Contrastive analysis: University project, the Present Simple Tense and the Present Progressive in English and their equivalent forms in serbian
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Contrastive analysis: University project, the Present Simple Tense and the Present Progressive in English and their equivalent forms in serbian Document Transcript

  • 1. UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE FACULTY OF PHILOLOGY – ENGLISH DEPARTMENT Contrastive Analysis Project The Present Simple Tense and the Present Progressive in English and Their Equivalent Forms in Serbian (Quality Weeklies Corpus) Milena Milicević 060930 Supervisor Ivana Trbojević PhD Milena Kostić 060949 Ana Radulović 061080 Olivera Petrović 060986 May, 2010 1
  • 2. 0. Introduction Having decided to investigate the topic The Present Simple Tense and the Present Progressive in English and Their Equivalent Forms in Serbian and to rely on the quality weeklies as the corpus material, we encountered the persuasive and straightforward discourse of the prominent UK magazines that prided themselves on long tradition in journalism, the highest circulation in the UK, and renowned teams of journalists and experts. In order to analyse the frequency and the meanings of the used Present verb forms, we compiled the corpus on the basis of articles that deal with four central topics: economy, science and technology, culture, and politics. However, if we take into consideration the versatile nature of the language itself and journalist’s approach, we realize that the topics listed are only a framework because quality weeklies testify about the social background and contemporary times in a highly comprehensive way. The magazines which we investigated were the following ones: Economist, Financial Times, Spectator, Observer and Guardian. Even though the last one is the daily magazine, we considered it important to include excellent examples from Guardian in the corpus, especially because nowadays it is linked to Observer and these two media have the common website. In the following chapters one can follow what the meanings of Present verb forms in quality weekly press are and how the Present usages are explained by the arguments of established grammar authors, namely Quirk, Carter and McCarthy, Đorđević and Simić. According to Carter and McCarthy (Carter & McCarthy 2006: 598) “the present time is seen as the moment of speaking and writing or as the more general, permanent time relating to truths and general facts.” References to present time are most typically indicated through the simple and progressive forms of the present tense. The present simple can be used to refer to “general or permanent state of affairs, truths and facts; to refer to a work of art or the activities of an artist from the past; for plot summaries, book blurbs and reviews of novels and plays” (Carter & McCarthy 2006: 598-601). The present simple can be used to refer to “regular or habitual events to talk about feelings and reactions experienced at the moment of speaking; in commentaries on sports events 2
  • 3. and on public ceremonies, in demonstrations and in instructions” (Carter & McCarthy 2006: 600,601). It is often used for “true and fictional past events in narratives to create a sense of immediacy in order to suggest that past events are unfolding at the moment of speaking or writing; in news headlines that often report past events; to refer to definite past; to refer to fixed events in the future, schedules, timetables and firm arrangements (Carter & McCarthy 2006: 625-633). The present progressive is used to refer to events which are in progress or happening at the moment of speaking; to describe actions which are repeated or regular, but are either temporary or may be judged to be temporary; to describe regular actions in relation to a particular time or a specified event, especially when the process is interrupted; to refer to a gradual process of change; used with indefinite frequency adverbs to describe events which are regular but not planned and often undesired; used to make a request, enquiry or statement of opinion more indirect, often of politeness (Carter & McCarthy 2006: 604). Tense is a formally marked grammatical category. It portrays the time dimension to which the action belongs according to the speaker. Tense is realized in two forms – the Present Tense and Past Tense. Time, however, being an ungrammatical category is present, past and future (Đorđević 2002: 330). Quirk interprets ‘present’ and ‘past’ in terms of three different levels. On a referential level, time is seen as a line containing a present point, with the past stretching to the left and the future to the right. PAST THE PRESENT MOMENT FUTURE NOW On a semantic level of interpretation, “present is the most general and unmarked category” (Quirk 1985: 176). This implies that the sentences in which the verb is in the 3
  • 4. Present Tense may relate to the future, to the present and also to the past time. Nonetheless, Past tense is much more restrictive. Concerning the unmarkedness, all persons except for 3rd person singular in Present Tense contain zero morph which equals the infinitive (unmarked) form. Quirk interprets ‘present’ and ‘past’ in reference to tense on a grammatical level where he distinguishes only between two categories, namely present tense and past tense, since English grammar practically does not recognize Future Indicative Tense (Quirk 1985: 176). This is also the case in Serbian, because any speculation about future, either in Serbian or English is non-factual, and cannot be expressed with indicative forms. 1.0. The Present Simple Tense 1.1. Meanings of the present simple tense with reference to present time There are three types of meanings of the simple present tense with reference to present time and these are: state present, habitual present and instantaneous present. 1.1.2. State Present According to the authors the category of the state present includes general timeless statements – “eternal truths”, proverbial, scientific, mathematical and geographical statements. • The acids dissolve the uranium, and various other things, leaching them from the ash. Kiseline rastvaraju uranijum i razne druge stvari, tako što ih ispiraju iz pepela. The Present Simple Tense is translated with the form of the Present Simple Tense in Serbian. The English verb form is transitive, lexical, simple and given in the 1st person 4
  • 5. plural, whereas the Serbian verb form is transitive, lexical, complex and in the 3rd person plural. • The birth and death phases of stars, for example are associated with heavy dust clouds that give off an infra-red signal which might resemble the swarm of artificial satellites constituting a Dyson sphere. Faze nastajanja i nestajanja zvezda, na primer, povezane su sa teškim oblacima prašine koji emituju infra-crvene signale. Ovi signali mogu da predstavljaju mnoštvo veštačkih satelita koji čine Dajsonovu sferu. • As school chemistry lessons show, metallic magnesium is highly reactive and stores a lot of energy. Kao što se na školskim časovima hemije zaključuje, kovni magnezijum je izuzetno reaktivan i ima dosta energije. • But Germany does show that you can run an effective economic policy with coalition governments; and Greece shows that you can run a lousy one with a clear single-party majority. Ali Nemačka pokazuje da možete voditi efektivnu ekonomsku politiku u vladi sastavljenoj od koalicija; dok Grčka pokazuje da možete voditi slabu politiku u okviru jasno definisane partijske većine. 5
  • 6. On the basis of the examples from the corpus, we draw a conclusion that the greatest occurrence of the state present is in the articles on science and technology, since these fields offer an abundance of facts and eternal truths. According to Simić, there is absolute present in Serbian. Considering the usages of both, we infer that these two types of present correspond to each other. This is the reason why the translated verb forms coincide with the original. 1.1.3. Habitual Present Similarly to the state present, the habitual present also includes timeless statements, but here the verb implies the repetition of events happening over a period of time. If it is possible to insert an adverb of frequency, we are dealing with the habitual present. • The start of the year is traditionally a quiet period for mortgage lending. Početak godine je obično miran period za izdavanje hipoteka. In both English and Serbian sentence the verb to be (‘biti’) is used as a lexical verb in the 3rd person singular. The adverb of frequency follows the verb immediately and emphasizes the repetition. The adverb ‘traditionally’/ ‘obično’ imply that something happens year after year. • I have my own comedy special, where I, by myself, am taking up an hour of primetime American television. Ja imam svoju posebnu emisiju, gde je samo meni na raspolaganju sat udarnog vremena na američkoj televiziji. • But most people do not eat or wear seals, are squeamish about killing cuddly doe-eyed mammals, and do not worry about the inconsistency of such a ban 6
  • 7. being enforced by a group of nations which kills its own seals for the expediency of fishermen, and kills tens of millions of farmed foxes and minks for their pelts every year. Ali većina ljudi ne jede foke i ne nosi njihovo krzno i preosetljivi su kada je u pitanju ubijanje ovih nežnih i nevinih sisara. Oni ne brinu zbog nedoslednosti takve zabrane koju je uvela grupa nacija. Ove nacije ubijaju foke zbog koristi ribara kao i na desetine miliona domaćih lisica i kuna zbog krzna svake godine. In contrast to the previously mentioned type of present, the habitual present occurs in various sections of quality weekly press. Even though in the second example the adverb of frequency is not explicitly stated, the context suggests that the ‘comedy special’ is frequently repeated. In the third example of sentences, the verb to be/‘biti‘ is a copulative verb followed by a nominal predicate, which is an adjectival phrase. This adjectival phrase consists of the head (adj.) followed by a prepositional phrase and a temporal clause respectively functioning as a postmodifier. 1.1.4 Instantaneous present There are actions that begin and end approximately at the time of speaking which represent the instances of the instantaneous present. These can be found in: commentaries, demonstrations and other self-commentaries, special exclamatory sentences and performatives. • “I’m very grateful that the isotopic composition of helium has not become a key matter of public interest.” 7
  • 8. “Veoma sam zahvalan što izotopski sastav helijuma nije postao kjučni predmet interesa javnosti.” In both English and Serbian the copulative verb to be is followed by a nominal predicate. The Present Tense 1st person singular is translated with the same form. This sentence is the instance of performative since the act of uttering the message represents a happening by the mere fact that this act is realized ( Helbec, 2009: 55). • When phones and laptops are placed on an eCoupled surface, the power transmitter in the work-surface detects the resonant circuit in the device’s receiver, which then tells the transmitter how much power to send. Kada se telefoni i laptopovi postave na eCoupled površinu, transmiter energije na radnoj površini detektuje zvučno strujno kolo u prijemniku uređaja, koji onda šalje poruku transmiteru koliko energije da pošalje. • Dr Tygar therefore recommends that typed passwords be phased out, to be replaced with biometric checks or multiple types of authorisation that combine a password with some form of silent verification (clicking on a pre-chosen picture in a selection of images, for example). Doktor Tajger stoga predlaže da se kucane lozinke postepeno ukinu, da se zamene biometrijskim potvrdama ili višestrukim tipovima odobrenja koja kombinuju lozinke sa nekim oblikom tihe verifikacije (na primer, kliktanje na ranije odabranu sliku u nizu slika). Instantaneous present is most often found in the articles which deal with science and technology. Scientific instances of instantaneous present are mostly found in 8
