Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence Miller


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Leveraging Cultural Intelligence

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Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Seminar, Keith Lawrence Miller

  1. 1. Enhancing Cultural Intelligence Keith Miller CEO Professional Coach Columbia University Million Dollar Enterprises LLC Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  2. 2. <ul><li>Goals : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To Learn about the Concept of Cultural Intelligence and the Combination of Factors that Create this Concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To Understand the Functions of Cultural intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To apply Cultural Intelligence to the Workplace by Improving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging Diversity for improved Organizational Performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing Cultural Awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture is a phenomenon that everyone possesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>culture is an abstract concept that is hard to quantify </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding culture is important to the success of all business </li></ul></ul></ul>“ Do onto others as they would do onto themselves” – Golden Rule Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  3. 3. <ul><li>Organizational Definitions : </li></ul><ul><li>Warner Burke & Edgar Schein - are the two most prominent researchers in the area of organizational culture and their definitions are the most widely accepted by all cultural Practitioners. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The way we do things around here and the manner in which these norms and values are communicated” – Burke, 2002 (p. 205) </li></ul><ul><li>“ A pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid an, there fore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems” – Schein, 2004 (p. 207) </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  4. 4. <ul><li>An analysis of social, political, economic, and other demographic information that provides understanding of people or nation’s history, institutions, psychology, beliefs, and behaviors – (Coles, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The ability to interpret ambiguous cross-cultural situations accurately” (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Being skilled and flexible about understanding a culture, learning more about it from your ongoing interactions with it, and gradually reshaping your thinking to be more sympathetic to the culture and your behavior to be more skilled and appropriate when interacting with others from the culture” (Thomas & Inkson, 2003, p.14-15) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural intelligence (CQ) is an ability to decipher cultural cues among different demographics, to accept different cultural values and beliefs, and to adapt seamlessly to culturally influenced situations. </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  5. 5. Inborn Characteristics : Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Country of Origin, Age, Physical & Mental Abilities, & Sexual Orientation Cultural Status : Educational Background, Family, Personal Income, Geographic Location, Marital & Parental Status, Religious Beliefs, Occupation, Recreational Habits, & Military Experience Organizational Level, Line of Business, Work Content, Field Location, Seniority, Union Affiliation, Management Status, & Functional Classification Learning Style, Approach to Conflict, Decision-Making, & Problem Solving Suppliers, Customers, & External Clients, the Community & Governments <ul><li>We all have inborn characteristics that are learned through enculturation from our home environment and these factors determine our cultural status. </li></ul><ul><li>When individuals with different cultural combinations are paired together we get diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity plays a major role in all organizations and effects overall communication. </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  6. 6. <ul><li>Internally </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Externally </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Force </li></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>By leveraging diversity, a company can make dramatic gains in their human capital, and communication capability which will enhance profitability within its industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater diversity within an organization leads to an enhanced ability to conduct business across borders. </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  7. 7. Cultural awareness is mostly unnoticed unless we are paying special attention to cultural detail but the information at any one time is too great for the average human mind to process. This leads to a multiple reality among individuals experiencing the same situation in which they see the interaction differently because of their cultural awareness. The cultural surface displays our behaviors and practices which is a small portion of our cultural being. Our non-observable behaviors include our attitudes, held beliefs, and core values which are developed through family, religion, education, history, media, and more. Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  8. 8. The complexity of cultural factors is represented by over 300 combinations when interacting cross-culturally. The universal factors of culture involve more factors than the human mind is capable of understanding at one moment in time. This phenomenon leads to a “multiple reality” where the cultural interaction is interpreted differently by all individuals involved. These cultural factors impact the way business is conducted. These differences lead to miscommunication and failed business transactions. Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  9. 9. These 4 factors combine to create a culturally dynamic individual that can handle complex cultural situations with ease. The goal is to become proficient in all four factors of cultural intelligence. Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  10. 10. <ul><li>Strategic Insight Process </li></ul><ul><li>4 concepts for collecting data for diversity discovery </li></ul>External Scan : Examine comparison outside organizational cultural frameworks Historical Analysis : Understand the preceding climate and culture of the Organization Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC Insight Knowledge Information Data
