What is Cancer? (continued)
Cells can become cancerous because of damage to the cell’s DNA (DNA directs all of the
cells’ actions). In cancer cells damaged DNA is not repaired, and the cell will go on
making new cells with the damaged DNA. These mutations in the DNA may promote cell
growth, interfere with growth restraint, or prevent cell death. Cancer can often arise
slowly developing over several decades. The abnormal mass of cells is called a tumor.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different
types of cancer; they have different characteristics, occur in different locations of the
body, take different courses, and require different treatments.
The Characteristics of
As genes switch on and off, they determine when and
how fast the cell will grow and divide, when it will stop
dividing, and even when it will die. Cancer can result
when controls over cell division are lost…
IS CANCER 100% CURABLE???????
YES…….…IF DETECTED EARLY!!!!
Early detection of cancer is
very important because at
the time when cancer start
developing in human body,
in most of the cancer cases
depending on the type of
cancer it doesn’t show any
early symptoms like
Jaundice, Malaria, etc..
And also if cancer is
detected and treated at
the early stage then it is
WHY IS CRAB ( )THE SYMBOL OF
“Cancer” is the Latin word for crab.
In its natural habitat, a crab is a fast,
resilient decapod crustacean that
springs to action and moves in
Similarly cancer spreads from the
place at which it first arose as a
primary tumor to distant
locations in the body.
HOW DOES IT SPREAD IN OUR BODY?
•The cells within malignant tumors
have the ability to invade neighboring
tissues and organs, thus spreading the
•It is also possible for cancerous cells
to break free from the tumor site and
enter the bloodstream, spreading the
disease to other organs.
•This process of spreading is called
STAGES OF CANCER (colon)
Stage 0: Very early cancer on the innermost
layer of the intestine
Stage I: Cancer is in the inner layers of the
Stage II: Cancer has spread through the
muscle wall of the colon
Stage III: Cancer has spread to the lymph
nodesStage IV: Cancer that has spread to other organs
WHICH PARTS OF THE BODY ARE AFFECTED BY
Almost all the major parts of our body may be affected by cancer.
uses medicine to weaken and destroy cancer cells in the body, including
cells at the original cancer site and any cancer cells that may have spread
to another part of the body.
Some types of cancer, for example, breast cancer and prostate
cancer, depend on hormones to grow. For this reason, doctors
may recommend therapy that prevents cancer cells from
getting or using the hormones they need. Sometimes, the
patient has surgery to remove the organs (like the ovaries or
testes) that make the hormones. Or drugs are used to stop
hormone production or change the way the hormones work.
Hormone therapy may cause nausea, swelling of the limbs or
weight gain through water retention. In women, there may be
irregular periods and vaginal dryness. In men, there may be
impotence or loss of sexual desire.
Biological therapy, also called immunotherapy, uses the
body's own immune system to fight infection and
disease or protect the body from some of the side
effects of other forms of treatment. Monoclonal
antibodies, interferon, interleukin-2, and colony-
stimulating factors such as GM-CSF and G-CSF, are forms
of biological therapy. These treatments often cause
temporary flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills,
muscle aches and weakness, loss of appetite and
Cancer Prevention (continued)
5. Limit alcohol consumption to no more than one drink
per day for women, or two for men. Alcohol use has been linked to increased
risk mouth, throat, voice box, esophagus, liver, breast, colon and rectum and the
risk increases with the amount of alcohol consumed.
6. Practice safe sex. Both HPV, the most common STD, and Hepatitis B can cause cancer.
7. Protect your skin from sun exposure.
The sun's UV rays cause the vast majority of skin cancers includi.ng melanoma,
which can be life-threatening. Sun screen alone is not a good enough
preventative measure. One needs to wear protective clothing or seek
shade as well.
Greviskes, A. (April 15, 2010). The cancer blog: Develop a cancer
prevention program, http://www.thecancerblog.com/.
Whiney, E. a. (2008). Understanding Nutrition. Belmont:
Screening and Testing
Cancer screening refers to processes by which cancer can be detected before symptoms
occur. This often increases chances for recovery.
TYPES OF TESTS
There are over 200 different types of cancer, and many different methods of testing.
The following are basic categories of screening for cancer.
1.) Physical Examination and History:
-A doctor examines the body for lumps, changes, and any other abnormalities. The
doctor also considers age and personal history. This is the primary and least invasive of
all screening methods.
2.) Laboratory Tests:
-Samples of blood, urine, tissue biopsies, or other bodily substances are used to detect
3.) Imaging Procedures:
- Images of the internal body systems can be obtained and analyzed
through X-ray, MRI, CT Scans, Colonoscopy, Endoscopy, Mammography etc.
4.) Genetic Tests:
-Tests that screen for mutations in DNA which can cause cancer.
Benign and malignant
Benign tumours do not spread from their site of origin, but can crowd
out (squash) surrounding cells eg brain tumour, warts.
Malignant tumours can spread from the original site and cause
secondary tumours. This is called metastasis. They interfere with
neighbouring cells and can block blood vessels, the gut, glands, lungs
Both types of tumour can tire the body out as they both need a huge
amount of nutrients to sustain the rapid growth and division of the
SYMPTOMS OF CANCER
‽Unexplained loss of weight
‽A wound that has not healed for a
‽ Abnormal menstrual periods
‽Blood loss from any natural
APPROACHES TO CONTROL CANCER
There are four principal approaches
to cancer control:
2. Early Detection
3. Diagnosis and Treatment
4. Palliative Care
Recognizing possible warning signs of
cancer and taking prompt action
leads to early diagnosis.
Early diagnosis is particularly
relevant for cancers of the breast,
cervix, mouth, larynx, colon and
rectum, and skin.
Screening is the presumptive
identification of unrecognized
disease or defects by means of tests,
examinations, or other procedures
that can be applied rapidly.
Remember you can’t inherit cancer its just that you
maybe more susceptible to getting it. so be careful and
prevent your self
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Jilani, T. (2012). Research at Postgraduate Student cancer. [online] available:
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http://www.slideshare.net/sreedevimulpuri/cancer-30031158. Access on 06 March 2014
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http://www.slideshare.net/suryaprajapat16/cancer-28843451. access on 07 March 2014
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http://www.slideshare.net/MicheleZehner/cancergroup4-final11. access on 06 March 2014
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