• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
A1 05 Sol Sys Formation
 

A1 05 Sol Sys Formation

on

  • 1,271 views

Miller's Astronomy 1 lecture notes on Solar System Formation

Miller's Astronomy 1 lecture notes on Solar System Formation

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,271
Views on SlideShare
1,268
Embed Views
3

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
73
Comments
0

1 Embed 3

http://www.slideshare.net 3

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    A1 05 Sol Sys Formation A1 05 Sol Sys Formation Presentation Transcript

    • Solar System Formation LACC: § 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 • Gravitational Contraction of a giant cloud of dust and gas • Condensation • Accretion w/ Differentiation An attempt to answer the “big question”: how did we get here? Thursday, February 25, 2010 1
    • Nebular Hypothesis 2:15 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfdDWdZcpOw Thursday, February 25, 2010 2
    • Gravitational Contraction What started out as a cloud of dust and gas light-years across, gravitationally collapsed to a solar nebula thousands of AU across. (1 ly = 63,240 AU) http://eps.berkeley.edu/cig/depaolo/eps102/PPT5_Condensation_Accretion.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 3
    • Gravitational Contraction What started out as a cloud of dust and gas light-years across, gravitationally collapsed to a solar nebula thousands of AU across. (1 ly = 63,240 AU) http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/birth.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 4
    • Solar Nebula: Composition Note the typical condensation temperatures. http://woodahl.physics.iupui.edu/ Astro100/08-T01.jpg Thursday, February 25, 2010 5
    • Protoplanetary Disks Evidence for the Nebular Hypothesis: process is observed happening around other stars http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/denise/Spring03/Mar27/Mar27.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 6
    • Condensation then Accretion http://eps.berkeley.edu/cig/depaolo/eps102/PPT5_Condensation_Accretion.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 7
    • The Frost Line and Condensation http://boojum.as.arizona.edu/~jill/NS102_2006/Lectures/Lecture6/lecture6.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 8
    • Accretion http://eps.berkeley.edu/cig/depaolo/eps102/PPT5_Condensation_Accretion.html Thursday, February 25, 2010 9
    • Solar System Formation LACC: § 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 • Gravitational Contraction of a giant cloud of dust and gas: Solar Nebula--98% H, He; flattens into a spinning disc • Condensation: the colder the temperature, the greater the number and types of compounds that will condense • Accretion w/ Differentiation: formation of planetesimals, many of which will combine to form planets An attempt to answer the “big question”: how did we get here? Thursday, February 25, 2010 10
    • Formation of the Planets LACC: § 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 • Know the difference between terrestrial and gas giant planet • Understand why there are terrestrial and gas giant planets • Understand the roles of the initial volatile molecules: CH4 (methane), NH3 (ammonia), H2O (water) An attempt to answer the “big question”: how did we get here? Thursday, February 25, 2010 11
    • Planetesimals Formation of the Solar System- Güneş Sistemi oluşumu 1:55 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jhYEQgLW5NM&feature=related Thursday, February 25, 2010 12
    • Making Planets Inner Terrestrial (Earthlike) Outer Jovian (Gas Giants) • small w/ solid surface • big balls of gas • circular orbits w/ low • circular orbits w/ low eccentricities and inclinations eccentricities and inclinations • high densities (about 5x • low densities (about the same water) as water) • atmospheres of N2 or CO2 (or • thick atmospheres of H and no atmosphere at all) He Thursday, February 25, 2010 13
    • Low e, Low Inclination Orbits Eccentricity Orbital Inclinations http://physics.lakeheadu.ca/courses/Astro/2310/ PlanetGraphs/graphs.htm http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/denise/Spring03/Mar27/Mar27.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 14
    • Eccentricities Doesn’t count (dwarf planet) http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/denise/Spring03/Mar27/Mar27.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 15
    • Orbital Inclinations Doesn’t count (dwarf planet) http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/denise/Spring03/Mar27/Mar27.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 16
    • Condensation then Accretion Near the sun, i.e. within the frost line, temperatures where higher (>150 K). Volatile materials, hydrogen compounds, remained gaseous and did not condense: • water (H2O) • ammonia (HN3) • methane (CH4) http://physics.lakeheadu.ca/courses/Astro/2310/PlanetGraphs/graphs.htm Thursday, February 25, 2010 17
    • Surface Gravity and Solar uv Solar Nebula Jovian Planets Composition • Greater Mass = • 98% H, He Greater Gravity • 1.4% CH4, NH3, H2O • They hold on to H, He becoming gas giants • rock 0.4% Terrestrial Planets • metals 0.2% Note: Jovian planets had • They can’t hold H, He over three times as much • Solar uv knocks H off material to build of CH4, NH3, H20 from--2.0% vs 0.6% leaving N2 and CO2 Thursday, February 25, 2010 18
    • Terrestrial Planet Geology • Condensation Note: the smaller the planet it, the quicker it will cool. • Accretion w/ Differentiation • Mercury: smallest and has solid mantle • Cooling during heavy bombardment • Mars: smallish and had no significant geological • Tectonic Plates during thin activity in 3.5 billion years crust • Venus: active volcanoes? • Mantle solidifies resurfaced 0.5 billion • Interior Cools years ago • Earth: ongoing tectonic activity, e.g. volcanoes Thursday, February 25, 2010 19
    • Formation of the Planets LACC: § 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 • Know the difference between terrestrial and gas giant planet: orbital distance, mass, size, density, composition, no. or moons • Understand why there are terrestrial and gas giant planets: the frost line • Understand the roles of the initial volatile molecules: CH4 (methane), NH3 (ammonia), H2O (water) An attempt to answer the “big question”: how did we get here? Thursday, February 25, 2010 20
    • LACC HW: Franknoi, Morrison, and Wolff, Voyages Through the Universe, 3rd ed. • Ch. 6, pp. 150-151: #3. easily, five with a little effort. You should be able to list three • Ch 7: Tutorial Quizzes accessible from: www.brookscole.com/cgi-brookscole/course_products_bc.pl? http:// fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=9780495017899&discipline_number=19 Must Know: 1, 4, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19 Important: 2, 3, 5, 10 Due at the beginning of next class period Thursday, February 25, 2010 21