  • 9. demonstrations of certain steps, as these characteristic of scientific activities and processes. They are also common in performatives because scientists usually have a message to convey or advice to give. 1.2. Special non-present uses of the Simple Present Tense The Simple Present Tense can be used in sentences referring to the past, those referring to the future and it can also be used in fictional narrative. The Simple Present referring to the past has several types. 1.2.1. Historic present is typical of popular narrative style and quality dailies and weeklies are abundant in it. The past can be expressed by verbs of communication such as understand, hear, learn, say and tell. In its optional use it refers to writers, composers, artists, etc who are not alive and it describes general characteristics of authors. • I meet him in a cold little room full of flags, called the south bastion, next to the gatehouse of Nottingham castle. Sastajemo se u hladnoj sobici prepunoj zastava, koju zovu južni bastion, pored vratareve kućice zamka Notingam. In English, the verb form is transitive, lexical, simple in the 1st person singular, where as in Serbian the verb is pseudo-reflexive, lexical, simple in the 1st person plural. •Newcomers start to learn English, learn how to vote, adopt the work ethic, serve in the military, and become passionately patriotic. Pridošlice počnu da uče engleski, nauče kako da glasaju, usvoje radnu etiku, služe vojsku i postanu stastvene patriote. 9
  • 10. • George Osborne, the shadow chancellor, says that he wants to tackle both tax and regulation to make Britain a more competitive proposition for companies. Džordž Ozborn, kancelar vlade u senci, kaže da želi da se izbori i sa porezom i sa propisima kako bi Britaniju učinio primamljivijom ponudom za kompanije. • The culture of piano-duet arrangements begins in the early-to-mid 19th century; the great epoch of bourgeois music-making, with its easy availability of decent instruments for every front parlour or glittering salon. Kultura prilagođavanja kompozicija za dva klavira počinje u prvoj polovini devetnaestog veka; to je značajna epoha buržoaskog stvaranja muzike, sa lakom mogućnošću korišćenja prigodnih instrumenata za svaki prijemni salon ili blistavu dnevnu sobu. Historical present is frequently used in the articles on culture which shows a tendency of journalists to make articles vivid as if the situations described were taking place before readers’ eyes. Simic does not make a difference between the historic present and the fictional narrative in Serbian, placing them in the category of narrative present (Simic 2001: 126). 1.2.2. The Simple Present referring to the future 10
  • 11. The Simple Present referring to the future appears both in main and dependent clauses. In the former it expresses events fixed in advance and it is usually accompanied by time-position adverbials. This use of the Present Simple is more frequent in conditional and temporal clauses. • He calculates that even if the household savings rate remains at 2.2%, by 2015 gross public debt could exceed households’ financial assets, which might make domestic funding more difficult and lead Japan to rely more on foreigners. On proračunava da čak i ako stopa štednje domaćinstva ostane 2,2 % do 2015. bruto javni dug bi mogao da prevaziđe finansijska sredstva domaćinstva, što može otežati domaća finansiranja i dovesti Japan u položaj da se više oslanja na strane investitore. In English and in Serbian the verb form is intransitive, lexical, simple in the 3rd person singular, and it is found in conditional dependent clauses referring to future. • According to Anglo-Nigerian comic Gina Yashere, now living and working in the US: "Unless they see you on TV, or they know you, white crowds won't go to a black comedy night because they think that nothing is going to relate to them." Prema rečima anglo-nigerijske komicarke Djine Jašir, koja danas živi i radi u SAD: „Ako vas ne vidi na TV-u, ili ako vas ne zna, bela publika neće ići na veče crnačke komedije, jer misli da se ništa neće odnositi na nju.“ • Do not be surprised if, whatever proper name it is eventually assigned, the new, mountain-dwelling, central-Asian species actually becomes known as the yeti. 11
  • 12. Nemojte se iznenaditi ako, kakvo god ime da joj se naposletku da, nova centralno- azijska vrsta koja živi na planinama zapravo postane poznata kao jeti. •At the end of the debate, if someone talks about the moderator, then the moderator has failed to do their job. Na kraju debate ako neko priča o moderatoru, onda je moderator loše odradio svoj posao. •APPLY online for visa-free entry to the United States and the Department for Homeland Security offers 251 choices for “country where you live”. Prijavite se putem interneta za ulazak u Sjedinjene Američke Države bez vize i Odeljenje za nacionalnu bezbednost nudi 251 opciju da odaberete stavku ,,država u kojoj živite” Rarely do we find present simple in main clauses referring to the events fixed in advance. On the other hand, dependent clauses, especially conditional ones, contain a considerable amount of such instances. Simić introduces the term ‘present of time and manner’ for this usage of present (Simić 2001: 125,126). 1.2.2. The Simple Present Tense in fictional narrative is similar to the historic present, the only difference being that the events narrated by the historic present are real, as opposed to unreal events in fictional narrative. 12
  • 13. • Michael goes by helicopter and Rolls to visit an amateur cook in their home. Majkl ide helikopterom, a zatim se vozi Rols-Rojsom da poseti kuvara amatera u njihovom domu. • The sage teacher, now imprisoned, is challenged by the governor to make Allah bash his brains in. Mudrog učitelja, koji je sada uhapšen, izaziva upravnik da učini da mu Alah uništi mozak. In both Serbian and English the verb form is intransitive, lexical, simple and in the 3rd person singular. This instance of present simple is rarely found in quality press since it deals with imaginary situations. 2.0. Present Progressive According to the authors, the three components of meaning of the progressive aspect are as follows: a) the happening has duration (when expressing single events), b) the happening has limited duration (when describing states and habits) and c) the happening is not necessarily complete (when expressed by the so-called conclusive dynamic verb meaning). 2.1. State, event and habit with progressive There are three kinds of progressive: state, event and habitual progressive. When progressive aspect is used with stative verb meanings it implies temporarines, whereas when these meanings are used in the Present Simple Tense they imply permanence. • “Things are moving in a bad direction. Governments know it, scientists know it, but things are not changing”. 13
  • 14. “Sve ide u pogrešnom pravcu. Vlade to znaju, naučnici takođe, ali se ništa ne menja.” In English the verb form consists of the auxilliary to be, given in the trird person plural, and the main verb which is intransitive, lexical, simple and in the 3rd person plural. Thus in English there is congruence in number and person. On the other hand, Serbian verb form is represented only with a single intransitive, lexical and simple verb in the third person singular. • The problem with tax breaks and other subsidies, however, is that they complicate the tax system and distort incentives. Problem u vezi sa poreskim pauzama i drugim subvencijama je, međutim, u tome što one otežavaju poreski sistem i deformišu podsticaje. In English and in Serbian the verb forms consist of the copulative verb, followed by NomPred in the form of clause. The first pair of sentences illustrates temporariness and not something that is a permanent state of affairs, as opposed to the second pair which exemplifies the indefinite state of being. The main characteristic of the event progressive is that an event which hasn’t been finished has duration. • China is developing ash-mining for reasons of energy security more than economics, according to Wang Hongfang, a marketing manager at CNNC. Prema rečima Vang Hongfangua, marketinškog menadžera u CNNC, Kina više razvija rudarstvo pepela nego ekonomiju da bi obezbedila energetsku sigurnost. 14
  • 15. In English the verb form consists of the Aux to be which is in 3rd person singular and the main verb which is transitive, lexical, and simple. In Serbian the present tense is, as usual, represented by only by the main verb, which is in this case transitive, lexical and simple. The event described takes place over a certain period of time which stretches well into the future. Habitual progressive is used to express temporary habits. Therefore the repetition of the habit occurs within the limited time period. • Otherwise, we're playing the Comedy Store, but it never means anything and we never progress. U protivnom, mi ćemo igrati komediju Prodavnica, ali to nikad ništa ne znači i mi nikada ne napredujemo. In English the verb form comprises the auxiliary to be in the 1st person plural and the main verb which is transitive, lexical and simple in the same person. In Serbian Present Progressive is translated with the Simple Future Tense, which is not typical for the habitual progressive. The Serbian form is complex as well, consisting of the auxiliary biti in the Present Tense and the main transitive, lexical, simple verb in the 1st person singular. 2.2. Situation types Situation types are used to distinguish between different uses of the progressive. The main classification of situations depends on the division between two types of verb 15
  • 16. meanings, namely stative and dynamic, rather than stative and dynamic verbs. This is because certain verbs can express both meanings. To refer to verb meanings we use eleven situation types. However, we should bear in mind that this division into categories is only artificial because it depends on the context in which a verb occurs. Stative situation types are divided into qualities, states and stance. Both qualities and states are typically expressed by the present simple tense. However, it is not unusual that they occur in the form of the progressive present when we want to express temporariness of a certain state or quality. Authors explain this as a transfer. Stative verbs are used to express intellectual states, states of emotion or attitudes, states of perception and states of bodily sensation which are all referred to as private states. Typically, verbs such as live, stand, sit and lie denote stance, because these can be used both with the nonprogressive to express a permanent state and with the progressive to express a temporary state. Dynamic situation types are divided into eight categories. This division is based on three binary oppositions which are duration versus punctuality, nonconclusiveness versus conclusiveness and agentivity versus nonagentivity. While durative situation types are typically expressed with the present progressive because they expand over time, punctual situation types are not commonly expressed by this form. Therefore, when occurring in the form of present progressive they require special interpretation. The main characteristic of conclusive and nonconclusive is that the former implies a certain change which leads to a result whereas the latter does not. We differentiate between agentive and nonagentive situation types on the basis of whether the agent or “doer of the action” is animate or inanimate, respectively. 16
