Electrical Engineering Basics - What Design Engineers Need to Know

  • 20,128 views
Uploaded on

Here is a presentation of basic electrcial engineering concepts for other design disciplines

Here is a presentation of basic electrcial engineering concepts for other design disciplines

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • good
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
20,128
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
366
Comments
1
Likes
5

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Design elements Load types and characteristics [Mike C and 2H] Power sources – utility and private [Mike C and 2H] Discussion on protective devices and safety aspects [HRZ] Devices for monitoring and control and system discussion [Mike P] Pulling it together SLD power connection diagram P&ID control and monitoring diagram
  • Load: If it needs electricity to operate: rotate, revolve, move, heat or illuminate, it’s a load. Is a switch a load? Motors [process and building] Lights control cabinets contain a system of loads: PLCs, indicating lights, relays Characteristics and ratings: Single phase, three phase, frequency, [unit of power is KW or KVA] Voltage, amperage Enclosure types for different operational and environmental factors: Safety: Protective devices for transient voltages, voltage surges, overcurrent, overvoltage, and ground fault Enclosures for energized parts, raceways, insulators Control: On, off, and somewhere in between [vary voltage or current to control rotation or intensity] Monitor: Power: Always metered by the utility but instrumentation is used for individual monitoring of equipment or systems to determine efficiency Run time: to schedule maintenance Temperature: to determine potential problems
  • These elements are considered in all designs, though all may not be applicable. Without exception, project engineers need to know about the LOAD, the SOURCE, and the CONTROL, to ensure SAFETY, COMPLIANCE and provide for proper MAINTENANCE The LOAD can be building or 1,000; but each load receives the same thought process and evaluation to follow recommended practices, standards and codes. It’s all about protection of life and property.
  • These elements are considered in all designs, though all may not be applicable. Without exception, project engineers need to know about the LOAD, the SOURCE, and the CONTROL, to ensure SAFETY, COMPLIANCE and provide for proper MAINTENANCE The LOAD can be building or 1,000; but each load receives the same thought process and evaluation to follow recommended practices, standards and codes. It’s all about protection of life and property.
  • After all the loads are tabulated [hp converted to kva], the service or the power source size is determined. 2. Source 2.a. What is the source? 2.a.1. Utility transfomer 2.a.2. Distribution transformer 2.a.3. Generator 2.a.4. UPS or battery 2.b. What are the source ratings? 2.b.1. KVA- transformer 2.b.2. Volts (primary & secondary on transformer) 2.b.3. Kw (generator) 2.b.4. Phases 2.c. How is the source protected? 2.c.1. Circuit breaker 2.c.2. Fuse 2.d. Where is source protection located? 2.d.1. Panelboard 2.d.2. Enclosure 2.e. Where is the source located? 2.e.1. Pole 2.e.2. Padmounted 2.e.3. Room (elevation, number)
  • After all the loads are tabulated [hp converted to kva], the service or the power source size is determined. 2. Source 2.a. What is the source? 2.a.1. Utility transfomer 2.a.2. Distribution transformer 2.a.3. Generator 2.a.4. UPS or battery 2.b. What are the source ratings? 2.b.1. KVA- transformer 2.b.2. Volts (primary & secondary on transformer) 2.b.3. Kw (generator) 2.b.4. Phases 2.c. How is the source protected? 2.c.1. Circuit breaker 2.c.2. Fuse 2.d. Where is source protection located? 2.d.1. Panelboard 2.d.2. Enclosure 2.e. Where is the source located? 2.e.1. Pole 2.e.2. Padmounted 2.e.3. Room (elevation, number)
  • After all the loads are tabulated [hp converted to kva], the service or the power source size is determined. 2. Source 2.a. What is the source? 2.a.1. Utility transfomer 2.a.2. Distribution transformer 2.a.3. Generator 2.a.4. UPS or battery 2.b. What are the source ratings? 2.b.1. KVA- transformer 2.b.2. Volts (primary & secondary on transformer) 2.b.3. Kw (generator) 2.b.4. Phases 2.c. How is the source protected? 2.c.1. Circuit breaker 2.c.2. Fuse 2.d. Where is source protection located? 2.d.1. Panelboard 2.d.2. Enclosure 2.e. Where is the source located? 2.e.1. Pole 2.e.2. Padmounted 2.e.3. Room (elevation, number)
