Chapter 22Terms in Pharmacology Thierer, N. & Breitland, L. (2006) Medical Terminology: Language for Healthcare, second edition (pp. 658-678). New York, NY: the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration Drugs are biological or chemical agents They are therapeutic when used to cure, alleviate, diagnose or prevent illness They are addictive or habit-forming when used in unregulated and/or excess quantities to stimulate or depress moods Drugs come from: plants, animals, or chemical synthesis in laboratories Vitamins are organic substances found in food, are also considered to be a form of drugs
Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration The Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates testing, manufacturing, content and distribution of all drugs that are not part of or derived from food United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.) is anindependent committee that approves and set standards, that are collected, then published Hospital Formulary are lists of drugs that are approved for patient care in that particular facility Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR) is widely used reference manual for physicians
Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration Pharmacology is the science that studies, develops, and tests drugs Pharmacodynamics is the study of how drugs affect the body Toxicology is the study of harmful drug effects on the body Pharmacokinetics is the study of how drugs are absorbed, metabolized, and excreted over time
Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration Over-the-counter (OTC): sold without a prescription Prescription is an order for medications with dosages, directions, route, and timing of administration included Pharmacist (druggist) is someone who dispenses prescription drugs from a pharmacy Contraindications are other drugs that are advised against being taken along with another medication that is being given
Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration Chemical name describes the chemical formula of the drug Generic name is the official name of the drug Trade, brand name is the name given and copyrighted by the manufacturer Example: acetylsalicylic acid is the chemical name for aspirin, the generic name packaged under various trade names, such as Bayer aspirin Dosages of drugs vary depending on age, weight, severity of symptoms, and other medications in use
Pharmacological Agents, Functions and Examples **The examples are from pages 660-662 of the class text, please refer to these pages for the lists of ALL examples. You will need to know ALL examples.
Drug Sources, Types and Administration Drugs come in many forms: pills, liquids, semiliquids, suppositories, lotions, creams, powders, transdermal patches, sprays, or gases. Vial- where pills are stored Enteric-coated- an easily dissolved capsule coating Sublingually- medication to be place under the tongue Buccally- to be placed inside the cheek Oral administration- the most common method for giving/taking pills and some liquids.
Drug Sources, Types and Administration Types of liquid and semiliquid medications: Elixir- oral liquid dissolved in alcohol Tincture- topical liquid dissolved in alcohol Solution- drug dissolved in liquid Suspension- drug particles suspended in liquid that you must shake well before administration Emulsion- drug particles with oil or fat in the water Lozenge- drug in a candy-like base, dissolves slowly and coats the oral pharynx Syrup- oral liquid drug in a thick solution that coats the oral pharynx
Drug Sources, Types and Administration Drugs that are meant to go through the body are systemic (able to travel through the bloodstream to affect any part of the body). Such as: Suppositories- drugs mixed in a semisolid melting substance that are inserted into the vagina, rectum, or urethra Topically- how lotions and creams are applied Inhalation- liquids or gases that form in tiny droplets inhaled through an inhaler, nebulizer, or spray
Drug Sources, Types and Administration Parenteral Administration- injection of a drug that is done by a health care professional. Such as: Interdermal (or intercutaneous)- injection of a needle (syringe) just beneath the outer layer of skin to check for local reactions Subcutaneous- injection of a substance into the fatty layer of tissue below the outer portion of the skin Intramuscular- injection of drugs deep into the muscles Intravenous (IV)- injection of drugs through an IV tube that has been placed in the arm or hand
Drug Sources, Types and Administration IV Infusion- slow intravenous (IV) administration of a drug so that fluid can be added to the bloodstream at a slow and steady rate. Intra-cardiac- drug injected directly into the heart muscle Intra-arterial- drug injected directly into an artery Intraspinal- drug injected directly into spinal spaces as in a case of severe pain or cancer Intraosseus- drug injected directly into the bone Intra-articularly- drug injected directly into a joint
Sample Prescription Dr. Seymour Bones 123 Xray Dr. Anytown, OH 44444 Name_________________________ Date__________ Amoxil 500mg #30 1 p.o. t.i.d. until gone Seymour Bones0 refills Amoxicillin 500mg (antibiotic) quantity #30 capsules take 1 capsule by mouth 3 times a day until gone