  • 17. - nonagentive, - agentive 17
  • 18. A. Quality Quality situation type is characteristic of stative verb meanings and typically represented by the Simple Present Tense because qualities are “relatively permanent and inalienable properties of the subject referent” (Quirk 1985: 200). When used with Present Progressive, the implied meaning changes and the verb acquire the properties of dynamic verb meanings. This situation type is not found in any of the sentences included in the corpus. B. State • "I'm feeling pretty good myself," Whitney tells the crowd, "thank you for asking.” „Sada se osećam vrlo dobro,“ kaže Vitni publici, „hvala na pitanju.“ In English the verb form consists of the Aux to be which is in 1st person singular and the main verb is intransitive, lexical and simple. In Serbian the present tense is represented only by the main verb, which is reflexive, lexical, simple and also in 3rd person singular. • It is, in other words, a fourth example of anthropological tourism from Africa to the rest of the world, on what is now looking like a well-worn route. To je, drugim rečima, četvrti primer antropološkog turizma iz Afrike ka ostatku sveta, na onome što sada izgleda kao dobro utabana staza. 18
  • 19. •The Afghanistan campaign is now becoming as unpopular as Iraq was despite for years being heralded as the war everyone could agree on. Rat u Avganistanu postaje podjednako nepopularan kao onaj u Iraku iako je godinama najavljivan kao rat oko koga bi se svi mogli saglasiti. • Mortgage approvals rose in February but buyers are staying away. Odobranja za hipoteke su se povećala u februaru ali su kupci i dalje suzdržani. The common denominator of these sentences is that they express a state of one’s being. Resemble, which is a typical stative verb, and look like from the second example are interchangeable. The verb feel falls into the category of “private stative verbs” expressing bodily sensation. C. Stance • He is wearing a black gown, a gold chain and is seated on a wooden throne. Nosi crni orgrtač, zlatni lanac i sedi na drvenoj stolici. In English the verb form consists of the Aux to be which is in 3rd person singular and the main verb which is transitive, lexical, and simple. In Serbian the present tense is represented only by the main verb, which is transitive, lexical, simple and also in 3rd person singular. The verb wear is not the most representative of stance verbs, which 19
  • 20. when used with the Simple Present Tense expresses permanent stance, whereas when used with the Present Progressive it denotes temporary stance. D. Goings-on • And that is exactly what Sparton Resources, a firm based in Toronto, is doing. I to je upravo ono što Sparton Risorsiz, firma sa sedištem u Torontu, radi. The verb form in the English sentence consists of the Aux to be and the main verb is lexical, transitive and simple. Both the Aux and the main verb are in 3rd person singular. In Serbian the verb is lexical, simple and transitive, in 3rd person singular. • ‘The BBC is a part of public space because the public themselves have put it there,’ suggests the BBC’s DG, Mark Thompson, at the beginning of the report which is recommending, among other things, that Radio 6 Music and the Asian Network be shut down. „Bi-Bi-Si je deo javnog prostora jer ga je sama javnost postavila tamo,“ kaže Mark Tompson, glavni direktor Bi-Bi-Sija, na početku izveštaja koji preporučuje, između ostalog, da se Radio 6 Mjuzik i Ejzan Netvork ukinu. • When everything is humming, there are no fewer than 15 transformers plugged into various wall sockets and power strips, along with all the other electrical cables for powering computers, monitors, printers and still hungrier office gear. 20
  • 21. Kad sve bruji, ima bar 15 transformatora koji su uključeni u različite utičnice na zidu i produžne kablove, zajedno sa svim drugim električnim kablovima za napajanje kompjutera, monitora, štampača i još gladnijih kancelarijskih uređaja. • Asia’s developing countries are risking a renewed economic crisis by intervening extensively in foreign exchange markets, the Asian Development Bank warned in its annual regional review on Tuesday. Azijske zemlje u razvoju rizikuju da ponovo izazovu ekonomsku krizu time što pojačano učestvuju na deviznim tržištima, upozorila je Azijska razvojna banka u utorak u svom godišnjem regionalnom pregledu. The main characteristic of the dynamic situation type of goings-on (type D in the fig.1) is that it is durative, non-conclusive and nonagentive, thus implying an inanimate force. E. Activities • Kojo is already putting that philosophy into practice. Kojo vec sprovodi takvu filozofiju. In English the verb form consists of the Aux to be which is in 3rd person singular and the main verb is transitive, lexical, and simple. In Serbian the present tense is represented with the main verb, which is transitive, lexical, complex and also in 3rd person singular. 21
  • 22. • I am looking for the prototype of Robin Hood, the origin of the stories that have spun out of control over the centuries.-G Ja tražim prototip Robin Huda, izvor priča koje su se vekovima brzo menjale i otrzale kontroli. • „[...]But by the 1260s these names, Hod and Robhod, are being used as popular monikers for outlaws." Ali do 1260-ih ova imena, Hud i Robhud, koriste se kao popularni nadimci za prestupnike. • Some people are even turning to seawater as a source of uranium, in an eerie recapitulation of Fritz Haber’s attempt to pay off Germany’s first-world-war debts by extracting gold from the ocean. Neki ljudi se čak okreću morskoj vodi kao izvoru uranijuma, u sablasnoj rekapitulaciji pokušaja Frica Haberta da otplati dugove Nemačke iz Prvog svetskog rata vađenjem zlata iz okeana. • These are, in effect, what some critics are offering (though with what the report calls “a rather selective and uncharitable approach”). Ovo je u stvari ono što neki kritičari izlažu ( iako onim što se u izveštaju naziva “prilično selektivnim i bezobzirnim pristupom”). • To change this, he is developing a process using only renewable energy. 22
  • 23. Da bi ovo promenio, on razvija postupak koji koristi samo obnovljivu energiju. This situation type (Type E, Fig 1) is representative of durative, non-conclusive and agentive dynamic verb meanings. The difference between the goings-on and activities is that the former are non-agentive, while the latter are agentive. Only at times does the Type E occur in passive voice, which is the case in 3rd example. The activities are traditionally expressed by the intransitive verbs. However, they may occur with the transitive verbs, together with direct object, which is normally uncountable. Therefore, the most typical examples are not listed above because they do not occur in our corpus. Most of the given examples are found in the articles on culture as well as science and technology. F. Processes • Very significantly, the Rics survey indicates that more properties are coming on to the market while buyer interest is faltering. Veoma značajno, izveštaj Riks pokazuje da se na tržištu pojavljuje sve više nekratnina dok interesovanje kupaca slabi. In English the first verb form consists of the Aux to be which is in 3rd person plural and the main verb is intransitive, lexical and simple. In Serbian the equivalent is represented with the main verb, which is pseudo-reflexive, lexical and also in 3rd person plural. The second verb form comprises the Aux to be which is in 3rd person singular and the main verb is intransitive, lexical and simple. This second pair of verbs demonstrates the contrast in forms but almost absolute similarity in meaning. 23
  • 24. • The black comedy circuit is booming, with packed crowds and a host of stars. Putujeće crnačko pozorište cveta; imaju mnogobrojnu publiku i mnoštvo zvezda. • The seal population in Canada is healthy – enough so that the Canadians are increasing the numbers they cull. Populacija foka u Kanadi je brojna- dovoljno brojna da Kanađani ubijaju sve više foka da bi smanjili njihov broj. • In the week of the Asilomar meeting Science published evidence that more pollutants than previously appreciated, including oxides of sulphur, are getting into the lower stratosphere. U nedelji kada se održava sastanak u Asilomaru, časopis Sajans objavio je dokaze da više zagađivača nego što je ranije procenjeno, uključujući i okside sumpora, ulazi u donju stratosferu. • Given that a shortage of properties has been a key factor in the rise in house prices from their early-2009 lows, this suggests that a key prop for house prices is crumbling. Uzimajući u obzir da je manjak nekretnina bio ključni faktor za porast cena kuća od početka 2009. kada su bile niske, zaključujemo da se glavni stub cena opada. 24
  • 25. • Though the government did cut the corporate-tax headline rate from 30% to 28% in 2008, it is now discussing controversial proposals to extend its tax reach over foreign subsidiaries controlled by British-domiciled companies. Iako vlada jeste smanjila korporativnu poreznu stopu sa 30% na 28% u 2008., sada raspravlja o kontroverznim predlozima da proširi domet poreza na inostrane filijale kojima upravljaju kompanije sa sedištem u Britaniji. • The Hong Kong Monetary Authority is managing its burgeoning reserves more aggressively by putting more money into higher risk, higher return investments such as hedge funds and private equity. Monetarna vlast u Hong Kongu agresivnije upravlja svojim pojačanim rezervama time što više novca ulaže u visokorizične, profitabilnije investicije kao što su hedž fondovi i privatni kapital. • The government is offering three or four blocks of spectrum in each of the 22 geographical “circles” that make up the Indian market. Vlada nudi tri ili četiri bloka spektra u svakom od 22 geografska okruga koji čine indijsko tržište. The processes (Type F, Fig 1) are durative, conclusive and non-agentive. A partial change of state is inherent in them. Having examined our corpora, we have 25
  • 26. concluded that they are plentiful in articles in the field of economics. These articles address current dynamic situations which change quickly. G. Accomplishments • In the Cascade mountains of California, north of Lassen Peak, astronomers are looking for aliens. U Kaskadnim planinama u Kaliforniji, severno od parka Lasen, astronomi traže vanzemaljce. In English the verb form consists of the Aux to be which is in 3rd person plural and the main verb is transitive, lexical and simple. In Serbian the verb form is represented with the main verb, which is transitive, lexical, simple and also in 3rd person plural. Thus they contrast in forms and show a significant similarity in meanings. This pair of sentences is the most representative of accomplishments (Type G, Fig1), for the goal is specified explicitly. • Humans are, after all, increasingly using fibre optics to talk to each other. Ljudi, povrh svega, sve više i više koriste optička vlakna da bi razgovarali. • The conference’s organising committee is now working on a further statement of principles, to be released later. Organizacioni odbor konferencije sada radi na daljem prikazu principa, koji će biti objavljeni kasnije. 26