  11. 11. <ul><li>Examine : </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Current & Historical Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership & Workforce profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of a diverse group of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Audit Focus : </li></ul><ul><li>Inborn Characteristics, Personal Experiences, Organizational Dimensions, Personal styles, & External Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Audit Survey Focus : </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Expectations, Success Factors, Management & Supervision, People Practices & Systems, Response to Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Why Conduct a Cultural Audit? </li></ul><ul><li>To gain an overall perspective of the organizational culture & climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Months of cultural analysis work is needed to accurately assess the organizational culture </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  12. 12. <ul><li>Culture Shock </li></ul><ul><li>A reaction or feeling when experiencing a new culture </li></ul><ul><li>4 -Phases of Culture Shock </li></ul><ul><li>1)Honeymoon Phase 2)Negotiation Phase </li></ul><ul><li>3)Adjustment Phase 4)Mastery Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Expatriate </li></ul><ul><li>Employee who travels on a cross-cultural assignment for a long period of time </li></ul><ul><li>High cost – Major issue facing organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Success is vital to enhancing organizational effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming a mandatory experience for employees who want to become promoted to the executive level </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  13. 13. <ul><li>The culture shock phase has a W-curve that begins with the: </li></ul><ul><li>Honeymoon Phase- The Expatriate is happy with the new experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation Phase- the Expatriate experiences discomfort. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment Phase – the Expatriate begins to adapt to the new culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery Phase- the Expatriate is accustomed to new cultural norms & the new environment. </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  14. 14. <ul><li>Body Language </li></ul><ul><li>Postures, Gestures, facial Expression, & Eye-movements </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal body language is an important part of understanding cultural experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Verbal Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>93% of communication (Borg, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>6 Universal Facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Anger – Disgust – Fear – Joy – Sadness - Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>These expressions are used accurately in all cultures around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding these non-verbal indicators gives us an increased ability to communicate cross-culturally </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-expressions are the “true” feelings that one feels, but they are hard for the human eye to identify because they happen extremely fast </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of body gestures and postures provide clues to how an individual feels </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  15. 15. <ul><li>Individual Orientation ----------------vs.--------------Group Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Orientation --------------vs.-------------Participative Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Certainty ------------------vs.-------------Tolerance for Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Orientation -------------vs.-------------Quality of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Long-Term Orientation --------------vs.--------------Short-Term Orientation </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  16. 16. <ul><li>Individualism : The degree to which action is taken for the benefit of the individual or the group </li></ul><ul><li>Power Distance : The degree to which inequality or distance between those in charge and the less powerful (subordinates) is accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Certainty : The extent to which people prefer rules, regulations and controls or are more comfortable with unstructured, ambiguous or unpredictable situations </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement : The degree to which we focus on goal achievement and work or quality of life and caring for others </li></ul><ul><li>Time Orientation : The extent to which members of a society are prepared to adapt themselves to reach a desirable future, or the extent to which they take their guidance from the past and focus on fulfilling their present needs and desires </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  17. 17. <ul><li>Individualism : USA is generally considered to be an Individually expressed culture and Japan is generally considered to be a collectivist culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Power Distance : USA displays low power distance which is manifested at work, media, politics, and in the family dynamic. Japan displays a high power distance where everyone has a title at work and they have specific rules of social conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Certainty : Countries such as Saudi Arabia and Japan have a high score in Certainty Avoidance and countries such as the USA & Hong Kong generally have the ability to deal with uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement : Japan’s culture scores high on Achievement Orientation and Taiwan scores low on Achievement orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Time Orientation : The USA culture identifies with a short time orientation where it is preferred to get things done quickly. Conversely, Japan and the Arab world cultures prefer to take their time when making decisions. </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  18. 