phonology Chapter 7 features


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  • 1.a voiced sound that is less sonorous  than a vowel but moresonorous  than a stop or fricative and that may occur aseither a sonant or a consonant, as (l, r, m, n, y, w).
    2.a speech sound characterized by relatively free air passagethrough some channel, as a vowel, semivowel, liquid, ornasal. Compare obstruent.
  • 1.a voiced sound that is less sonorous  than a vowel but moresonorous  than a stop or fricative and that may occur aseither a sonant or a consonant, as (l, r, m, n, y, w).
    2.a speech sound characterized by relatively free air passagethrough some channel, as a vowel, semivowel, liquid, ornasal. Compare obstruent.
  • phonology Chapter 7 features

    1. 1. Chapter 6/7 Features PHONOLOGY (Lane 335)
    2. 2. Segmental Composition  Speech sounds can be decomposed into a number of articulatory components.  Combining these properties in different ways produces different speech sounds.  properties= features  Features show what sounds have in common & how they are related or not related.
    3. 3. Segmental Composition E.g. [t] vs [d] vs [s] vs [n] [t] = air pushed from lungs vocal cords apart (voiceless) velum raised (oral sound) blade of tongue (active articulator) touching alveolar ridge (passive articulator)  Any change in above will result in different sound Vocal cords vibrating (voiced) = [d] Blade of tongue not touching but close approximation = [s] Velum lowered = alveolar nasal [n]
    4. 4. Segmental Composition (cont)  However, difference between [t] vs [v]=  Voiceless : voiced  Tongue blade: lower lip (active articulator)  alveolar ridge : upper teeth (passive articulator) Features shared = Airflow + raised velum (oral) [t] and [v] share these features with [f,d,s,z,k,f,g] BUT these sounds don’t constitute a Natural Class
    5. 5. Segmental Composition (cont) Phonology is the study of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language Phonology looks at what sounds are phonemes and how these phonemes recur in different environments according to certain patterns in (different) languages Recurring groups = natural class Phonology is interested in natural classes Non-recurring groups = not natural class Phonology is not interested in these
    6. 6. Segmental Composition (cont) E.g. nasalization as a phonological process  affects only vowels  is triggered by nasals Hence the phonological rule states: A vowel becomes nasal when it immediately precedes a nasal /so/ (pail) and s~o (sound) in French The difference is phonemic = changes meaning pin and pit in English The difference is phonetic = no change in meaning
    7. 7. Segmental Composition (cont) random sets # natural class Vowels and nasals in example above = natural class [ t, d] = natural class
    8. 8. Natural class  Similar sounds that are grouped together according to a binary system because they share some features  Natural Class: Two or more sounds sharing at least one feature.  the smaller the class; the more the features  Example [p, t, k] is a natural class of (voiceless stops) (but this binary system allows for all other sound s to form a natural class phonetically)
    9. 9. Phonetic vs. Phonological Features  Phonetic features: correspond to physical articulatory or acoustic events (how sounds are articulated or produced)  Phonological features: (mental aspect of sounds in the language) 1- look beyond the individual segments at the sound system of language. 2- features to characterize speech sounds in the languages of the world. 3- some features are relevant only for consonants; others are only for vowels.
    10. 10. Phonetic vs. Phonological Features  To characterize place of articulation: e.g. [palatal] & use +, or –  Binary feature: a feature that has only two values (+ or -)  Phonologists express true generalizations about phonological structure as economically as possible.
    11. 11. Phonological Features  Major places of articulation:  [+ anterior]: sounds produced no further back in the oral tract than the alveolar ridge  [+ coronal]: sounds produced in the area bounded by the teeth & hard palate  Only two features gives four possible combinations.
    12. 12. Phonological Features [+ anterior] [- coronal] Labials [p, b, f, v] [+ anterior] [+ coronal] Alveolars & Dentals [t, d, s, z, θ ,ð]
    13. 13. Phonological Features [- anterior] [+ coronal] Palatals [j, ,ʃ ӡ, ʧ,ʤ,] [- anterior] [- coronal] velars [k, g, x, R]  Compact system with no unused combinations
    14. 14. Charting the Features  Goal of Phonology is to come up with a Universal set of finite rules that applies to all languages  (some rules will not apply to English)
    15. 15. Major Class Features  Distinguish major classes of speech sounds: Consonants & vowels, sonorants & obstruents 1- [+/- syllabic]: distinguish vowels from other sounds  [+ syll]: function as the nucleus of a syllable e.g: [æ ] & [ɪ ] in [r æb t]ɪ  [- syll]: don’t function as syllabic nuclei; [r] , [b] & [t] in [r æb t]ɪ  Sounds other than vowels may be syllabic i.e. (liquids & nasals) in [b tl] andɔ [bʌtn]
    16. 16. Major Class Features 2- [+/- consonantal]: distinguish consonants obstruents, liquids, & nasals from vowels & glides.  [+ cons]: involve oral stricture of close approximation ([p], [l], [t])  [- cons]: with stricture more open than close approximation ([j], [e])
    17. 17. Major Class Features 3- [+/ - sonorant]: distinguish vowels, glides, liquids, & nasal stops from oral stops, affricates & fricatives.  [+ son]: are marked by a continuing resonant sound. Sonorant sounds have more acoustic energy than other consonants  [- son] or (obstruents) opposite of sonorant sounds  Vowels, nasals & liquids are sonorants  Stops, fricatives & affricates are obstruents.