  • 27. • Meanwhile Britain’s main scientific academy, the Royal Society, and the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World, which has members from around 90 countries, are planning further discussions that will culminate at a meeting to be held this November. U međuvremenu glavna britanska Akademija nauka, Kraljevsko društvo, i Akademija nauka za zemlje u razvoju, koja broji članove iz oko 90 zemalja, planiraju dalje razgovore koji će dostići vrhunac na sastanku koji će se održati u novembru. • Researchers are now devising ways to extract energy from magnesium in a more controlled fashion. Istraživači sada smišljaju kako da izdvoje energiju iz magnezijuma na način koji je pod većom kontrolom. • The world’s drivers are increasingly turning to smaller, more efficient vehicles as environmental regulations bite harder and populations age in rich countries. Vozači u svetu se sve više okreću manjim, efikasnijim vozilima jer se ekološki propisi sve više nameću a sve je više starih ljudi u bogatim zemljama. Accomplishments are durative, conlusive and agentive. They are similar to activities in that they both denote a durative action/activity. Nonetheless, accomplishments are conclusive since they contain a direct object or an adverbial of 27
  • 28. destination. What happens usually is that activities turn into accomplishments when the direct object is added. This situation type is found in scientific discourse because everything done in this area is directed towards achieving a certain goal and has a purpose. H. Momentary events I. Momentary acts J. Transitional events K. Transitional acts None of the punctual types is found in quality press articles. Occasionally, they may be found in readers’ comments, but we have not taken these into consideration. Seldom do we come across momentary events and acts, because they are restricted to verbs such as nod, fire and jump. On the other hand, what is happening at the time of speaking, in other words transitional acts and events, does not occur in our corpus. This usage of Present Progressive is most commonly found in spoken language and literary texts, rather than in quality journalist style. Simic does not offer such an extensive classification given the fact that the Serbian language has only one present. Nevertheless, what is most similar to The Present Progressive is “indicative present”, which is restricted to actions happening at the time of speaking and present states. 2.0. Conclusion 28
  • 29. Figure 2 – Present Simple Having examined a random sample from the assigned corpora, we are inclined to conclude that the Simple Present is most frequently used to refer to the future in quality weekly press (Figure 2). Less frequent occurrences have been found in the examples containing the State Present and Historic Present. The State Present is, as expected, associated with scientific discourse. The Historic Present brings the events or states closer, as if they were happening now, thus contributing to the dynamism and vividness of the situation described. The habitual and instantaneous presents are even less frequent. Moreover, our hypothesis was that we will find more occurrences of them which would support Đorđević’s and McCarthy’s observations. However, it turned out, that quality weeklies are not abundant in these occurrences. Finally, fictional narrative is rarely found in our sample because it is typical of literary texts. 29
  • 30. Figure 3- Present Progressive Situation Types As one can observe from the Figure 3, processes are plentiful in our corpora. This is because the articles concerning politics, economy, science and culture usually deal with dynamic ever-changing processes happening over a certain period of time. Activities and accomplishments are less frequent as is the case with states and goings-on. Stance only occasionally appears. Momentary events, momentary acts, transitional events and transitional acts are not found in our corpus. The reason for this is that they are typically associated with transient events and acts describing the situation happening at the time of speaking. Similarly, qualities, which are typically expressed with the Present Simple, are not found. Our final conclusion is that the sentences with Present Progressive occur significantly less frequently than the ones with Present Simple as the authors of established grammars emphasise. This paper offers more examples of the Present Progressive, only due to the nature of the classification established by Quirk. Yet, our corpus illustrates that only one fifth of the instances contain Present Progressive whereas great majority contain Present Simple. 30
  • 31. Bibliography: Carter,R., McCarthy M. (2006): Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Đorđević, R. (1997): Gramatika engleskog jezika. Beograd: Čigoja stampa Hlebec, B. (2009): Opšta načela prevođenja. Beograd: Beogradska knjiga Simić, R. (2001):Srpska gramatika II-Sintaksa. Beograd: Mx Aktuel 31
  • 32. Quirk,R., Greenbaum S., Leech G., Svartvik J. (1985): A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman University of Belgrade Faculty of Philology English Department 32
  • 33. The corpus used in the contrastive project The Present Simple Tense and the Present Progressive in English and Their Equivalent Forms in Serbian (Quality Weeklies Corpus) Compiled by: Milena Milicevic 060930 Supervisor Ivana Trbojevic PhD Milena Kostic 060949 Ana Radulovic 061080 Olivera Petrovic 060986 Milena Milicevic’s corpus: Articles on Politics Sprectator 1st Article To win the election, the Tories must learn to fight dirty-James Forsyth http://www.spectator.co.uk/politics/all/5781128/to-win-the-election-the-tories-must- learn-to-fight-dirty.thtml 33
  • 34. 1. Having to work on a Sunday is a chore — doubly so when that Sunday is Valentine’s Day. Raditi nedeljom predstavlja obavezu, posebno ako je te nedelje Dan zaljubljenih. 2. The Tories do, though, seem to have toughened up in the last fortnight. Čini se da su torijevci očvrsli u poslednje dve nedelje. 3. Indeed, some Cabinet ministers are already grumbling that Ed Balls’s desire always to go on the attack is hampering Labour. Zaista, neki ministri u Vladi se već žale da zbog Ed Bolove namere da uvek napada opada reputacija Radničke partije. 4. At the moment, more scrutiny is being directed at the Tories than at Labour. Trenutno se pažljivije prati rad konzervativaca nego laburista. 2nd Article The unspeakable truth is that we lost in Iraq. We must not lose in Afghanistan too-James Forsyth http://www.spectator.co.uk/essays/5592488/the-unspeakable-truth-is-that-we- lost-in-iraq-we-must-not-lose-in-afghanistan-too.thtml 5. (Britain has fought more wars than any other country, but rarely has it suffered two defeats in a row. ) That humiliation is what this country is currently drifting towards, following failure in Iraq with failure in Afghanistan. (Britanija je vodila više ratova nego bilo koja zemlja na svetu, ali gotovo da nije doživela dva uzastopna poraza.) Sa takvim poniženjem se zemlja trenutno suočava dok neuspeh u Iraku prati neuspeh u Avganistanu. 6. The Afghanistan campaign is now becoming as unpopular as Iraq was despite for years being heralded as the war everyone could agree on. Rat u Avganistanu postaje podjednako nepopularan kao onaj u Iraku iako je godinama najavljivan kao rat oko koga bi se svi mogli složiti/ saglasiti. 34
  • 35. 7. As one shadow Cabinet member says, ‘It makes you want to vomit, that British troops are risking their lives for Karzai and his brother.’ Kako je jedan minister vlade u senci rekao: ,,Mučno vam je kad pomislite da britanski vojnici rizikuju živote za Karzaija i njegovog brata.” 8. If Cameron is the next prime minister, one of his first tasks will be to make sure that he is not left hanging by Obama as Brown has been. Ako Kameron postane novi premijer, njegov prvi zadatak biće da se postara da ga Obama ne ostavi na cedilu kao što se dogodilo Braunu. 9. Even before one considers the defence cuts that are coming, a period of retrenchment in British foreign policy seems certain regardless of who wins the next election. Čak i pre nego što počnu da se razmatraju nastupajuća smanjenja u budžetu za odbranu, očigledno je da će doći do smanjenja troškova u Ministarstvu spoljnih poslova bez obzira ko pobedi na sledećim izborima. 3rd Article Downing Street is now the last refuge of the electorally damned- Martin Bright http://www.spectator.co.uk/essays/5549793/downing-street-is-now-the-last-refuge-of- the-electorally-damned.thtml 10. Where does Gordon Brown find solace in these darkest of times? In Downing Street, a rather desperate numbers game is being played. Gde Gordon Braun nalazi utehu u ovim najtežim trenucima? U Ulici Dauning igra se beznadežna igra brojki. 11. In many ways, the ageing Brown and Mandelson bear comparison with Estragon and Vladimir in Waiting for Godot, a desperate pair railing at the world to ‘keep the terrible silence at bay’. Postariji Braun i Mandelson se mogu na više načina uporediti sa junacima drame ,,Čekajući Godoa” Estragonom i Vladimirom, sa tim parom očajnika koji se ogorčeno žali da svet ,, drži mase u neznanju i čini pasivnim po svaku cenu”. 12. The parliamentary party looks and behaves like it has already been defeated. 35
  • 36. Ta parlamentarna stranka deluje i ponaša se kao da je već poražena. ECONOMIST 4th Article Hungary's election Victory for Viktor? http://www.economist.com/world/europe/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15868591 13. POWER is a politician’s sweetest birthday present. Viktor Orban, who founded Fidesz, Hungary’s centre-right opposition party, 22 years ago in March 1988, hopes for a double celebration after this weekend’s election. Moć je najlepši rođendanski poklon za političara. Viktor Orban, koji je osnovao Fidesz, mađarsku desničarsku opozicionu partiju, pre 22 godine, u Martu 1988, nada se dvostrukoj proslavi nakon izbora ovog vikenda. 14. Foreign investors, once seen as Hungary’s saviours, now spark sour resentment. Strani investitori, nekada smatrani spasiocima Mađarske, sada bude ogorčenost. 15. Mr Orban plans a radical overhaul of Hungary’s complex tax system, an attack on the black economy, a simplification of the bureaucracy and new laws bringing openness to public procurement. Gospodin Orban planira da se drastično reformiše složeni poreski sistem u Mađarskoj, izvrši napad na sivu ekonomiju i pojednostave brokratske procedure i novi zakoni koji će doneti otvorenost u javnim nabavkama. 5th Article Defining what makes a country - In quite a state http://www.economist.com/world/international/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15868439 36