  • The newsroom at WBRZ-TV, the ABC television affiliate, in Baton Rouge, LA, is another flywheel application. The news operation is active 24 hours every day of the year. Television and radio stations are required by law to continue broadcasting if power is lost in the power grid.
  • IEEE Standard for Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Low: 120/240 to 600V – used to supply utilization equipment Medium: 2400 to 69kV – supply distribution transformers or large motors [13.8kV and lower] High: 115 to 230kV – transmission voltage between substations IEEE Power Engineering Society High = above 1000V NEC High = over 600V
  • Article 110 requires specific clearances around equipment based on voltage levels, and changes have occurred from the 2002 NEC. Ea
  • Article 110 requires specific clearances around equipment based on voltage levels, and changes have occurred from the 2002 NEC. The requirement that equipment rated 1,200A or more had to be over 6 ft wide before an entrance was required at each end of the working space was removed. The argument for the change was that the size of the arc blast is directly related to the ampere rating of the equipment, and not the physical width of the equipment.
  • Based on the information provided and discussions that ensue, the early design decisions are made. Article 110 requires specific clearances around equipment based on voltage levels.
  • Based on the information provided and discussions that ensue, the early design decisions are made. Article 110 requires specific clearances around equipment based on voltage levels.
  • What are the options to protect the load? 3.a. How is the load protected? 3.a.1. Circuit breaker 3.a.2. Fuse 3.b. Where is protection located? Environment? 3.b.1. Panel 3.b.2. MCC These devices are assembled and connected to conductive metal called bus bars. the energized parts are protected inside panels which will have NEMA enclosure ratings, which Mike Currie will address later.
  • What are the options to protect the load? 3.a. How is the load protected? 3.a.1. Circuit breaker 3.a.2. Fuse 3.b. Where is protection located? Environment? 3.b.1. Panel 3.b.2. MCC These devices are assembled and connected to conductive metal called bus bars. the energized parts are protected inside panels which will have NEMA enclosure ratings, which Mike Currie will address later.
  • What are the options to protect the load? 3.a. How is the load protected? 3.a.1. Circuit breaker 3.a.2. Fuse 3.b. Where is protection located? Environment? 3.b.1. Panel 3.b.2. MCC These devices are assembled and connected to conductive metal called bus bars. the energized parts are protected inside panels which will have NEMA enclosure ratings, which Mike Currie will address later.
  • What are the options to protect the load? 3.a. How is the load protected? 3.a.1. Circuit breaker 3.a.2. Fuse 3.b. Where is protection located? Environment? 3.b.1. Panel 3.b.2. MCC These devices are assembled and connected to conductive metal called bus bars. the energized parts are protected inside panels which will have NEMA enclosure ratings, which Mike Currie will address later.
  • E-rated fuses: Bolt-In • EBI055 - E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for transformer and feeder protection. CL-14 • ECL055 - E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for transformer and feeder protection. • ECL155 - E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for transformer and feeder protection. for potential & small power transformers • JCD - Indicating and non-indicating E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers. • JCE - Indicating and non-indicating E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers. • JCI - Indicating and non-indicating E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers. • JCQ - Indicating and non-indicating E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers. • JCT - Indicating and non-indicating E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers. • JCW - Indicating and non-indicating E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers. for transformer & feeder protection • JCU - Indoor/enclosure E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers with blown fuse indication. • JCX - Indoor/enclosure E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers with blown fuse indication. • JCY - Indoor/enclosure E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers with blown fuse indication. • JCZ - Indoor/enclosure E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers with blown fuse indication. • JDZ - Indoor/enclosure E-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for potential & small power transformers with blown fuse indication. for transformers and feeders • MV055 - E-rated medium, voltage current-limiting fuses: for transformer and feeder protection. • MV155 - E-rated medium, voltage current-limiting fuses: for transformer and feeder protection. Fast-acting fuses Non-time delay • HVA - Medium voltage, non-time delay, fast-acting fuses. • HVB - Medium voltage, non-time delay, fast-acting fuses. • HVJ - Medium voltage, non-time delay, fast-acting fuses. • HVL - Medium voltage, non-time delay, fast-acting fuses. • HVR - Medium voltage, non-time delay, fast-acting fuses. • HVT - Medium voltage, non-time delay, fast-acting fuses. • HVU - Medium voltage, non-time delay, fast-acting fuses. • HVX - Medium voltage, non-time delay, fast-acting fuses. R-rated fuses for motor circuit protection • JCG - Indoor/enclosure R-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for motor circuit protection. • JCH - Indoor/enclosure R-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for motor circuit protection. • JCK - Indoor/enclosure R-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for motor circuit protection. • JCK-A - Indoor/enclosure R-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for motor circuit protection. • JCK-B - Indoor/enclosure R-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for motor circuit protection. • JCL-A - Indoor/enclosure R-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for motor circuit protection. • JCL-B - Indoor/enclosure R-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for motor circuit protection. • JCR-A - Indoor/enclosure R-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for motor circuit protection. • JCR-B - Indoor/enclosure R-rated medium voltage, current-limiting fuses for motor circuit protection. Type H & N (High Surge) • EEI-NEMA - Medium voltage fuses: Type H (high surge) Type K (Fast) • EEI-NEMA - EEI-NEMA Type K (fast-acting) Type T (Slow) • EEI-NEMA - EEI-NEMA Type T (slow-acting).
  • What are the options to control the load? What parameters should be monitored? Individual component devices are useful but only if they work in concert. Field devices must report to a command center where decisions are made and action taken. Someone watches a gauge or gauges and turns a knob or flips a switch based on the information displayed or the decision to open a value, turn on a pump, or raise a temperature is determined a multitude of feedback set points that are processed in nanoseconds. SCADA systems can monitor and control plant and process equipment to save clients time and money Verify system performance for regulatory compliance, energy cost savings, Anticipate schedule maintenance times – reduce unanticipated down times Equipment Temperature switches Ammeters, Voltmeters, KWh meters Phase monitors Under/overvoltage monitors Process Level transmitters/ switches Pressure switches Motorized valves
  • Individual component devices are useful but only if they work in concert. Field devices must report to a command center where decisions are made and action taken. Someone watches a guage or gauges and turns a knob or flips a switch based on the information displayed or the decision to open a value, turn on a pump, or raise a temperature is determined a multitude of feedback set points that are processed in nanoseconds. SCADA systems can monitor and control plant and process equipment to save clients time and money Verify system performance for regulatory compliance, energy cost savings, Anticipate schedule maintenance times – reduce unanticipated down times Monitoring devices: Equipment Temperature switches Ammeters, Voltmeters, KWh meters Phase monitors Under/overvoltage monitors Process Level transmitters/ switches Pressure switches Motorized valves
  • All these devices are tied together to form our operational systems. we represent these systems in power diagrams and P&IDs process and instrumentation diagrams, which will be discussed in greater detail later in the presentation.
  • Early discussion of the design is beneficial To minimize change orders during construction Planning for future growth Safe, long term operation
  • Load lists provided by the PM are used to develop single line diagrams and P&ID’s

