WHAT ARE ANTACIDS?
Antacids Are A Class (Group) Of Medicines Which Help To Neutralize
The Acid Content Of Your Stomach. Antacids Include: Aluminum
Hydroxide, Magnesium Carbonate, And Magnesium Trisilicate. These
Come In Various Different Brand Names And Are Available As Tablets
Some Antacids Are Combined With Another Medicine Called
Simethicone Which Helps To Reduce Flatulence (Wind).
Another Group Of Medicines Called Alginates Are Found In Some
Brands Of Antacid Medication. Alginates Are Added To Help Protect
The Lining Of The Esophagus (Gullet) From Stomach Acid. Alginates
Include: Sodium Alginate And Alginic Acid. They Are Present In Antacid
Medications With Various Different Brand Names.
STOMACH AND ACIDITY
ACIDITY IN THE STOMACH
Acidity in the stomach is normal, but
excess acidity is potentially harmful
It is unusual compared to other organs as
its pH is as low as 1-2
Due to production of hydrochloric acid
from structures in lining of walls = gastric
Acid environment kills bacteria that comes
in with food, is optimum for activity of
CAUSES OF EXCESSIVE RELEASE OF ACIDS
IN THE STOMACH
Eating certain foods
Certain Drugs, i.e. Aspirin
RESULTS OF EXCESSIVE RELEASE OF HCL IN THE
INDIGESTION: feeling of
discomfort due to too much acid in
HEARTBURN: acid from stomach
rising into esophagus
ULCER: damage to lining of stomach
wall, resulting in loss of tissue and
MECHANISM OF ANTACIDS
MECHANISM OF ANTACIDS
Reduction Of Pain Associated With Acid-related Disorders
Allowing The Mucus Layer In The Stomach Lining To Heal.
Treat Ulcers By Preventing The Stomach Acids From
Attacking The Stomach Lining Allowing It To Heal.
Neutralize Acidity-Increasing The pH
Raising Gastric pH From 1.3 To 1.6 Neutralizes 50% Of The
Raising Gastric pH 1 Point (1.3 To 2.3) Neutralizes 90% Of
The Gastric Acid.
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN IDEAL ANTACID
should not absorbable or cause systemic alkalosis.
should not liberate carbon dioxide &cause rebound hyperacidity.
should not interfere with absorption of food.
should not be a laxative or cause constipation.
should be quick acting & exert its effect over a longer period of time.
should buffer in the pH range 4-6.
should probably inhibit pepsin.
should be inexpensive.
ANTACIDS ARE AVAILABLE AS
TYPES OF ANTACIDS
Types Of ANTACIDS Sodium
onset, but short duration
cause metabolic alkalosis
content may cause problems in
patients with CHF, hypertension, or renal
Forms: many, but carbonate is most common
May cause constipation
Their use may result in kidney stones
Long duration of acid action may cause increased
gastric acid secretion (hyperacidity rebound)
Often advertised as an extra source of dietary
Have constipating effects
Often used with magnesium to
carbonate, hydroxide, oxide,
Commonly cause a laxative effect
Usually used with other agents to
counteract this effect
Dangerous when used with renal failure—
the failing kidney cannot excrete extra
magnesium, resulting in accumulation
ANTACIDS WITH ANTIFLATULENTS
Alters Elasticity Of Mucus-coated Bubbles, Causing Them To Break.
Used Often, But There Are Limited Data To Support Effectiveness.
Antiflatulents used to relieve the painful symptoms associated with
Several agents are used to bind or alter intestinal gas, and are often
added to antacid combination products.
Alginate antacids don't work the way other
antacids do. These antacids contain both calcium
carbonate and alginic acid. The alginic acid helps
form a barrier that floats on top of the acid in
your stomach. This barrier helps prevent stomach
acid from moving up into esophagus.
The calcium carbonate works to neutralize the
stomach acid that pushes through the barrier and
into your esophagus.
SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTACIDS
• Loss of
• produce a
of carbon dioxide
gas, people often
• can cause
• Produces gas
• may results in
•Loss of appetite
WHO CANNOT TAKE ANTACIDS
Patient with kidney failure or heart disease: Sodium bicarbonate has high sodium
content and is not appropriate for people who are on salt restricted diets or have
congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, or kidney problems.
In pregnancy: If you are pregnant, antacids are safe to use for heartburn symptoms.
But do not use antacids that have sodium bicarbonate. They can cause fluid buildup.
During pregnancy it is okay to use antacids that have calcium carbonate (such as
Problem with liver and kidney : If you have a problem with the function of your
kidneys or liver, you should be careful with using antacids. All drugs are broken down
and removed from the body by the combined action of the liver and kidneys. If your
kidneys are not working correctly, it is possible that too much of the drug will build up
in your body.
When antacids are taken with acidic drugs such as
digoxin , phenytoin , chlorpromazine , isoniazid, they
cause the absorption of the acidic drugs to be
decreased, which causes low blood concentrations of
the drugs, which ultimately results in reduced effects
of the drugs.
Antacids that contain magnesium hydroxide when
taken with some other medications (such as
tetracycline) will bind to the drug, and reduce its
absorption and effects