  • 37. 16. APPLY online for visa-free entry to the United States and the Department for Homeland Security offers 251 choices for “country where you live”. Prijavite se putem interneta za ulazak u Sjedinjene Američke Države bez vize i Odeljenje za nacionalnu bezbednost vam nudi 251 opciju da odaberete stavku ,,država u kojoj živite” 17. For example, lots of countries that do not recognise Kosovo accept travellers bearing its passports. Recimo, mnogo zemalja koje ne priznaju nezavisnost Kosova prihvataju da putnici imaju kosovski pasoš. 18. Being outside the UN means that Kosovo is still waiting for its own internet domain name, phone prefix and chance to play international football. But Taiwan, recognised by even fewer countries, manages to have all three. Pošto Kosovo nije član UN-a, to znači da i dalje čeka svoj internet domen državni pozivni broj i priliku da igra fudbal na međunarodnom terenu. Ali Tajvan, čiju je nezavisnost priznalo još manje zemalja, uspeva da ima sva tri sadržaja. 19. And whatever diplomatic theory says, life goes on. Šta god teorija diplomatije tvrdi, život se nastavlja. 20. Taiwan is celebrating a friendly resolution from the European Parliament, and dishing out aid to Haiti. Kosovo rents dialling codes from Monaco and Slovenia. Tajvan proslavlja priateljsku rezoluciju od Evropskog parlamenta i šalje pomoć za Haiti. Kosovo iznajmljuje pozivne brojeve od Monaka i Slovenije. 6th Article Europe.view We regret the inconvenience http://www.economist.com/opinion/displayStory.cfm?story_id=15865532 37
  • 38. 21. AS THIS column noted recently, the era of “therapeutic historiography” is drawing to a close in central and eastern Europe (with the odd exception). Kao što je nedavno istaknuto u ovoj kolumni, era terapeutske istoriografije se bliži kraju u centralnoj i istočnoj Evropi (uz poneke izuetke). 22. The Russian authorities are also trying to clean up, at least in part, their country’s most toxic historical debris. Vlasti u Rusiji takođe pokušavaju makar delimično da uklone najštetnije tragove istorije. 23. On the other hand, Mr Yanukovych, often seen as “pro-Russian”, needs to be careful not to appear a soft touch. Sa druger strane, gospodin Janukovič koga često doživljavaju kao proruski orijentisanog mora biti oprezan u nastupu da ne deluje kao suviše pristupačan. 24. That leaves the Baltic states, where the demand for justice about the past is still burning. Time ostaju Baltičke države, gde je i dalje goruća tema zadovoljenje pravde oko prošlosti. 25. But the ground is shifting. Russia is flirting with Lithuania, where President Dalia Grybauskaitė is convinced that her personal touch can bring a breakthrough in relations. Ali težište???? se pomera. Rusija flertuje sa Litvanijom, dok je Predsednica Dalija Gribauskajte ubeđena da njen lični pečat može doprineti proboju u diplomatskim odnosima. Financial Times 7th Article Politics and the people By Matthew Engel http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/52d56278-3cf8-11df-bbcf- 00144feabdc0,dwp_uuid=a712eb94-dc2b-11da-890d-0000779e2340.html 26. I enjoy seeing ministers who have spent years bossing us around, suddenly confront their own political mortality. 38
  • 39. Volim da vidim ministre koji su nam godinama govorili šta da radimo kako se iznenada suočavaju sa sopstvenom političkom smrtnošću. 27. Election-time is the heart of British democracy, which beats faintly enough these days and is almost on life-support, its blood supply weakened by the mutually reinforcing cynicism of politicians and voters. Vreme izbora je srce britanske demokratije, što jedva da kuca ovih dana i održava se u životu, i ima slabiji dotok krvi jer uzajamno jača cinizam političara i glasača. THE OBSERVER 8th Article Fife gives local boy Gordon Brown the thumbs up- by Polly Curtis http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/apr/11/fife-welcomes-gordon-brown 28. "Private housing has dried up, the council isn't doing anything, first- time buyers are struggling. Brown has helped, but this is a long battle," Black said. ,,Privatni smeštaj je nedostižan, veće ne čini ništa po tom pitanju, a oni koji kupuju stan prvi put se grčevito bore. Braun je pomogao, ali ova bitka će dugo trajati.’’, rekao je Blek. 29. "He's having to run the country on a shoestring. Let's face it, it doesn't matter what happens. It's the working man who gets it – the ordinary guy who can't afford it." On mora da vodi državu uz minimalne resurse. Suočimo se sa tim, nije bitno šta se dešava. Radnici su ti koji to shvate- obični ljudi koji ne mogu sebi nešto da priušte. 9th Article 'I've seen how one slip of the tongue can be fatal' by Paul Harris http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/apr/11/party-leader-debates-tv-danger 30. US campaigns go on for months, with a long process under which a slate of candidates is whittled down to one. Kampanje u SAD-u traju mesecima, a u dugotrajnoj poceduri se lista kandidata suzi na jednog pojedinca. 39
  • 40. 31. At the end of the debate, if someone is talking about the moderator, then the moderator has failed to do their job. Na kraju debate ako neko priča o moderatoru, onda je moderator loše odradio svoj posao. 32. In the era of television – especially in high definition – the candidates communicate with more than just words. "The body language of a candidate matters just as much as the spoken word," Lehrer said. U eri televizije, posebno televizije visoke rezolucije, kandidati koriste više od reči u komunikaciji. ,, Kandidatov govor tela ima podjednaku važnost kao i izgovorena reč.’’ 33. Still, Lehrer will admit to being pleased that Britain is following America's lead and scheduling debates between its political leaders. Ipak, Lehrer će priznati da je zadovoljan što Britanija prati Ameriku u stopu i što pravi raspored za debate svojih političkih lidera. SPECTATOR 10th Article The great American melting pot http://www.spectator.co.uk/essays/5931343/the-great-american-melting-pot.thtml 34. Americans are panicking again about immigration and the size of their population. Amerikanci opet paniče zbog imigranata i veličine njihove populacije. 35. Newcomers start to learn English, learn how to vote, adopt the work ethic, serve in the military, and become passionately patriotic. Pridošlice počnu da uče engleski, nauče kako da glasaju, usvoje radnu etiku, služe vojsku i postanu strastvene patriote. 36. Their children go to American schools, learn to speak unaccented English, adapt to American popular culture, and upset their grandparents by marrying children from other immigrant groups. Njihova deca idu u američke škole, nauče da govore engleski bez akcenta, prilagode se američkoj popularnoj kulturi i zabrinu bake i deke time što se venčavaju pripadnicima drugih imigrantskih grupa. 40
  • 41. 37. Canada is a mild and amiable place, to be sure, untroubled by the spectre of ethnic cleansing, but it stands as a reminder that acculturation doesn’t happen automatically. Kanada je mirno i srdačno mesto zasigurno i ne potresaju je utvare etničkog čišćenja, ali podseća da se akulturacija ne dešava automatski. 11th Article British politicians will need to act more like the Germans – only faster http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/apr/28/act-like-germans-bond- markets 38. Yet somehow Germany today does not seem to resemble the ghastly chaos with which the Daily Mail and the Sun are now trying to scare their readers. Pa ipak čini se da Nemačka danas ne liči na jezivi haos kojim Dejli mejl i San pokušavaju sada da prestrave svoje čitaoce. 39. But Germany does show that you can run an effective economic policy with coalition governments; and Greece shows that you can run a lousy one with a clear single-party majority. Ali Nemačka pokazuje da možete voditi efektivnu ekonomsku politiku u vladi sastavljenoj od koalicija; dok Grčka pokazujr da možete voditi slabu politiku u okviru jasno definisane partijske većine. 40. German-style "change through consensus" takes longer than the Margaret Thatcher-type, but is less socially divisive and ultimately more durable. ,,Promena putem konsenzusa’’ tipična za nemački sistem zahteva više vremena nego ona u stilu Margaret Tačer, ali manje deli ljude po društvenom staležu i dugotrajnija je u krajnjoj liniji. 12th Article Elections in the UK-Britain's choice http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15867683 41. WHATEVER they tell you in school, not all elections matter equally. Bez obzira na sve što su vam rekli u školi nisu svi izbori podjednako važni. 42. It is hard to have influence in Europe if you do not have allies there; and, with money tight at home, some will be more inclined to spray it around the world than others. 41
  • 42. Teško je biti uticajan u Evropi, ako nemate saveznika tamo i pošto kod kuće ima malo novca, neki će biti spremniji da ga potroše po svetu od drugih. 43. The biggest issue in this campaign is getting the public finances under control without snuffing out economic recovery. Najveće sporno pitanje u ovoj kampanji je kako držati javne finansije pod kontrolom a da se ne uguši ekonomski oporavak. 44. Mr Cameron blames Mr Brown for much of the present fiscal mess, which he says he will deal with more effectively. Gospodin Kameron okrivljuje gospodina Brauna za sadašnji fiskalni nered u velikoj meri, sa kojima će se on, po njegovim tvrdnjama, delotvornije izboriti. 45. The Tories lost ground in the polls after vowing fiscal austerity last autumn, and are now talking more about tax cuts than spending cuts. Torijevci su izgubili popularnost na izborima pošto su se opredelili za fiskalnu uzdržanost prošle jeseni i sada govore više o poreskim olakšicama nego o potrošačkim olakšicama. 46. Nobody is saying much about how they would fix things. Niko ne govori detaljno o tome kako bi trebalo popraviti stvari. 47. The electoral system is biased against the Tories anyway (see article), support for smaller parties is growing and voters—who are, after all, choosing constituency MPs rather than a prime minister directly—have all sorts of reasons, from pot-holes to fiddled expenses, to defy nationwide predictions. Izborni sistem svakako ima predrasude o Torijevcima (pogledajte članak), podrška manjim partijama raste i glasači, koji, naposletku, biraju poslanike u svojim okruzima pre nego premijera direktno, imaju najrazličitije razloge, od rupa u asfaltu do malverzacija oko troškova, da se ne uklope u statistička predviđanja o naciji. 13th Article Sudan's election- Let those people go http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15867994 48. Just in the west and the south together, more than 9m people depend on food handouts from abroad. Samo na zapadu i na jugu ukupno, više od devet miliona ljudi zavisi od pomoći u hrani iz inostranstva. 42
  • 43. 49. Mr Bashir is wanted by the International Criminal Court at The Hague for alleged crimes against humanity. Bašira traži Međunarodni krivični sud u Hagu za zločine protiv čovečnosti. 50. If they do, and the split happens, it could be a rare example of an African country breaking up in peace. Ako oni to učine i dođe do razdvajanja, biće to redak primer da se afrička zemlja raspala mirnim putem. Olivera Petrovic’s corpus Articles on Culture Guardian 1st Article Heard the one about the black standups? http://www.guardian.co.uk/stage/2010/apr/13/black-comedy 1. The black comedy circuit is booming, with packed crowds and a host of stars. Putujeće crnačko pozorište cveta; imaju mnogobrojnu publiku i mnoštvo zvezda. 2. I meet Crawford and the show's co-producer, standup Angie Le Mar, in a dressing room whose movement-sensitive lights keep plunging us into darkness. Sastajem se sa Krafordom i ko-režiserom predstave, komičarem Le Marom, u presvlačionici čija nas svetla osetljiva na kretanje uljujkuju u tamu. 3. We talk about their lowly beginnings. Pričamo o njihovim skromnim počecima. 4. "Everything was building," remembers Le Mar, "and then it stopped." „Sve je napredovalo,” priseća se Le Mar, “a onda je prestalo.” 5. "I'm puzzled by that," says Le Mar. „To me zbunjuje,“ kaže LaMar. 43