    18. 18. Major Class Features  Sonorant sound = 1. A voiced sound that is less sonorous than a vowel but more sonorous than a stop or fricative and that may occur as either a sonorant or a consonant as l,r,m,n,ŋ,j,w.  2. A speech sound characterized by relatively free air passage through some channel as a vowel, semivowel, liquid or nasal.
    19. 19. Major Class Features
    20. 20. Consonantal Features  1- [+/ - voice]: consonants with vibrating vocal cords & those which are not  [+ voi]: with airflow through the glottis; vocal cords close to vibrate, such as [l], [m], [n]  [- voi]: with vocal cords at rest; relevant to obstruents, such as [s], [p]  Although vowels are typically voiced, we find voiceless vowels in languages like Mexican
    21. 21. Place Features  [+/ - coronal]: distinguish sounds which involve the front of the tongue from others  [+ cor]: articulated with the tongue tip or blade raised [j, l, r, n, t, d, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ , ʒ , tʃ , dʒ ]  [- cor] sounds which don’t involve the front of the tongue [w, m, ŋ , k, g, h, f, v, p, b]
    22. 22. Place Features  [+/ - anterior]: distinguishes between sounds produced in the front of the mouth (labials, dentals & alveolars) and other sounds  [+ ant]: produced at or in front of the alveolar ridge [l, r, n, m, t, d, θ, ð, s, z, f, v, p, b]  [- ant]: produced further back in the oral cavity than the alveolar ridge [j, w, ŋ, , , t , d , k, g, h]ʃ ʒ ʃ ʒ
    23. 23. Place Features  Labials: [- cor, + ant] [m, f, v, p, b]  Dentals/ Alveolars: [+ cor, + ant] [ l, r, n, t, d, θ, ð, s, z]  Palato- Alveoars/ Palatals: [+ cor, - ant] [j, ,ʃ ʒ, tʃ, dʒ ]  Velars/Glottals/ Pharyngeals/Uvulars: [- cor, - ant] [w, ŋ, k, g, h, ]ʔ
    24. 24. Manner Features 1- [+/ - continuant]: distinguishes between stops & other sounds [+ cont]: there is airflow through the oral cavity [j, w, l, r, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h, f, v] [- cont]: in which the airflow is stopped in the oral cavity [n, m, ŋ, t, d, tʃ, dʒ, k, g, p, b]
    25. 25. Manner Features 2- [+/- nasal]: distinguish nasal & non-nasal sounds  [+ nas]: produced with the velum lowered & air flows through the nasal cavity [m, n, ŋ ]  [- nas]: without airflow through nasal cavity [j, w, l, r, d, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, k, g, h, f, v, p, b]
    26. 26. Manner Features 3- [+/- strident]: separates turbulent sounds from others  [+ strid]: complex constriction resulting in noisy airflow [s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, f, v]  [- strid]: without such constriction [j, w, l, r, n, m, ŋ, t, d, θ, ð, k, g, h, p, b]
    27. 27. Manner Features 4- [+/- lateral]: separates [l] sounds from others  [+ lat]: central oral obstruction & airflow passing over one or both sides of the tongue [l]  [- lat]: all other sounds
    28. 28. Manner Features 5- [+/- delayed release]: distinguishes affricates from other [- cont] segments  [+ del rel]: produced with stop closure in the oral cavity followed by frication at some point [tʃ, dʒ] (only two sounds)  [- del rel]: without frication
    29. 29. Vocalic Features (vowels)  1- [high]:  [+ hi]: body of the tongue raised above the neutral position in [ə] Vowels [iː, ɪ, ʊ, uː ] Consonants [j, k, g, ŋ, ʃ, ӡ, ʧ,ʤ,w, j]  [- hi]: the body of the tongue is not raised
    30. 30. Vocalic Features 2- [low]  [+ lo]: body of the tongue is lowered with respect to the neutral position Consonants: [ ], [h]ʔ Vowels: [ɒ, ɑː, ʌ, æ]  [- lo]: without such lowering
    31. 31. Vocalic Features 3- [back]  [+ back]: body of the tongue is retracted from neutral position Consonants: [k, g, ŋ] Vowels: [uː,ʊ, oː, ɔ, ɒ, ɑː]  [- back]: tongue is not retracted All English consonants except the velars are [-back]
    32. 32. Vocalic Features 4- [front]  [+ front]: sounds for which the tongue is fronted from the neutral position [iː, ɪ, e, ε, æ]  [- front]: the tongue is not fronted.
    33. 33. Vocalic Features 5- [round]  [+ rnd]: produced with rounded lips Consonants: [w] Vowels: [uː, ʊ, o , ]ː ɔ  [- rnd]: produced with neutral or spread lips
    34. 34. Vocalic Features 6- [tense]  [+ tns]: involve muscular constriction (longer sounds) [iː, uː, ɑː, e ]ː  [ - tns]: no constriction (shorter sounds)
    35. 35. Vocalic Features 7- [Advanced Tongue Root]  for describing West African & other languages vowels (vowel harmony)  words have vowels from certain sets & not a mixture of both sets  [+ ATR]: the root of the tongue pushed forward  [- ATR]: tongue root is not pushed forward.
    36. 36. Problems with the features  There are some problems of these features, for example:  Some combinations represents physical impossibility [+ hi, + lo]  The system overgenerates; represents types not found in human languages.  Using the feature [back] doesn’t represent languages with central vowels.