • Described organization of the genocide
    • Received many awards
    • Died February 12, 2009
    • Pressure from int’l news depicting genocide
    • U.N. sent 5 K soldiers
      • Too late
      • No time table
    • End of genocide
      • Tutsi rebels
      • Invaded from neighboring nations
      • Defeated Hutus
    • Approx. 2 M Hutus > refugees > feared Tutsi uprising
    • Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire
    • Large prison pop.
    • STDs > syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV/AIDS
    • Social isolation (rape victims)
    • Lack of roads, bridges, telephone lines
    • Poor education system > intelligentsia
    • Women > responsible for food production > many are rape victims > psych/physical status > major issue in Rwanda
    • Rwanda > 3 rd poorest country in the world
    • Spread of AIDS fueled by poverty
    • Mutual ethnic hate stems from extremists on both sides
    • Small group of Rwandan officials
      • Led by Theoneste Bagosora
        • Retired army colonel
        • Genocide happened not of weakness, but immense strength > TOTALITARIANISM = FEAR
    • Int’l Criminal Tribunal of Rwanda
  •  
    • British colony
    • North/South were administrated as 2 diff. entities
      • Arab North
      • Black African South – Christianity
    • Darfur’s issues
      • Overpopulation
      • Drought
      • Desertification
    • People in Darfur > predominantly Black Africans of Muslim belief
    • Left out of the treaty that would prevent enforcement of Sharia law
    • Racism
      • Arabs refer to Black Africans as “abeed” > translates roughly to “Slave”
    • Sudan’s gov’t > Arab dominated
    • Began in Feb. 2003
      • Gov’t neglect > people poor, voiceless
      • 2 Darfurian rebel groups > uprising against gov’t
      • Gov’t response
        • Scorched earth campaign
        • Enlist help of Arab nomadic tribes > JANJAWEED
    • Omar Hassan A. Al-Bashir
      • President of Sudan June 30, 1989-present
      • Completed high school, entered military academy as pilot
      • Successful military career
      • 1989-overthrew gov’t with group of officers
      • Islamization
      • Sharia law
      • Denies what is happening in Darfur
    • Starvation
      • Destruction of villages and farms
    • Disease
    • Civilians caught in crossfire b/w rebel groups and gov’t militias
    • As in Rwanda, rape is a major problem
    • 400 K dead
    • 2.5 M displaced > refugees
    • 100 daily
    • 5 K monthly
    • OIL
    • Chevron discovered oil
    • Sudan > 7 th biggest oil producer
    • Bush admin lobbied quietly against the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act in Congress
    • Oil revenues to Khartoum
      • About $1 M daily
      • Same amount gov’t puts into arms
        • Helicopters and bombers from Russia
        • Tanks from Poland & China
        • Missiles from Iran
    • Immense amounts
    • Many celebs speak out against the conflict in Darfur, i.e. George Clooney
    • Humanitarian aid
  •  
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  •  
    • Previously a Belgian colony
    • Independence: June 30, 1960
    • 62 M pop.
    • 1994 – hundreds of thousands of Hutus fled to the eastern part of Zaire (now DRC)
    • Newly Tutsi-controlled Rwanda > paranoid about Hutus in eastern Zaire
    • Invaded in 1996 under orders of Rwandan President Paul Kagame
      • U.S. financed both Kagame’s army & rebel forces
    • Killed Hutu refugees
    • Mobutu Sese Seko
      • Dictator in Zaire supported by U.S. and Western powers > intent was to prevent spread of Soviet-backed states
      • Economy was failing in the 90’s
      • U.S. stopped supporting Mobutu
        • Rebels and rival nations now saw him as easier to overthrow
    • Fought Tutsi rebels in Zaire but also wanted to overthrow Mobutu
    • Support from Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda
    • Successfully overthrew Mobutu - 1997
    • Once in power, expels advisors from R,B,U
      • They begin to support Tutsi rebels
    • 1998
    • Largest war in modern Africa’s history
    • Eight African nations
    • 25 armed groups
    • 2008: 5.4 M dead
      • Deadliest conflict since WWII
      • Use of child soldiers
      • Reversal of ethnic roles
    • Congo > extremely rich in gold, diamonds, coltan
      • U.S. > biggest consumer of coltan
    • Control of natural resources > primary objective
    • Ethnic tensions are exploited and inflamed
    • War fought by state armies, local militias & rebels
    • No formal battlefields
    • Militias, rebels paid for work by looting
    • Rape
    • 30 K child soldiers
    • 5.5 M civilians killed
      • Disease > malaria, pneumonia, diarrhea, STDs
      • Malnutrition
      • Starvation
    • Rwandan, Ugandan armies grew very rich off of the resources
    • Although the war officially ended in 2003, Tutsi rebels remain in eastern Congo and conflict still rages on.
    • The Tutsi rebels are led by Laurent Nkunda.
    • “ Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed. The world in arms is not spending the money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, and the hopes of its children.” – Dwight D. Eisenhower