  • 44. 6. According to Anglo-Nigerian comic Gina Yashere, now living and working in the US: "Unless they see you on TV, or they know you, white crowds won't go to a black comedy night because they think that nothing is going to relate to them." Prema rečima anglo-nigerijske komičarke Đine Jašir, koja danas živi i radi u SAD: „Ako vas ne vidi na TV-u, ili ako vas ne zna, bela publika neće ići na veče crnačke komedije, jer misli da se ništa neće odnositi na nju.“ 7. As a result, black comedy on TV is severely rationed. Kao rezultat toga, crnačka komedija je strogo ograničena na televiziji. 8. I have my own comedy special, where I, by myself, am taking up an hour of primetime American television. Ja imam svoju posebnu emisiju, gde je samo meni na raspolaganju sat udarnog vremena na američkoj televiziji. 9. "Television is run by white middle-class people, and they want TV shows made by people like them," she says. „ Televizijom upravljaju belci iz srednje klase i oni žele da televizijske emisije stvaraju ljudi poput njih,“ kaže ona. 10. "For me," he says, "New York is the mecca of comedy." „Za mene je,“ kaže on, „ Njujork Meka komedije.“ 11. The performers are hugely charismatic, but the material is not sophisticated. Glumci su veoma harizmatični, ali materijal nije prefinjen. 12. "Otherwise, we're playing the Comedy Store, but it never means anything and we never progress." U protivnom, mi ćemo igrati komediju Prodavnica, ali to nikad ništa ne znači i mi nikada ne napredujemo. 13. Kojo is already putting that philosophy into practice. Kojo već sprovodi takvu filozofiju. 2nd Article Whitney Houston http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2010/apr/14/whitney-houston-review-birmingham 14. "I'm feeling pretty good myself," Whitney tells the crowd, "thank you for asking." 44
  • 45. „Sada se osećam vrlo dobro,“ kaže Vitni publici, „hvala na pitanju.“ 3rd Article My search for the real Robin Hood http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2010/apr/14/robin-hood-russell-crowe 15. Ridley Scott claims his new film starring Russell Crowe will be the most historically accurate ever. Ridli Skot tvrdi da će njegov novi film u kojem glavnu ulogu tumači Rasel Krou istorijski gledano biti najprecizniji koji je ikada snimljen. 16. But what do we actually know about the real outlaw and his merrie men? Ali šta mi zapravo znamo o stvarnom odmetniku i njegovim pratiocima? 17. "I'm a traitor to my own place," Crook tells me. „Ja sam izdajica svog rođenog grada,“ kaže mi Kruk. 18. Leon Unczur, the current sheriff of Nottingham, has a wonderfully medieval face. Leon Uncur, sadašnji odgovorni za javni red Notingema, ima divno srednjovekovno lice. 19. I meet him in a cold little room full of flags, called the south bastion, next to the gatehouse of Nottingham castle. Sastajemo se u hladnoj sobici prepunoj zastava, koju zovu južni bastion, pored vratareve kućice zamka Notingam. 20. He is wearing a black gown, a gold chain and is seated on a wooden throne. Nosi crni orgrtač, zlatni lanac i sedi na drvenoj stolici. 21. They take Robin Hood seriously hereabouts. Oni u ovom mestu shvataju Robina Huda ozbiljno. 22. Plenty of people think Robin is a myth, beginning life as a woodland sprite somewhere in a lost pagan past. Mnogo ljudi misli da je Robin mitski čovek, koji je započeo život kao šumski vilenjak negde u izgubljenoj paganskoj prošlosti. 23. This is not what I want to hear. Ovo nije ono sto želim da čujem. 24. I am looking for the prototype of Robin Hood, the origin of the stories that have spun out of control over the centuries. 45
  • 46. Ja tražim prototip Robin Huda, izvor priča koje su se vekovima brzo menjale i otrzale kontroli. 25. Over coffee in the castle's cafe, I ask White: what is the reality of Robin? " Dok pijemo kafu u gostionici u zamku, pitam Vajta: „Šta je Robinova stvarnost?“ 26. „[...]But by the 1260s these names, Hod and Robhod, are being used as popular monikers for outlaws." Ali do 1260-ih ova imena, Hud i Robhud, koriste se kao popularni nadimci za prestupnike. 27. 'Welcome to Robin Hood county," say the signs as you drive along the A60 towards Sherwood Forest. „Dobro došli u grofoviju Robina Huda,“ piše na znakovima pored puta A60 koji vodi ka Šervudskoj šumi. 28. He gives me a tour of this remnant of forest, to which visitors flock as the last vestige of the hideaway of the outlaw. On me je proveo po tom ostatku šume, u kojem se posetioci okupljaju, jer je poslednji trag skrovišta ovog odmetnika. 29. Visitors are sometimes disappointed by the forest: not just its restricted size, but the type of trees it contains. Posetioce nekad razočara šuma: ne samo smanjena veličina, već i vrsta drveća koja se u njoj nalazi. 30. I travel to Wentbridge with David Greenwood, an amateur historian besotted with Robin Hood since his mother took him to see the Errol Flynn film more than 60 years ago. Putujem u Ventbridž sa Dejvidom Grinvudom, istoričarem amaterom koji je zaljubljenik u Robina Huda od kada ga je majka pre vise od 60 godina odvela da pogleda film Erola Flina. 4th Article Great Ormond Street and Olympic Dreams http://www.guardian.co.uk/tv-and-radio/2010/apr/14/great-ormond-street-olympic- dreams 46
  • 47. 31. After all, this is the country's leading children's hospital: there must be thousands of people who have its doctors and nurses to thank for their still being around. Povrh svega, ovo je vodeća dečija bolnica u državi: mora da postoji na hiljade ljudi koji zahvaljuju doktorima i medicinskim sestrama sto su još tamo. 32. "There's a difference between merely existing as a breathing human and having a humanity, a sense of personhood," said Dr Andy Petros, ethics specialist. „Postoji razlika između pukog postojanja čoveka koji diše i čoveka koji je human i ima osecaj čovečnosti,“ rekao je dr Andi Petros, specijalista za etiku. Spectator 5th Article Sentimental journey http://www.spectator.co.uk/arts-and-culture/film/5862728/sentimental-journey.thtml 33. Michael is big, black, 17, homeless and has learning difficulties, but with the Tuohys’ help he makes it through high school and becomes an all-American college football player. Majkl je debeo, crn, beskućnik, ima 17 godina i teškoće u učenju, ali uz pomoć Tiohisijevih uspeva da završi srednju školu i postaje vrhunski fudbaler na koledžu. 6th Article Pale imitation http://www.spectator.co.uk/arts-and-culture/theatre/page_2/ 34. Peter Brook, the world’s most maddening theatre director, returns to London with an adaptation of a novel set in the French colony of Mali in west Africa. Piter Bruk, najiritantniji pozorišni režiser na svetu, vraća se u London sa adaptacijom romana čija se radnja dešava u Maliju, francuskoj koloniji na zapadu Afrike. 35. Brook is never as bad as his critics hope nor as good as his fans dream. 47
  • 48. Bruk nikada nije toliko loš koliko se kritičari nadaju niti toliko dobar koliko njegovi obožavaoci sanjaju. 36. So he always disappoints somebody. Dakle, on uvek razočara nekog. 37. (The full moon, we’re told, is the eternal symbol of truth.) (Pun mesec je, rekli su nam, večni simbol istine.) 38. There’s no escalation, and no momentum, in this play. U ovoj predstavi nema pojačavanja i inercije. 39. A writer who steals must also improve. Pisac koji krade od drugih mora takođe i da se usavršava. 40. The sage teacher, now imprisoned, is challenged by the governor to make Allah bash his brains in. Mudrog učitelja, koji je sada uhapšen, izaziva upravnik da učini da mu Alah uništi mozak. 7th Article One true voice http://www.spectator.co.uk/arts-and-culture/radio/page_2/5831243/one-true-voice.thtml 41. ‘The BBC is a part of public space because the public themselves have put it there,’ suggests the BBC’s DG, Mark Thompson, at the beginning of the report which is recommending, among other things, that Radio 6 Music and the Asian Network be shut down. „Bi-Bi-Si je deo javnog prostora jer ga je sama javnost postavila tamo,“ kaže Mark Tompson, glavni direktor Bi-Bi-Sija, na početku izveštaja koji preporučuje, između ostalog, da se Radio 6 Mjuzik i Ejzan Netvork ukinu. 42. The report is all about this virtual concept, ‘the public space’, and claims that it’s an ‘open and enriching experience’, and that ‘in public space, everyone’s as important and valuable as everyone else’. Čitav izveštaj je o ovom virtuelnom pojmu „javnog prostora“. U njemu se tvrdi da je ovaj prostor „otvoreno i obogaćujuće iskustvo“ i da „je u javnom prostoru svako podjednako važan i dragocen“. 48
  • 49. 43. ‘Hi! Wonder if you’re free on Saturday to come round and award us points. It’ll be very simple — just you, us and a camera crew.’ „Zdravo. Pitam se da l’ si slobodan u subotu da svratiš i daš nam poene. Biće vrlo jednostavno – samo ti, mi i kamermani.“ 44. Michael goes by helicopter and Rolls to visit an amateur cook in their home. Majkl ide helikopterom, a zatim se vozi Rols-Rojsom da poseti kuvara amatera u njihovom domu. 8th Article Building bridges http://www.spectator.co.uk/arts-and-culture/music/page_2/ 45. Father technically and spiritually to Mozart and Beethoven, revered by Brahms and (unexpectedly) by Wagner, beloved of Stravinsky, Britten and Ligeti, Haydn was something of a well-kept secret, but is now a universal possession, treasured as equal with the highest. Otac Mocartu i Betovenu u pogledu tehnike i spiritualnisti, koga su Brams i (neočekivano) Vagner poštovali, a Stravinski, Briten i Liđeti obožavali, Hajdn je bio nešto kao dobročuvana tajna, ali je danas deo opšte kulture i u rangu je najboljih. 46. The culture of piano-duet arrangements (Olivera: a piece of music that has been changed for other instrumenets) begins in the early-to-mid 19th century; the great epoch of bourgeois music-making, with its easy availability of decent instruments for every front parlour or glittering salon. Kultura prilagođavanja kompozicija za dva klavira počinje u prvoj polovini devetnaestog veka; to je značajna epoha buržoaskog stvaranja muzike, sa lakom mogućnošću korišćenja prigodnih instrumenata za svaki prijemni salon ili blistavu dnevnu sobu. Economist 9th Article Musing on an English master http://www.economist.com/culture/displaystory.cfm?story_id=16004372 49
  • 50. 47. Sir Frank is affectionate, but not uncritical. Ser Frank je nežan, ali ne i nekritičan. 10th Article Theirs but to do and die http://www.economist.com/culture/displaystory.cfm?story_id=16004400 48. And he points out some sorry truths of the American justice system. I on naglašava neke tužne istine o američkom pravnom sistemu. Financial Times 11th Article A crisis for the faithful heart http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/61ed5312-5ea2-11df-af86-00144feab49a.html 49. This is a drama in which principles and pragmatism, conscience and compromise fight it out in every scene. Ovo je drama u kojoj se principi i pragmatizam, savest i kompromis bore za prevagu u svakoj sceni. 50. He reminds us that the role of religious belief in daily life is a fundamental one for many people worldwide. On nas podseća da je uloga religijskog uverenja najvažnija za mnoge ljude širom sveta. 50