Transcript

  • 1. Initial Design Discussion What the Project Engineer Needs to Know
  • 2. Agenda
    • What the Project Engineer Needs to Know
    • Electrical Design Elements
      • The Load
      • The Source
      • Protection
      • Monitor and Control
    • Summary
    • Q & A
  • 3. What the Project Engineer Needs to Know
    • Information from the PM – The Load List
      • What are the loads?
        • Motors
        • Heaters
      • What are the hp or kw ratings?
      • Where are they located?
        • Outdoors
        • Indoors
          • What is the classification of the area?
      • Is a control panel specified?
  • 4. The Load
    • Utilizes power (voltage and current)
    • Has electrical ratings
    • Must be protected
    • Must be controlled
    • Can be monitored
    © Baldor Electric Co. © LDPI, Inc.
  • 5. Electrical Design Elements
      • Magnitude, quality, characteristics, demand, coincidence or diversity of loads, and load factors
      • Service, distribution, and utilization voltages and voltage regulation
      • Flexibility, reliability, continuity, and safety
      • Operation and maintenance
      • Special requirements associated with the process and process environment
      • Legally required, optional standby/emergency systems
      • Energy conservation and DOE compliance
  • 6. Electrical Design Elements
    • Service, distribution, and utilization voltages and voltage regulation
      • Electrical Site plan
      • Utility connections
  • 7. Electrical Design Development
    • For new facilities power design
      • Determine total plant load (building and process)
      • Develop single line diagram
      • Model loads
      • Evaluate protective device settings and coordinate
      • Document final protective settings
    • For existing facilities power design
      • Document existing conditions – confirm and revise existing single line diagram
      • Evaluate the system and prepare a report
      • Update single line diagram
      • Implement recommendations
      • Model new loads on the existing system and re-evaluate
      • Document protective settings
  • 8. The Power Source Flywheel UPS © Liebert Engine Generator Set © Cummins Power Generation Pole Mounted Transformers Pad Mounted Transformers
  • 9. The Power Source
    • Current installations include
      • Government telecommunications and data storage centers
      • Medical facilities
      • National television networks
    Flywheel UPS
  • 10. The Power Source
    • Advantages
      • Smaller foot print
      • Green technology
        • Non toxic
        • Non corrosive
      • Quiet operation
      • Lower long term costs
    Flywheel UPS
  • 11. The Power Source
    • Disadvantages
      • Higher initial cost
      • Short term loading
        • Example: The Pentadyne VSSdc unit at WBRZ is rated at 160 kilowatt for 13 seconds.
    http://www.energyandpowermanagement.com/CDA/Articles
  • 12. Nominal System Voltages Substation 13.2kV; 69kV; 115kV Plant Distribution 4160V; 480V; 208V Control 120V Signal 24V
  • 13. Working Clearances under 600V NEC ® 2005 Clearances shall be provided & maintained to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance
    • Examination
    • Adjustment
    • Servicing
    • Maintenance
  • 14. Working Clearances under 600V 2005 NEC Article 110.26 Spaces About Electrical Equipment (C) Entrance to Working Space. (2) Large Equipment. For equipment rated 1,200A or more, an entrance measuring not less than 24 in. wide and 61/2 ft high, is required at each end of the working space. Where the entrance to the working space has a door, the door must open out and be equipped with panic hardware or other devices that open under simple pressure. This material was extracted from Mike Holt Training Materials copyright 2007 by permission. Visit www.NECCode.com or call 1.888.NEC.Code (632-2633) for more information. NEC ® 2002
  • 15. Working Clearances under 600V
  • 16. Working Clearances over 600V NEC ® 2005
  • 17. Protection
    • Fixed Trip (Inverse Time)
      • 15A – 50A [ 5A]
      • 60A – 110A [10A]
      • 125A -300A [25A]
      • 300A – 500A [50A]
      • 600 – 800 [100A]
      • 1000
      • 1200
      • 1600
      • 2000
      • 2500
      • 3000
      • 4000
      • 5000
      • 6000
    Low Voltage Circuit Breakers © Square D
  • 18. Protection
    • Low Voltage Fuses [250V – 600V]
      • Dual-element, time-delay fuse Class J
      • Current-limiting Class RK1
      • Time-delay, current-limiting, rejection-type Class CC
      • Time-delay Class L
      • Dual-element, time-delay fuse Class RK5
    • Medium voltage
  • 19. Protection
    • Circuit breakers tested to show arc flash hazard risk category as referenced by NFPA70E
    • 800 A to 6000 A frames, fixed and draw-out
    • Rated for AC voltage systems through 600 V (635 V ANSI)
    • Visual contact wear indicators
    • Field-installable accessories common to all standards
    • Four interchangeable Micrologic trip units to choose from
    • Available PowerLogic® based power metering and monitoring capabilities
    • Available protective relay functions as defined by ANSI C37.2 and C37.90
    Power Circuit Breakers with Arc Flash Protection © Square D
  • 20. Protection
    • Vacuum circuit breakers
      • Rated at 5kV, 15kV, 27kV and 38kV
      • ANSI C37.09 Standard
    • Protective relays
      • Over voltage
      • Under voltage
      • Phase reversal
      • Single phase
    Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker © Eaton Cutler-Hammer
  • 21. Protection
    • Medium Voltage Fuses
      • E rated (transformers and feeders)
      • Fast-acting
      • R rated (motor circuit protection)
      • H & N (high surge)
      • K (fast)
      • T (slow)
  • 22. Monitor and Control
    • Meters
      • Utility and submeters [kW-h]
      • Voltage - voltmeters
      • Current - ammeters
      • Flow – flow meters
  • 23. Monitor and Control
    • For Motor Loads
      • Variable Frequency Controllers
      • Reduced Voltage Starters
      • Delta-Wye Starters
  • 24. Monitor and Control
    • For Process Devices
      • Control Valves
      • Pressure Switches
      • Level Switches
  • 25. Summary
    • Electrical Design categories can be defined as
      • Load,
      • Source,
      • Protection
      • Control and monitoring
    • Load lists provided by the PM are used to develop single line diagrams and P&ID’s
    • The power source to the load is determined based on the site factors and load requirements
  • 26. Summary
    • Electrical systems require protection
      • Electrical protection
        • Over current
        • Over voltage
        • Phase reversal
        • Transients
      • Physical protection from the environment
        • NEMA rated enclosures
  • 27. Summary
    • Load lists are used to develop integrated, system documents
    • Single line diagrams – power
      • Used for road maps for the facility
        • Safe shut downs
        • Clear operations
      • Used for short circuit and coordination studies
        • Guide for impact studies
    • Process &Instrumentation Diagrams
      • Control
      • Monitoring
  • 28. Discussion Thank You!
  • 29. Acknowledgements