The standard approach suggests that teachers simply need to be trained to use technology. Underlying this approach is a view of technology that sees it as being a universally applicable skill; unlocking the power and potential pf technology can be achieved by acquiring basic competency with hardware and software packages. The leap of faith, however, is that by demonstrating their proficiency with current software and hardware, teachers will be able to successfully incorporate technology into their classrooms. This concept has several limitations: The rapid rate of technological change, inappropriate design of software (eg not being shown how to use accounting software in an educational setting), the situational nature of learning (the types and uses of technology will change dependent on the context of the school and individual students.)
Technology is always changing and therefore technological knowledge quickly becomes redundant or outdated. Technological content knowledge: using interactive whiteboard to build and alter 3D shapes.
Context: A Master’s level course in educational technology taught to 28 teachers. Goals: To give insight into the fields of educational psychology and technology, and how the two fields interact. Also, for students to learn some concrete advanced technology skills. Course content: A semester long task to create videos in small groups to communicate an important educational idea eg, the role of technology in the library sciences, affective communication online, and appropriate uses of technology. Instead of explicit instruction on how to use the necessary technology, teachers had to learn the technology within the context of communicating their understanding of larger ideas. Regular opportunities to screen the work-in-progress were offered and feedback provided along the way. While there was no given list of technological skills the teachers had to learn, the resulting list was impressive including: learning to operate digital cameras, using video and image editing software, conducting internet searches and uploading and downloading files, and designing webpages. Perhaps more importantly, teachers learnt about the connections and relationships between the technology and the content: eg, how to focus a message in a two minute video, how to let images and symbols convey meaning, how to inspire audiences, and how to communicate with audiences.
1. Technological PedagogicalContent KnowledgeA Framework for TeacherKnowledge Presented by Stephanie Sampson
2. This session will look at The place of technology in teaching and learning Current teacher training TPCK framework as a guide to more effective teacher training TPCK in action-examples of successful teacher training Why have a theoretical framework like TPCK?
3. Technology in Teaching andLearning – how does it fit? “Technological progress is like an axe in the hands of a pathological criminal.” -Albert Einstein
4. Technology in Teaching andLearning – how does it fit? The advent of digital technology has dramatically changed routines and practices in most arenas of human work. Routines and practices in Education have undoubtedly encountered changes, but are they dramatic? It has become clear…that in Education, the reality has lagged far behind the vision.
5. Current Teacher training "The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education." -Albert Einstein
6. Current Teacher training A tendency to look only at the technology and not how it is used. A conceptually based theoretical framework about the relationship between technology and teaching [like TPCK] can transform…teacher education, teacher training, and teachers’ professional development. Relationships between teaching and technology and complex and contextually bound – there is no one-size-fits-all approach.
7. TPCK framework as a guide tomore effective teacher training "We cant solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them." -Albert Einstein
8. TPCK framework as a guide tomore effective teacher training Old-school trends in teacher education Content Pedagogy
9. TPCK framework as a guide tomore effective teacher training Newer-school trends in teacher education Content Pedagogy Pedagogical-content Knowledge
10. TPCK framework as a guide tomore effective teacher training Technological trends in teacher education Pedagogical-content Knowledge Content Pedagogy Technology
11. TPCK framework as a guide to more effective teacher training TPCK at a Glance Pedagogical-content Knowledge Technological Pedagogical content Knowledge Content Pedagogy TechnologyTechnological Content Knowledge Technological Pedagogical Knowledge
12. TPCK framework as a guide tomore effective teacher training Content Knowledge facts, information, concepts, theories, the what Pedagogical Knowledge Method, processes, practices, techniques, the how Pedagogical Content Knowledge How to teach “the what”
13. TPCK framework as a guide tomore effective teacher training Technological Knowledge Knowledge about standard technologies – how to use them Whiteboard, books, internet, digital video Technological Content knowledge How the subject matter can be changed by the application of technology Technological Pedagogical Knowledge Knowledge about how a range of technological tools can support teaching.
14. TPCK framework as a guide tomore effective teacher training Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge The basis of good teaching with technology Pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content Knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face Knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge and to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones
15. TPCK in Action "Imagination is more important than knowledge." -Albert Einstein
16. TPCK in Action Learning Technology by Design The development of TPCK co-evolved with an effort to teach courses that develop teachers’ understanding of technology. Learning is best supported when the content is part of a context that the students can perceive as meaningful, assign value to the subject matter, and develop an understanding of the relation of it with their lives (Lave, 1997) Design-based activities provide a rich context for learning.
17. TPCK in Action Making Movies
18. TPCK in Action Learning Technology by Design in EDUC9701 What new technological skills have you acquired so far in this topic? What connections have you formed between your new-found skills and the concepts/ideas relating to using ICT for teaching and learning?
19. Why have a theoreticalframework like TPCK? "Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school." -Albert Einstein
20. Why have a theoreticalframework like TPCK? To guide observation (p1039) To make sense of the complex web of relationships that exist when teachers attempt to apply technology to the teaching of subject matter To allow us to conceptualize and discuss To give us the language to talk about it (p1044)
21. Why have a theoreticalframework like TPCK? To allow us to understand what good teaching with technology is about and also to make predictions about contexts under which such good teaching will occur To tell us how we can apply the ideas to the real world To allow us to critique simplistic approaches toward developing teacher knowledge and assist us in developing better learning environments (p1045)
22. “The goal of teacher education is not to indoctrinate or train teachers to behave in prescribed ways, but to educate teachers to reason soundly about their teaching as well as to perform skillfully.” (Shulman, 1987, p. 13)
23. ReferencesMishra, P. & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers college Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.Harris, K. (1995), Collected Quotes from Albert Einstein, retrieved 19 March 2012, from http://rescomp.stanford.edu/~cheshire/EinsteinQuotes.html.