  • 51. Milena Kostić’s Corpus Articles on Science and Technology The Economist 1st Article Europe’s ban on imported seal fur is under fire http://www.economist.com/world/international/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15900213 • The EU reckons the hunt is cruel; the locals in Nunavut, and hunters elsewhere in Canada, disagree, and have some evidence to back this up. Evropska Unija smatra da je lov okrutan; lokalno stanovništvo u Nunavutu i lovci širom Kanade se ne slažu sa ovim i imaju dokaze da podrže svoje stavove. • They also point out that the EU is somewhat two-faced in its attitudes to seals, as fishermen in Britain, Sweden, and Finland are free to kill seals as a way of protecting fish stocks. Oni takođe neglašavaju da je stav Evropske Unije prema fokama donekle kontradiktoran pošto ribolovci u Britaniji, Švedskoj i Finskoj mogu slobodno da ubijaju foke kako bi se zaštitile ribe. • The WTO process involves an initial consultation phase between the countries involved, which is supposed to last 60 days. Sudski postupak Svetske trgovinske organizacije podrazumeva fazu uvodnih konsultacija između zemalja koje su uključene, što bi trebalo da traje 60 dana. • The seal population in Canada is healthy – enough so that the Canadians are increasing the numbers they cull. Populacija foka u Kanadi je brojna- dovoljno brojna da Kanadjani ubijaju sve više foka da bi smanjili njihov broj. 51
  • 52. • But most people do not eat or wear seals, are squeamish about killing cuddly doe-eyed mammals, and do not worry about the inconsistency of such a ban being enforced by a group of nations which kills its own seals for the expediency of fishermen, and kills tens of millions of farmed foxes and minks for their pelts every year. Ali većina ljudi ne jede foke i ne nosi njihovo krzno i preosetljivi su kada je u pitanju ubijanje ovih nežnih i nevinih sisara. Oni ne brinu zbog nedoslednosti takve zabrane koju je uvela grupa nacija.Ove nacije ubijaju foke zbog koristi ribara kao i na desetine miliona domaćih lisica i kuna zbog krzna svake godine. 2nd Article Is it time for a new approach to finding extraterrestrials? http://www.economist.com/science-technology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15905827 • In the Cascade mountains of California, north of Lassen Peak, astronomers are looking for aliens. U Kaskadnim planinama u Kaliforniji, severno od parka Lasen, astronomi traže vanzemaljce. • The Allen Telescope Array (mostly paid for by Paul Allen, co-founder of Microsoft) consists of 42 dish antennas, each six metres across, scattered across the countryside Postavka teleskopa Alen (za koji je sredstva dao većim delom Pol Alen, ko-osnivač Majkrosofta) sastoji se od 42 satelitske antene, od kojih svaka ima 6 metara u prečniku i koje su razbacane po selu. • The Allen telescope is looking for aliens the traditional way: by searching for radio signals that have either been sent out deliberately, or leaked into space accidentally, as human radio signals are. Teleskop Alen traži vanzemaljce na tradicionalan način, - tako sto traži radio signale koji su ili otposlati namerno ili koji su se slucajno našli u prostoru, kao što je slučaj sa ljudskim radio signalima. • Humans are, after all, increasingly using fibre optics to talk to each other. Ljudi, povrh svega, sve više i više koriste optička vlakna da bi razgovarali. • His first idea is to look for pollution in the atmospheres of promising planets. Njegova prva zamisao je da potraži zagađenje u atmosferama planeta koje obećavaju. 52
  • 53. 11. The birth and death phases of stars, for example are associated with heavy dust clouds that give off an infra-red signal which might resemble the swarm of artificial satellites constituting a Dyson sphere. Faze nastajanja i nestajanja zvezda, na primer, povezane su sa teškim oblacima prašine koji emituju infra-crvene signale. Ovi signali mogu da predstavljaju mnoštvo veštačkih satelita koji cine Dajsonovu sferu. 3rd Article Sir James Black, pharmacologist, died on March 22nd, aged 85 http://www.economist.com/obituary/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15900222 12. He invented white or pink capsule of the beta-blocker propranolol which, taken every day before breakfast, slows down the racing heart, lowers the blood pressure, soothes migraine headaches and calms stage-fright. On je izmislio belu ili roze kapsulu beta-bloker propranolola koji, ako se uzima svakog dana pre doručka, usporava ubrzano lupanje srca, smanjuje krvni pritisak, ublažava glavobolje i smanjuje tremu. 4th Article Loose clicks sink ships http://www.economist.com/science-technology/technology-monitor/displaystory.cfm? story_id=15894494 13. The new approach employs methods developed for speech-recognition software to group together all the similar-sounding keystrokes in a recording, generating an alphabet of clicks. Novi pristup koristi metode razvijene za softver koji prepoznaje govor kako bi grupisao na snimku sve slične zvukove koji nastaju kucanjem na tastaturi i kako bi stvorio alfabet klikova. 14. But once those requirements are met, the program can decode anything from epic prose to randomised, ten-character passwords. Ali onda kada se ti zahtevi ispune, program može da dekodira sve od epske proze do nasumično izabranih lozinki od deset karaktera. 15. Dr Tygar therefore recommends that typed passwords be phased out, to be replaced with biometric checks or multiple types of authorisation that combine a 53
  • 54. password with some form of silent verification (clicking on a pre-chosen picture in a selection of images, for example). Doktor Tajger stoga predlaže da se kucane lozinke postepeno ukinu, da se zamene biometrijskim potvrdama ili višestrukim tipovima odobrenja koja kombinuju lozinke sa nekim oblikom tihe verifikacije (na primer, kliktanje na ranije odabranu sliku u nizu slika). 5th Article Unbearable lightness? http://www.economist.com/science-technology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15883180 16. All things being equal, the driver of a large SUV (sports-utility vehicle) is less likely to be killed than the driver of a small car in a head-on collision between the two. Da se radi samo o tome, u čeonom sudaru velikog sportskog automobila i malog automobila, pre ce poginuti vozač malog automobila. 17. The Environment Protection Agency claims average prices on the forecourt will rise by only $1,300. (Someone, somewhere, seems to have got their sums wrong. ) Udruženje za zaštitu životne sredine tvrdi da ce se prosečne cene za dvorišta ispred zgrada povećati za samo 1300 dolara. Neko se negde izgleda pogrešno preračunao. 6th Article Protection racket http://www.economist.com/science-technology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15865260 18. Their work follows a group of individuals over time and looks at how different factors contribute to different outcomes—in this case, the development of cancer. Njihov rad prati grupu pojedinaca tokom određenog vremena ispituje kako različiti faktori doprinose različitim rezultatima - u ovom slučaju, razvijanju raka. 19. A separate investigation of the people involved in Dr Boffetta’s study suggests that those who eat five servings a day of fruit and vegetables have a 30% lower incidence of heart disease and strokes than those who eat less than one and a half servings. Posebno istraživanje ljudi koji su uključeni u analizu doktora Bofeta navodi na pomisao da su kod ljudi koji jedu dnevno pet porcija voća i povrća šanse za 54
  • 55. oboljevanje srca i šlog manje za 30% nego kod onih koji jedu manje od jedne i po porcije dnevno. 7th Article Cutting the clutter http://www.economist.com/science-technology/displaystory.cfm? story_id=15695522 20. BENEATH your correspondent’s desk is a cat’s cradle of tangled cables linking a pair of computers to numerous peripherals and laptops around the office. Ispod radnog stola vašeg poslovnog korespondenta je zamršeno klupko isprepletanih kablova koji povezuju dva računara sa brojnim perifernim jedinicama i laptopovima u kancelariji. 21. When everything is humming, there are no fewer than 15 transformers plugged into various wall sockets and power strips, along with all the other electrical cables for powering computers, monitors, printers and still hungrier office gear. Kad sve bruji, ima bar 15 transformatora koji su uključeni u različite utičnice na zidu i produžne kablove, zajedno sa svim drugim električnim kablovima za napajanje kompjutera, monitora, štampača i još gladnijih kancelarihjskih uređaja. 22. When phones and laptops are placed on an eCoupled surface, the power transmitter in the work-surface detects the resonant circuit in the device’s receiver, which then tells the transmitter how much power to send. Kada se telefoni i laptopovi postave na eCoupled površinu, transmiter energije na radnoj površini detektuje zvučno strujno kolo u prijemniku uređaja, koji onda šalje poruku transmiteru koliko energije da pošalje. 8th Article The old man of the mountain http://www.economist.com/science-technology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15767281 23. MYTH and fantasy populate the world with “othermen”—the elves, goblins, dwarfs and giants that live in the wild wood, in the cave or on the high mountain peak. Mitovi i fantazije naseljavaju svet različitim stvorenjima – vilenjacima, goblinima, patuljcima i divovima koji žive u divljini, pećinama ili na visokim planinskim vrhovima. 55
  • 56. 24. The rate at which random changes over the generations occur in mitochondrial DNA is fairly well known and, using that knowledge, Dr Krause estimates that the newly discovered species last shared an ancestor with modern humans about 1m years ago. Stopa u kojoj se nesistamatski javlaju promene u mitohondrijskoj DNK kroz generacije je prilično dobro poznata. Koristeći se tim znanjem doktor Kraus procenjuje da su novootkrivene vrste poslednji put delile pretka sa modernim ljudima pre oko milion godina. 25. It is, in other words, a fourth example of anthropological tourism from Africa to the rest of the world, on what is now looking like a well-worn route. To je, drugim rečima, četvrti primer antropološkog turizma iz Afrike ka ostatku sveta, na onome što sada izgleda kao dobro utabana staza. 26. Do not be surprised if, whatever proper name it is eventually assigned, the new, mountain-dwelling, central-Asian species actually becomes known as the yeti. Nemojte se iznenaditi ako, kakvo god ime da joj se naposletku da, nova centralno- azijska vrsta koja živi na planinama zapravo postane poznata kao jeti. 9th Article Flash in the pan http://www.economist.com/science-technology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15927112 27. Does Apple’s latest clamp down on Flash mean that people who have bought iPhones, iPods and iPads are now stuck with a crippled version of the web? Da li Eplova najnovija restrikcija na Flešu znači da su ljudi koji su kupili iPhones, iPods i iPads sada zaglavili sa obogaljenom verzijom veba? 28. Experts agree that the H.264 algorithm produces a superior picture, but it is a proprietary technology. Strucnjaci se slažu da algoritam H.264 stvara nadmoćnu sliku, ali je on vlasnička tehnologija. 10th Article Rising from the ashes 56