18. This graph displays the cultural behaviors of the Philippines, Arab World, Japan, Taiwan, United States, and Hong Kong. This diverse collection, gives us a broad idea of how different cultures generally behave according to the 5 universal dimensions of Power Distance (PDI), Individualism (IDV), Masculinity (Achievement) (MAS), Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI), and Time Orientation (LTO). Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  19. 19. <ul><li>The ORID (Objective – Reflective – Interpretive – Decisional) is an action learning tool that is used to help individuals understand their cultural awareness. ORID helps clarify cultural blind spots. </li></ul><ul><li>The method to using the ORID tool is to never cross the center quadrant (from reflective to decisional, decisional to reflective, objective to interpretive or interpretive to objective), because this will give the client an uncomfortable experience and might interfere with the coaching process. </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  20. 20. Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  21. 21. <ul><li>Main Factors that Drive Culture Change within an Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership: The main factor in leading change within the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Work: Ability to understand the organizational culture and climate </li></ul><ul><li>Broad Involvement and Communication: The key to getting employees and customers to buy into the culture change </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Training: Enhances cultural understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement and Evaluation: Pre-set a goal and define what success would be </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Alignment: Involves aligning all organizational processes to operate in unison </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  22. 22. <ul><li>Increase Cultural Awareness : Becoming culturally aware is a constant learning experience and leveraging diversity is vital to the success of all organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Develop 4 Factors of Cultural IQ: Self-awareness, knowledge, motivation, behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Be Aware of non-verbal Behavior: This will increase the ability to interact cross-culturally and increase sensitivity to diverse situations involving others from different cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Practice ORID: The ORID method enhances the basic ability to conduct meaningful conversations and helps one to better understand the social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Learn Cross-Cultural Business Behavior: Globalization has become our new reality and communication is vital to business success. </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  23. 23. <ul><li>Borg, J. (2008) Body language: 7 easy lessons to master the silent language. Prentice Hall life . </li></ul><ul><li>Burke, W. W. (2002). Organizational change: theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage . </li></ul><ul><li>Coles, J. P. (2005). Cultural intelligence & joint intelligence doctrine. Joint Operations Review: Joint Forces Staff College. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Iceberg (2010). The cross-cultural connector. , retrieved on May 1, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Shock Phase Image (2010). Van diemen at 17. , retrieved on May 1, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Gullahorn, J. T., & Gullahorn, J. E. (1963). An extension of the u-curve hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues , 19, 33-47. </li></ul><ul><li>Hofstede five dimensions Image (2011). Hofstede five dimension. , Retrieved on May 1, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>ITAP International (2010), Culture in the Workplace questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>Kreitner, R., and Kinicki, A. (2007). Organizational behavior, 7 th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin. </li></ul><ul><li>Maltbia, T. E., Power, A. T. (2009). A leader’s guide to leveraging diversity: strategic learning capabilities for breakthrough performance. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC
  24. 24. <ul><li>Oberg, K (1960). Culture shock: adjusting to a new cultural environment. Practical Anthropologist , 7, 177- 182. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduced from: ORLD 5823.001 – Cultural Intelligence Workshop (CQ): Building 21 st Century Capability. Supplemental Materials, Spring Term 2011. Dr. Terrence E. Maltbia, Program Director, New York, NY: Teachers College Columbia University. </li></ul><ul><li>Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership, 3 rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass . </li></ul><ul><li>Sussman, N.M. (2001). Repatriation transitions: psychological preparedness, cultural identity, & attributions among american. International Journal of Intercultural Relations . 25, 109-123. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, D. C., and Inkson, K. (2003). Cultural intelligence: people skills for global business. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers . </li></ul><ul><li>You tube video (2007). Cultural differences from &quot;god grew tired of us&quot;. , retrieved on May 1, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>You tube video (2008). Intercultural effectiveness- culture shock video. , Retrieved on May 1, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>You tube video (2010). The yes factor, Tonya Reiman. , retrieved on May 1, 2011. </li></ul>Copyright 2011, Keith Miller, Million Dollar Enterprises LLC