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  • 1. Chapter 22Terms in Pharmacology
    Thierer, N. & Breitland, L. (2006) Medical Terminology: Language for Healthcare, second edition (pp. 658-678). New York, NY: the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 2. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration
    Drugs are biological or chemical agents
    They are therapeutic when used to cure, alleviate, diagnose or prevent illness
    They are addictive or habit-forming when used in unregulated and/or excess quantities to stimulate or depress moods
    Drugs come from: plants, animals, or chemical synthesis in laboratories
    Vitamins are organic substances found in food, are also considered to be a form of drugs
  • 3. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration
    The Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates testing, manufacturing, content and distribution of all drugs that are not part of or derived from food
    United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.) is anindependent committee that approves and set standards, that are collected, then published
    Hospital Formulary are lists of drugs that are approved for patient care in that particular facility
    Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR) is widely used reference manual for physicians
  • 4. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration
    Pharmacology is the science that studies, develops, and tests drugs
    Pharmacodynamics is the study of how drugs affect the body
    Toxicology is the study of harmful drug effects on the body
    Pharmacokinetics is the study of how drugs are absorbed, metabolized, and excreted over time
  • 5. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration
    Over-the-counter (OTC): sold without a prescription
    Prescription is an order for medications with dosages, directions, route, and timing of administration included
    Pharmacist (druggist) is someone who dispenses prescription drugs from a pharmacy
    Contraindications are other drugs that are advised against being taken along with another medication that is being given
  • 6. Drug Sources, Types, Function, and Administration
    Chemical name describes the chemical formula of the drug
    Generic name is the official name of the drug
    Trade, brand name is the name given and copyrighted by the manufacturer
    Example: acetylsalicylic acid is the chemical name for aspirin, the generic name packaged under various trade names, such as Bayer aspirin
    Dosages of drugs vary depending on age, weight, severity of symptoms, and other medications in use
  • 7. Pharmacological Agents, Functions and Examples
  • 8. Pharmacological Agents, Functions and Examples
    **The examples are from pages 660-662 of the class text, please refer to these pages for the lists of ALL examples. You will need to know ALL examples.
  • 9. Drug Sources, Types and Administration
    Drugs come in many forms: pills, liquids, semiliquids, suppositories, lotions, creams, powders, transdermal patches, sprays, or gases.
    Vial- where pills are stored
    Enteric-coated- an easily dissolved capsule coating
    Sublingually- medication to be place under the tongue
    Buccally- to be placed inside the cheek
    Oral administration- the most common method for giving/taking pills and some liquids.
  • 10. Drug Sources, Types and Administration
    Types of liquid and semiliquid medications:
    Elixir- oral liquid dissolved in alcohol
    Tincture- topical liquid dissolved in alcohol
    Solution- drug dissolved in liquid
    Suspension- drug particles suspended in liquid that you must shake well before administration
    Emulsion- drug particles with oil or fat in the water
    Lozenge- drug in a candy-like base, dissolves slowly and coats the oral pharynx
    Syrup- oral liquid drug in a thick solution that coats the oral pharynx
  • 11. Drug Sources, Types and Administration
    Drugs that are meant to go through the body are systemic (able to travel through the bloodstream to affect any part of the body). Such as:
    Suppositories- drugs mixed in a semisolid melting substance that are inserted into the vagina, rectum, or urethra
    Topically- how lotions and creams are applied
    Inhalation- liquids or gases that form in tiny droplets inhaled through an inhaler, nebulizer, or spray
  • 12. Drug Sources, Types and Administration
    Parenteral Administration- injection of a drug that is done by a health care professional. Such as:
    Interdermal (or intercutaneous)- injection of a needle (syringe) just beneath the outer layer of skin to check for local reactions
    Subcutaneous- injection of a substance into the fatty layer of tissue below the outer portion of the skin
    Intramuscular- injection of drugs deep into the muscles
    Intravenous (IV)- injection of drugs through an IV tube that has been placed in the arm or hand
  • 13. Drug Sources, Types and Administration
    IV Infusion- slow intravenous (IV) administration of a drug so that fluid can be added to the bloodstream at a slow and steady rate.
    Intra-cardiac- drug injected directly into the heart muscle
    Intra-arterial- drug injected directly into an artery
    Intraspinal- drug injected directly into spinal spaces as in a case of severe pain or cancer
    Intraosseus- drug injected directly into the bone
    Intra-articularly- drug injected directly into a joint
  • 14. Combining Forms and Abbreviations
  • 15. Combining Forms and Abbreviations
  • 16. Combining Forms and Abbreviations
  • 17. Combining Forms and Abbreviations
  • 18. Combining Forms and Abbreviations
  • 19. Sample Prescription
    Dr. Seymour Bones
    123 Xray Dr.
    Anytown, OH 44444
    Name_________________________ Date__________
    Amoxil 500mg
    1 p.o. t.i.d. until gone
    Seymour Bones0 refills
    Amoxicillin 500mg (antibiotic)
    quantity #30 capsules
    take 1 capsule by mouth 3 times a day until gone