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phonology Chapter 7 features

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  • 1. a voiced sound that is less  sonorous   than a vowel but more sonorous   than a stop or fricative and that may occur aseither a sonant or a consonant, as (l, r, m, n, y, w). 2. a speech sound characterized by relatively  free  air passagethrough some channel, as a vowel, semivowel, liquid, ornasal. Compare  obstruent .
  • 1. a voiced sound that is less  sonorous   than a vowel but more sonorous   than a stop or fricative and that may occur aseither a sonant or a consonant, as (l, r, m, n, y, w). 2. a speech sound characterized by relatively  free  air passagethrough some channel, as a vowel, semivowel, liquid, ornasal. Compare  obstruent .

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 6/7 Features PHONOLOGY (Lane 335)
  • 2. Segmental Composition
    • Speech sounds can be decomposed into a number of articulatory components.
    • Combining these properties in different ways produces different speech sounds.
    • properties= features
    • Features show what sounds have in common & how they are related or not related.
  • 3. Segmental Composition
    • E.g. [t] vs [d] vs [s] vs [n]
    • [t] = air pushed from lungs
    • vocal cords apart (voiceless)
    • velum raised (oral sound)
    • blade of tongue (active articulator) touching alveolar ridge (passive articulator)
    • Any change in above will result in different sound
    • Vocal cords vibrating (voiced) = [d]
    • Blade of tongue not touching but close approximation = [s]
    • Velum lowered = alveolar nasal [n]
  • 4. Segmental Composition (cont)
    • However, difference between [t] vs [v] =
      • Voiceless : voiced
      • Tongue blade: lower lip (active articulator)
      • alveolar ridge : upper teeth (passive articulator)
      • Features shared = Airflow + raised velum (oral)
      • [t] and [v] share these features with [f,d,s,z,k,f,g]
      • BUT these sounds don’t constitute a Natural Class
  • 5. Segmental Composition (cont)
      • Phonology is the study of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language
      • Phonology looks at what sounds are phonemes and how these phonemes recur in different environments according to certain patterns in (different) languages
      • Recurring groups = natural class
      • Phonology is interested in natural classes
      • Non-recurring groups = not natural class
      • Phonology is not interested in these
  • 6. Segmental Composition (cont)
      • E.g. nasalization as a phonological process
      • affects only vowels
      • is triggered by nasals
      • Hence the phonological rule states:
      • A vowel becomes nasal when it immediately precedes a nasal
      • /so/ (pail) and s~o (sound) in French
      • The difference is phonemic = changes meaning
      • pin and pit in English
      • The difference is phonetic = no change in meaning
  • 7. Segmental Composition (cont)
      • random sets # natural class
      • Vowels and nasals in example above = natural class
      • [ t, d] = natural class
  • 8. Natural class
    • Similar sounds that are grouped together according to a binary system because they share some features
    • Natural Class: Two or more sounds sharing at least one feature.
    • the smaller the class; the more the features
    • Example [p, t, k] is a natural class of (voiceless stops) ( but this binary system allows for all other sound s to form a natural class phonetically)
  • 9. Phonetic vs. Phonological Features
    • Phonetic features : correspond to physical articulatory or acoustic events (how sounds are articulated or produced)
    • Phonological features : (mental aspect of sounds in the language)
    • 1- look beyond the individual segments at the sound system of language.
    • 2- features to characterize speech sounds in the languages of the world.
    • 3- some features are relevant only for consonants; others are only for vowels.
  • 10. Phonetic vs. Phonological Features
    • To characterize place of articulation: e.g. [palatal] & use +, or –
    • Binary feature : a feature that has only two values (+ or -)
    • Phonologists express true generalizations about phonological structure as economically as possible.
  • 11. Phonological Features
    • Major places of articulation:
    • [+ anterior]: sounds produced no further back in the oral tract than the alveolar ridge
    • [+ coronal]: sounds produced in the area bounded by the teeth & hard palate
      • Only two features gives four possible combinations.
