The Three Domains of Educational Activities
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The Three Domains of Educational Activities

The Three Domains of Educational Activities

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The Three Domains of Educational Activities The Three Domains of Educational Activities Document Transcript

  • PAPERS IV The Three Domains of Educational Activities authors : Millathina Puji Utami (100210102029) PHYSICS EDUCATION PROGRAMDEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF JEMBER 2012 1
  • The Three Types of Learning There is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led byBenjamin Bloom (1956), identified three domains of educational activities: Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills) Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a littlebigger than we normally use. Domains can be thought of as categories. Trainersoften refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude).This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as “the goals of thelearning process.” That is, after a learning episode, the learner should haveacquired new skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes. The committee also produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive andaffective domains, but none for the psychomotor domain. Their explanation forthis oversight was that they have little experience in teaching manual skills withinthe college level (I guess they never thought to check with their sports or dramadepartments). This compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions, starting from thesimplest behavior to the most complex. The divisions outlined are not absolutesand there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised in theeducational and training world. However, Blooms taxonomy is easily understoodand is probably the most widely applied one in use today. 1. Cognitive Domain The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and thedevelopment of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition ofspecific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of 2
  • intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, which are listed inorder below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. Thecategories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first ones mustnormally be mastered before the next ones can take place.Category Example and Key Words (verbs)Knowledge: Recall data or Examples: Recite a policy. Quote pricesinformation. from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules. Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.Comprehension: Understand the Examples: Rewrites the principles of testmeaning, translation, interpolation, writing. Explain in ones own words theand interpretation of instructions steps for performing a complex task.and problems. State a problem in Translates an equation into a computerones own words. spreadsheet. Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.Application: Use a concept in a Examples: Use a manual to calculate annew situation or unprompted use of employees vacation time. Apply laws ofan abstraction. Applies what was statistics to evaluate the reliability of alearned in the classroom into novel written test.situations in the work place. Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.Analysis: Separates material or Examples: Troubleshoot a piece ofconcepts into component parts so equipment by using logical deduction.that its organizational structure may Recognize logical fallacies inbe understood. Distinguishes reasoning. Gathers information from abetween facts and inferences. department and selects the required tasks for training. Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, 3
  • compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.Synthesis: Builds a structure or Examples: Write a company operations orpattern from diverse elements. Put process manual. Design a machine toparts together to form a whole, with perform a specific task. Integrates trainingemphasis on creating a new from several sources to solve a problem.meaning or structure. Revises and process to improve the outcome. Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.Evaluation: Make judgments about Examples: Select the most effectivethe value of ideas or materials. solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget. Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports. 2. Affective Domain The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the mannerin which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation,enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five major categories are listed fromthe simplest behavior to the most complex:Category Example and Key Words (verbs)Receiving Phenomena: Awareness, Examples: Listen to others with respect.willingness to hear, selected attention. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people. Key Words: asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses. 4
  • Responding to Phenomena: Active Examples: Participates in classparticipation on the part of the discussions. Gives a presentation.learners. Attends and reacts to a Questions new ideals, concepts, models,particular phenomenon. Learning etc. in order to fully understand them.outcomes may emphasize compliance Know the safety rules and practices them.in responding, willingness to respond,or satisfaction in responding Key Words: answers, assists, aids,(motivation). complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes.Valuing: The worth or value a person Examples: Demonstrates belief in theattaches to a particular object, democratic process. Is sensitive towardsphenomenon, or behavior. This ranges individual and cultural differences (valuefrom simple acceptance to the more diversity). Shows the ability to solvecomplex state of problems. Proposes a plan to socialcommitment. Valuing is based on the improvement and follows through withinternalization of a set of specified commitment. Informs management onvalues, while clues to these values are matters that one feels strongly about.expressed in the learners overtbehavior and are often identifiable. Key Words: completes, demonstrates, differentiates, explains, follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works.Organization: Organizes values into Examples: Recognizes the need forpriorities by contrasting different balance between freedom and responsiblevalues, resolving conflicts between behavior. Accepts responsibility for onesthem, and creating an unique value behavior. Explains the role of systematicsystem. The emphasis is on planning in solving problems. Acceptscomparing, relating, and synthesizing professional ethical standards. Creates avalues. life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization, family, and self. Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, formulates, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.Internalizing values Examples: Shows self-reliance when(characterization): Has a value system working independently. Cooperates inthat controls their behavior. The group activities (displays teamwork). Usesbehavior is pervasive, consistent, an objective approach in problem solving.predictable, and most importantly, Displays a professional commitment tocharacteristic of the ethical practice on a daily basis. Revises 5
