Perceptualset+introduction to learning-Mili Aggarwal

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Perceptualset+introduction to learning-Mili Aggarwal

  1. 1. PERCEPTUA L SETS
  2. 2. PERCEPTUAL SET A READINESS TO PERCEIVE STIMULI IN A PARTICULAR WAY ONLY.
  3. 3. EG.-SOMEONE WITH AN AVID INTEREST IN UFOS MIGHT READILY INTERPRET UNUSUAL CLOUD FORMATIONS AS A FLEET OF ALIEN SPACECRAFT.
  4. 4. PERCEPTUAL SET PERCEPTUAL SET CAN: ENHANCE VISUAL PERCEPTION BY CORRECTLY ANTICIPATING(AN EXPECTATION FOR SOMETHING GOOD) A STIMULUS HENCE INTERPRETING IT MORE QUICKLY. LEAD TO MISINTERPRETATION OF A STIMULUS BY INCORRECT ANTICIPATION OR EXPECTATION.
  5. 5. Perceptual set can be influenced by: CONTEXT EXPECTANCY MOTIVATION CULTURAL FACTORS
  6. 6. Perceptual Set - CONTEXT  THE SETTING IN WHICH THE STIMULUS OCCURS.  THE SAME STIMULUS MAY BE PERCEIVED DIFFERENTLY DEPENDING ON THE CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH IT OCCURS.  IF WE ALWAYS SEE INFORMATION IN A PARTICULAR CONTEXT, THIS CAN CREATE AN EXPECTANCY THAT IT WILL NEVER BE SEEN IN ANOTHER CONTEXT.
  7. 7. Bruner & Minturn, 1955  BRUNER & MINTURN, 1955 ILLUSTRATED HOW EXPECTATION COULD INFLUENCE SET BY SHOWING PARTICIPANTS AN AMBIGUOUS FIGURE '13' SET IN THE CONTEXT OF LETTERS OR NUMBERS.  THE PHYSICAL STIMULUS '13' IS THE SAME IN EACH CASE BUT IS PERCEIVED DIFFERENTLY BECAUSE OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONTEXT IN WHICH IT APPEARS. WE EXPECT TO SEE A LETTER IN THE CONTEXT OF OTHER LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET, WHEREAS WE EXPECT TO SEE NUMBERS IN THE CONTEXT OF OTHER NUMBERS.
  8. 8. Perceptual Set expectancy THE EXPECTATION ABOUT WHAT WE MIGHT PERCEIVE IN A GIVEN SITUATION ALSO INFLUENCES OUR PERCEPTION. STRONG TENDENCY TO SEE WHAT WE EXPECTS TO SEE EVEN WHEN THE RESULTS DON’T ACCURATELY REFLECTS EXTERNAL REALITY. EXAMPLE-IF A MILKMAN DELIVERS YOU MILK DAILY AT 8.AM, ANY KNOCKING AT THE DOOR AROUND THAT TIME IS LIKELY TO BE PERCEIVED AS THE PRESENCE OF THE MILKMAN EVEN IF IT IS SOMEONE ELSE.
  9. 9. Bugelski and Alampay, 1961  A STUDY BY BUGELSKI AND ALAMPAY, 1961 USING THE 'RAT-MAN' AMBIGUOUS FIGURE ALSO DEMONSTRATED THE IMPORTANCE OF EXPECTATION IN INDUCING SET. PARTICIPANTS WERE SHOWN EITHER A SERIES OF ANIMAL PICTURES OR NEUTRAL PICTURES PRIOR TO EXPOSURE TO THE AMBIGUOUS PICTURE. THEY FOUND PARTICIPANTS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY MORE LIKELY TO PERCEIVE THE AMBIGUOUS PICTURE AS A RAT IF THEY HAD HAD PRIOR EXPOSURE TO ANIMAL PICTURES.
  10. 10.  RELATES TO ACTIVATING BEHAVIOUR THAT IS DIRECTED TOWARDS ACHIEVING A PARTICULAR GOAL.  THEY CAN BE INFLUENCED BY PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS (BODILY FUNCTIONS EG. HUNGER) OR PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS (INTERESTS OR AMBITIONS). Perceptual Set MOTIVATION
  11. 11.  Sandford, 1936  SANDFORD, 1936 DEPRIVED PARTICIPANTS OF FOOD FOR VARYING LENGTHS OF TIME, UP TO 4 HOURS, AND THEN SHOWED THEM AMBIGUOUS(HAVING A DOUBLE MEANING) PICTURES. PARTICIPANTS WERE MORE LIKELY TO INTERPRET THE PICTURES AS SOMETHING TO DO WITH FOOD IF THEY HAD BEEN DEPRIVED OF FOOD FOR A LONGER PERIOD OF TIME.
  12. 12. Perceptual Set CULTURAL FACTORS  HOW OUR PERCEPTION IS SHAPED BY OUR CUSTOMS, TRADITIONS BELIEFS AND VALUES.
  13. 13. GREYORG & GOMBRICH,1973  Most AMERICANS AND EUROPEANS IDENTIFIED THE IMAGE AS A WINDOW.THEY TEND TO SEE THE FAMILY IN A DWELLING SETTING.  BUT WHEN THE SAME PICTURE WAS SHOWN TO THE EAST AFRICAN THEY ALL PERCEIVED AS A BOX THAT THE WOMAN WAS BALANCING OVER THEIR HEAD. FOR THEM THE FAMILY WAS SITTING OTSUIDE UNDER A TREE.
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION TO LEARNING
  15. 15. NATURE OF LEARNING  ANY RELATIVELY PARMANENT CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR OR BEHAVIOURAL POTENTIAL (BEHAVIOR POTENTIAL IS THE POSSIBILITY THAT A PARTICULAR RESPONSE WILL OCCUR AT A GIVEN TIME AND PLACE IN RELATION TO ITS LIKELY REINFORCEMENT)PRODUCED BY EXPERIENCE.  SOME CHANGES OCCURS DUE TO USE OF DRUGS OR FATIGUE.SUCH CHANGES ARE TEMPORARY.HENCE THEY ARE NOT CONSIDERED LEARNING.  CHANGES DUE TO PRACTICE AND EXPERIECES WHICH ARE RELATIVELY PARMANENT ARE CONSIDERED AS ILLUSTRATIVE OF LEARNING.
  16. 16. FEATURES OF LEARNING  LEARNING ALWAYS INVOLVES SOME KIND OF EXEPERIENCE. EG. ONE LEARNS THAT IF THE BELL RINGS IN THE HOSTEL AFTER SUNSET . THEN DINNER IS READY TO BE SERVED.REPEATD EXPERIENCE OF SATISFACTION AFTR DOING SOMETHING IN SPECIFIED MANNER LEADS TO FORMATION OF HABIT.  SOMETIMES A SINGLE EXPERIENCE CAN LEAD TO LEARNING. EG. A CHILD STRIKES A MATCHSTICK ON THE SIDE OF THE MATCHBOX AND GETS HIS/HER FINGER BURNT.SUCH AN EXPERIENCE MAKES THE CHILD LEARN TO BE CAREFUL WHILE HANDLING MATHCHBOX IN FUTURE.  BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES THAT OCCURS DUE TO LEARNING ARE RELATIVELY PAREMANENT. EG.WHEN THE CHILD IN THE ABOVE MENTIONED EXAMPLE WILL USE MATCHBOX, WILL ALWAYS BE CAREFUL.
  17. 17. TYPES OF LEARNING  CLASSICAL LEARNING  OPERANT LEARNING  OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING  COGNITIVE LEARNING

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