  • 12. Phonological Features
    • [ + anterior]
    • [ - coronal]
    • Labials [p, b, f, v]
    • [ + anterior]
    • [ + coronal]
    • Alveolars & Dentals [t, d, s, z, θ ,ð ]
  • 13. Phonological Features
    • [ - anterior]
    • [ + coronal]
    • Palatals [j, ʃ , ӡ , ʧ,ʤ ,]
    • [ - anterior]
    • [ - coronal]
    • velars [k, g, x, R]
    • Compact system with no unused combinations
  • 14. Charting the Features
    • Goal of Phonology is to come up with a Universal set of finite rules that applies to all languages
    • (some rules will not apply to English)
  • 15. Major Class Features
    • Distinguish major classes of speech sounds:
    • Consonants & vowels, sonorants & obstruents
    • 1- [+/- syllabic]: distinguish vowels from other sounds
    • [+ syll]: function as the nucleus of a syllable
    • e.g: [ æ ] & [ ɪ ] in [r æb ɪt]
    • [- syll]: don’t function as syllabic nuclei; [r] , [b] & [t] in [r æb ɪt]
    • Sounds other than vowels may be syllabic i.e. (liquids & nasals) in [bɔtl] and [bʌ tn]
  • 16. Major Class Features
    • 2- [+/- consonantal]: distinguish consonants obstruents, liquids, & nasals from vowels & glides.
    • [+ cons]: involve oral stricture of close approximation ([p], [l], [t])
    • [- cons]: with stricture more open than close approximation ([j], [ e ])
  • 17. Major Class Features
    • 3- [+/ - sonorant]: distinguish vowels, glides, liquids, & nasal stops from oral stops, affricates & fricatives.
    • [+ son]: are marked by a continuing resonant sound. Sonorant sounds have more acoustic energy than other consonants
    • [- son] or (obstruents) opposite of sonorant sounds
    • Vowels, nasals & liquids are sonorants
    • Stops, fricatives & affricates are obstruents.
  • 18. Major Class Features
    • Sonorant sound = 1. A voiced sound that is less sonorous than a vowel but more sonorous than a stop or fricative and that may occur as either a sonorant or a consonant as l,r,m,n, ŋ,j ,w.
    • 2. A speech sound characterized by relatively free air passage through some channel as a vowel, semivowel, liquid or nasal.
  • 19. Major Class Features
  • 20. Consonantal Features
    • 1- [+/ - voice]: consonants with vibrating vocal cords & those which are not
    • [+ voi]: with airflow through the glottis; vocal cords close to vibrate, such as [l], [m], [n]
    • [- voi]: with vocal cords at rest; relevant to obstruents, such as [s], [p]
    • Although vowels are typically voiced, we find voiceless vowels in languages like Mexican
  • 21. Place Features
    • [+/ - coronal]: distinguish sounds which involve the front of the tongue from others
    • [+ cor]: articulated with the tongue tip or blade raised
    • [j, l, r, n, t, d, θ , ð , s, z, ʃ , ʒ , tʃ , dʒ ]
    • [- cor] sounds which don’t involve the front of the tongue
    • [w, m, ŋ , k, g, h, f, v, p, b]
  • 22. Place Features
    • [+/ - anterior]: distinguishes between sounds produced in the front of the mouth (labials, dentals & alveolars) and other sounds
    • [+ ant]: produced at or in front of the alveolar ridge
    • [l, r, n, m, t, d, θ , ð , s, z, f, v, p, b]
    • [- ant]: produced further back in the oral cavity than the alveolar ridge
    • [j, w, ŋ, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, k, g, h]
  • 23. Place Features
    • Labials:
    • [- cor, + ant] [m, f, v, p, b]
    • Dentals/ Alveolars :
    • [+ cor, + ant] [ l, r, n, t, d, θ , ð , s, z]
    • Palato- Alveoars/ Palatals :