  • learner. Instructional objectives are judgments and changes behavior in lightconcerned with the students general of new evidence. Values people for whatpatterns of adjustment (personal, they are, not how they look.social, emotional). Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies. 3. Psychomotor Domain The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement,coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skillsrequires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance,procedures, or techniques in execution. The seven major categories are listed fromthe simplest behavior to the most complex:Category Example and Key Words (verbs)Perception: The ability to use sensory Examples: Detects non-verbalcues to guide motor activity. This communication cues. Estimate where aranges from sensory stimulation, ball will land after it is thrown and thenthrough cue selection, to translation. moving to the correct location to catch the ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet. Key Words: chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects.Set: Readiness to act. It includes Examples: Knows and acts upon amental, physical, and emotional sets. sequence of steps in a manufacturingThese three sets are dispositions that process. Recognize ones abilities andpredetermine a persons response to limitations. Shows desire to learn a newdifferent situations (sometimes called process (motivation). NOTE: Thismindsets). subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the “Responding to phenomena” subdivision of the Affective domain. Key Words: begins, displays, explains, 6
  • moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers.Guided Response: The early stages in Examples: Performs a mathematicallearning a complex skill that includes equation as demonstrated. Followsimitation and trial and error. Adequacy instructions to build a model. Respondsof performance is achieved by hand-signals of instructor while learningpracticing. to operate a forklift. Key Words: copies, traces, follows, react, reproduce, respondsMechanism: This is the intermediate Examples: Use a personalstage in learning a complex computer. Repair a leaking faucet. Driveskill. Learned responses have become a car.habitual and the movements can beperformed with some confidence and Key Words: assembles, calibrates,proficiency. constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches.Complex Overt Response: The Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tightskillful performance of motor acts that parallel parking spot. Operates ainvolve complex movement computer quickly and accurately.patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a Displays competence while playing thequick, accurate, and highly piano.coordinated performance, requiring aminimum of energy. This category Key Words: assembles, builds,includes performing without calibrates, constructs, dismantles,hesitation, and automatic displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats,performance. For example, players are manipulates, measures, mends, mixes,often utter sounds of satisfaction or organizes, sketches.expletives as soon as they hit a tennisball or throw a football, because they NOTE: The Key Words are the same ascan tell by the feel of the act what the Mechanism, but will have adverbs orresult will produce. adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc.Adaptation: Skills are well developed Examples: Responds effectively toand the individual can modify unexpected experiences. Modifiesmovement patterns to fit special instruction to meet the needs of therequirements. learners. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). Key Words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies. 7
  • Origination: Creating new movement Examples: Constructs a new theory.patterns to fit a particular situation or Develops a new and comprehensivespecific problem. Learning outcomes training programming. Creates a newemphasize creativity based upon gymnastic routine.highly developed skills. Key Words: arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, creates, designs, initiate, makes, originates.Other Psychomotor Domain Taxonomies As mentioned earlier, the committee did not produce a compilation for thepsychomotor domain model, but others have. The one discussed above is bySimpson (1972). There are two other popular versions:Daves (1975): Imitation — Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Performance may be of low quality. Example: Copying a work of art. Manipulation — Being able to perform certain actions by following instructions and practicing. Example: Creating work on ones own, after taking lessons, or reading about it. Precision — Refining, becoming more exact. Few errors are apparent. Example: Working and reworking something, so it will be “just right.” Articulation — Coordinating a series of actions, achieving harmony and internal consistency. Example: Producing a video that involves music, drama, color, sound, etc. Naturalization — Having high level performance become natural, without needing to think much about it. Examples: Michael Jordan playing basketball, Nancy Lopez hitting a golf ball, etc.Harrows (1972): Reflex movements — Reactions that are not learned. 8
  • Fundamental movements — Basic movements such as walking, or grasping. Perception — Response to stimuli such as visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or tactile discrimination. Physical abilities — Stamina that must be developed for further development such as strength and agility. Skilled movements — Advanced learned movements as one would find in sports or acting. No discursive communication — Effective body language, such as gestures and facial expressions.Blooms Revised Taxonomy Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, revisited the cognitivedomain in the learning taxonomy in the mid-nineties and made some changes,with perhaps the two most prominent ones being, 1) changing the names in the sixcategories from noun to verb forms, and 2) slightly rearranging them (Pohl, 2000). This new taxonomy reflects a more active form of thinking and is perhapsmore accurate: 9
  • CategoryExample and Key Words (verbs)Remembering: Recall previous learned information. Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules. Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.Understanding: Comprehending the meaning, translation, interpolation, andinterpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in ones own words. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in ones own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet. Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.Applying: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction.Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employees vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test. Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses. 10
  • Analyzing: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that itsorganizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts andinferences. Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.Evaluating: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget. Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.Creating: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts togetherto form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome. Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes. 11
  • Bibliography Anonymous. 2009. “Sistem Penilaian”. (Online) http://smak.yski.info/.Diakses Tanggal 18 Februari 2012 Anonymous. 2009. “Pengembnagan Perangkat Penilaian Psikomotor danProsedur Penilaian”.(Online)http://nurmanspd.wordpress.com/2009/09/17/pengembangan-perangkat-penilaian-psikomotor/. Diakses Tanggal 18 Februari 2012 Anonymous. 2009. “Pengukuran Ranah Kognitif, Afektif, danPsikomotor”. (Online) http://hadirukiyah.blogspot.com/2009/08/pengukuran-ranah-kognitif-afektif-dan.html. Diakses Tanggal 18 Februari 2012 Sudjana, Nana. 1989. Penilaian Hasil Proses Belajar. Bandung: PT.Remaja Rosdakarya Offset Sri Wardani. 2004. Penilaian Pembelajaran Matematika BerbasisKompetensi. Yogyakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Sudjono, Anas. 2008. Pengantar Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta:PT.RajaGrafindo Persada. 12