    • [+ cor, - ant] [j, ʃ, ʒ , tʃ , dʒ ]
    • Velars/Glottals/ Pharyngeals/Uvulars :
    • [- cor, - ant] [w, ŋ, k, g, h, ʔ]
  • 24. Manner Features
    • 1- [+/ - continuant]: distinguishes between stops & other sounds
    • [+ cont]: there is airflow through the oral cavity
    • [j, w, l, r, θ , ð, s, z, ʃ , ʒ , h, f, v]
    • [- cont]: in which the airflow is stopped in the oral cavity
    • [n, m, ŋ , t, d, tʃ , dʒ , k, g, p, b]
  • 25. Manner Features
    • 2- [+/- nasal]: distinguish nasal & non-nasal sounds
    • [+ nas]: produced with the velum lowered & air flows through the nasal cavity
    • [m, n, ŋ ]
    • [- nas]: without airflow through nasal cavity
    • [j, w, l, r, d, θ , ð , s, z, ʃ , ʒ , tʃ , dʒ , k, g, h, f, v, p, b]
  • 26. Manner Features
    • 3- [+/- strident]: separates turbulent sounds from others
    • [+ strid]: complex constriction resulting in noisy airflow
    • [s, z, ʃ , ʒ , tʃ , dʒ , f, v]
    • [- strid]: without such constriction
    • [j, w, l, r, n, m, ŋ , t, d, θ , ð , k, g, h, p, b]
  • 27. Manner Features
    • 4- [+/- lateral]: separates [l] sounds from others
    • [+ lat]: central oral obstruction & airflow passing over one or both sides of the tongue
    • [l]
    • [- lat]: all other sounds
  • 28. Manner Features
    • 5- [+/- delayed release]: distinguishes affricates from other [- cont] segments
    • [+ del rel]: produced with stop closure in the oral cavity followed by frication at some point
    • [ tʃ , dʒ ] (only two sounds)
    • [- del rel]: without frication
  • 29. Vocalic Features (vowels)
    • 1- [high]:
    • [+ hi]: body of the tongue raised above the neutral position in [ ə ]
    • Vowels [ iː , ɪ , ʊ , uː ]
    • Consonants [j, k, g, ŋ, ʃ, ӡ , ʧ,ʤ,w, j ]
    • [- hi]: the body of the tongue is not raised
  • 30. Vocalic Features
    • 2- [low]
    • [+ lo]: body of the tongue is lowered with respect to the neutral position
    • Consonants: [ʔ], [h]
    • Vowels: [ ɒ , ɑː , ʌ , æ ]
    • [- lo]: without such lowering
  • 31. Vocalic Features
    • 3- [back]
    • [+ back]: body of the tongue is retracted from neutral position
    • Consonants: [k, g, ŋ ]
    • Vowels: [ uː , ʊ , o ː , ɔ , ɒ , ɑː ]
    • [- back]: tongue is not retracted
    • All English consonants except the velars are [-back]
  • 32. Vocalic Features
      • 4- [front]
      • [+ front]: sounds for which the tongue is fronted from the neutral position
      • [ iː , ɪ , e , ε , æ ]
      • [- front]: the tongue is not fronted.
  • 33. Vocalic Features
    • 5- [round]
    • [+ rnd]: produced with rounded lips
    • Consonants: [w]
    • Vowels: [ uː , ʊ , oː, ɔ]
    • [- rnd]: produced with neutral or spread lips
  • 34. Vocalic Features
    • 6- [tense]
    • [+ tns]: involve muscular constriction (longer sounds)
    • [ i ː , u ː , ɑ ː , e ː]
    • [ - tns]: no constriction (shorter sounds)
  • 35. Vocalic Features
    • 7- [Advanced Tongue Root]
    • for describing West African & other languages vowels (vowel harmony)
    • words have vowels from certain sets & not a mixture of both sets
    • [+ ATR]: the root of the tongue pushed forward
    • [- ATR]: tongue root is not pushed forward.
  • 36. Problems with the features
    • There are some problems of these features, for example:
    • Some combinations represents physical impossibility [+ hi, + lo]
    • The system overgenerates; represents types not found in human languages.
    • Using the feature [back] doesn’t represent languages with central vowels.