  • 57. http://www.economist.com/science-technology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15865280 29. And that is exactly what Sparton Resources, a firm based in Toronto, is doing. I to je upravo ono sto Sparton Risorsiz, firma sa sedištem u Torontu, radi. 30. The acids dissolve the uranium, and various other things, leaching them from the ash. Kiseline rastvaraju uranijum i razne druge stvari, tako što ih ispiraju iz pepela. 31. China is developing ash-mining for reasons of energy security more than economics, according to Wang Hongfang, a marketing manager at CNNC. Prema recima Vang Hongfangua, marketinškog menadžera u CNNC, Kina više razvija rudarstvo pepela nego ekonomiju da bi obezbedila energetsku sigurnost. 32. Some people are even turning to seawater as a source of uranium, in an eerie recapitulation of Fritz Haber’s attempt to pay off Germany’s first-world-war debts by extracting gold from the ocean. Neki ljudi se čak okreću morskoj vodi kao izvoru uranijuma, u sablasnoj rekapitulaciji pokušaja Frica Haberta da otplati dugove Nemačke iz Prvog svetskog rata vađenjem zlata iz okeana 11th Article A place in the sun http://www.economist.com/science-technology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15905891 33. These are, in effect, what some critics are offering (though with what the report calls “a rather selective and uncharitable approach”). Ovo je u stvari ono što neki kritičari izlažu ( iako onim sto se u izveštaju naziva “prilično selektivnim i bezobzirnim pristupom”). 34. “What I want to do”, he says, “is bang their heads together and say ‘Sit down together and work out what’s going on’.” “Ono sto ja hoću da uradim”, kaže on, “je da lupim njihove glave jednu o drugu i kažem “Sedite zajedno i saznajte šta se dešava”. 35. “I’m very grateful that the isotopic composition of helium has not become a key matter of public interest.” 57
  • 58. ‘Veoma sam zahvalan što izotopski sastav helijuma nije postao kjučni predmet interesa javnosti.’ 12th Article We all want to change the world http://www.economist.com/science-technology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15814427 36. Geoengineers argue that this may prove insufficient and that ways of tinkering directly with the atmosphere and the oceans need to be studied. Geoinženjeri uveravaju da se ovo može pokazati nedovoljnim i da načini direktnog petljanja sa atmosferom i okeanima treba da se prouče. 37. Some would like to carry out preliminary experiments, and wish to do so in a clear regulatory framework so that they know what is allowed and what is not. Neki bi želeli da izvedu uvodne eksperimente, i žele to da urade u ( jasnom regulatornom okviru kako bi znali šta je dozvoljeno a šta nije. 38. In the week of the Asilomar meeting Science published evidence that more pollutants than previously appreciated, including oxides of sulphur, are getting into the lower stratosphere. U nedelji kada se održava sastanak u Asilomaru, časopis Sajans objavio je dokaze da više zagađivača nego što je ranije procenjeno, uključujući i okside sumpora, ulazi u donju stratosferu. 39. Exhaust gases from shipping already brighten clouds over various bits of the ocean, and in so doing are thought to cool the Earth appreciably. Izduvni gasovi sa brodova već razvedravaju oblake iznad različitih delova okeana, i zbog toga se smatra da znatno smannjuju tempreraturu na Zemlji. 40. The conference’s organising committee is now working on a further statement of principles, to be released later. Organizacioni odbor konferencije sada radi na daljem prikazu principa, koji će biti objavljeni kasnije. 41. Meanwhile Britain’s main scientific academy, the Royal Society, and the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World, which has members from around 90 countries, are planning further discussions that will culminate at a meeting to be held this November. 58
  • 59. U međuvremenu glavna britanska Akademija nauka, Kraljevsko društvo, i Akademija nauka za zemlje u razvoju, koja broji članove iz oko 90 zamalja, planiraju dalje razgovore koji ce dostići vrhunac na sastanku koji će se održati u novembru. 13th Article White-hot energy http://www.economist.com/science-technology/technology-monitor/displaystory.cfm? story_id=15939644 42. As school chemistry lessons show, metallic magnesium is highly reactive and stores a lot of energy. Kao što se na školskim časovima hemije zaključuje, kovni magnezijum je izuzetno reaktivan i ima dosta energije. 43. Researchers are now devising ways to extract energy from magnesium in a more controlled fashion. Istrazivači sada smišljaju kako da izdvoje energiju iz magnezijuma na način koji je pod većom kontrolom. 44. To change this, he is developing a process using only renewable energy. Da bi ovo promenio, on razvija postupak koji koristi samo obnovljivu energiju. 45. When the magnesium is mixed with water, it produces heat, boiling the water to produce steam, which can then drive a turbine and do useful work.. Kada se magnezijum pomeša sa vodom, on proizvodi toplotu, čini da voda ključa i proizvede paru, koja onda može da pokrene turbine i uradi nešto korisno. THE OBSERVER 14th Article Bolivia climate change talks to give poor a voice http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/apr/18/bolivia-climate-change-talks- cochabamba 59
  • 60. 46. “Things are moving in a bad direction. Governments know it, scientists know it, but things are not changing”. “Sve ide u pogrešnom pravcu. Vlade to znaju, naučnici takodje, ali se ništa ne menja.” 47. In an office plastered with images of Che Guevara, Solon says Bolivia is taking the initiative because of its indigenous constituency. U kancelariji oblepljenoj Če Gevarinim slikama, Solon kaže da Bolivija preuzima inicijativu zbog svojih birača. 48. "What is behind all this discussion is that we have broken the harmony with Mother Earth, with nature, and because we have broken that harmony we are now suffering the consequences of climate change," said Solon. “Ono što je u pozadini ove diskusije je činjenica da smo uništili harmoniju sa Majkom Zemljom, sa prirodom, i pošto smo uništili taj sklad sada snosimo posledice klimatskih promena,” rekao je Solon. 15th Article Volcano shows our lack of sustainability http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/apr/19/iceland-volcano-sustainable- development 49. Their argument: if we insist on closing our eyes to the threat of climate change, if we insist on making the wrong choices in our business and personal lives, if we deny our addiction to air travel and fail to develop better solutions, then we deserve to suffer when the airports are closed. Njihov argument: ako zatvaramo oči pred pretnjom klimatskih promena, pravimo pogrešne izbore u načim poslovnim i privatnim životima, ako poričemo sopstvenu zavisnost od vazdušnog saobraćaja i ne uspevamo da razvijemo bolja rešenja, onda zaslužujemo da patimo kada se aerodromi zatvore. 50. All of these are vital issues, all of them present economic opportunities, and none of them is being adequately addressed by our political leaders. Sve ovo su ključne stavke, i sve predstavljaju ekonomske prilike, a nijednu od nijh naši polticari ne uzimaju adekvatno u obzir/razmatranje. 60
  • 61. Ana Radulović’s Corpus Articles on Economy GUARDIAN 1st Article Mortgage approvals rise but housing market remains flat http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2010/apr/13/mortgage-approvals-rise-housing-market- flat 1. Mortgage approvals rose in February but buyers are staying away. Odobrenja za hipoteke su se povećala u februaru ali su kupci i dalje suzdržani. 2. Remortgaging activity increased for the first time in five months but remains weak, with just 24,000 loans advanced during the month. Aktivnost refinansiranja hipoteka se povećala po prvi put u poslednjih pet meseci ali je i dalje slaba, sa samo 24.000 ostvarenih zajmova u toku meseca. 3. The weakness in remortgaging is expected to continue for some time yet as low interest rates deter borrowers from switching away from cheap standard variable rates. 61
  • 62. Očekuje se da će se slabo refinansiranje hipoteka nastaviti još neko vreme jer niske kamatne stope odvraćaju uzajmljivače od povoljnih standardnih varijabilnih stopa. 4. This was a 2% increase on January figure, but is 35% down on last February's number. Ovo je bio porast od 2% u odnosu na brojke u januaru, ali je pad od 35% u odnosu na brojno stanje u february prošle godine. 5. Very significantly, the Rics survey indicates that more properties are coming on to the market while buyer interest is faltering. Veoma značajno, izveštaj Rics pokazuje da se na tržištu pojavljuje sve više nekratnina dok je interesovanje kupaca slabi. 2nd Article Treasury saw buy-to-let threat to first-time buyers http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2010/apr/12/buy-to-let-first-time-buyers 6. The report also cites other pressures on first-time buyers such as the size of deposits, high demand for housing and rising interest rates. Izveštaj takođe navodi druge pritiske na prvi put kupce poput veličine depozita, visoko interesovanje za domaćinstva i podiyanje kamatnih stopa. 7. This shows a government more than happy to benefit from the feel good effect of rising house prices yet unconcerned about reigning in the negative social consequences. 62
  • 63. Ovo pokazuje vladu koja je više nego zadovoljna da ima koristi od dobrog efekta uvećanja cena kuća a koje nije zabrinuta zbog vladanja u negativnim društvenim posledicama. 3rd Article Greece passes latest test with debt sell-off http://woofeed.com/Greek-crisis-faces-latest-test-with-debt-sell- off/business/Guardian 8. The T-Bills are short-term debt which Greece promises to repay in either six months or a year's time. T-menice su kratkoročna zaduženja koje Grčka obaćava da otplati u roku od šest meseci ili godinu dana. 9. It needs to sell them to help finance its deficit, which is running at over 12% of GDP. Potrebno je da ih proda da bi se izborila sa deficitom koji prelazi preko 12% bruto domaćeg proizvoda. 10. The financial markets will be watching keenly to see how high a rate, or yield, investors demand in return for buying Greece's debt. Finansijska tržišta će pažljivo posmatrati da vide koliku visoku stopu ili prinos investitori zahtevaju u zamenu za kupovinu grčkog duga. 4th Article Greece passes latest test with debt sale http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/apr/13/greece-crisis-faces-latest-test 11. On Monday bond trader Pimco warned that it would not buy Greek debt, as it does not believe the eurozone rescue plan goes far enough to address the country's underlying economic problems. 63
  • 64. U ponedeljak je trgovac obveznicama Pimko upozorio da neće kupiti dug Grčke jer ne veruje da je plan za spasavanje evrozone u mogućnosti da reši osnovne ekonomske probleme u toj zemlji. THE ECONOMIST 5th Article Britain 2010: An election briefing Rebalancing act http://www.economist.com/specialreports/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15861770 12. Given that a shortage of properties has been a key factor in the rise in house prices from their early-2009 lows, this suggests that a key prop for house prices is crumbling. Uzimajući u obzir da je manjak nekretnina bio ključni faktor za porast cena od početka 2009. kada su bile niske, zaključujemo da glavni stub cena opada. 13. The problem with tax breaks and other subsidies, however, is that they complicate the tax system and distort incentives. Problem u vezi sa poreskim pauzama i drugim subvencijama je, međutim, u tome što one otežavaju poreski sistem i deformišu podsticaje. 14. Though the government did cut the corporate-tax headline rate from 30% to 28% in 2008, it is now discussing controversial proposals to extend its tax reach over foreign subsidiaries controlled by British-domiciled companies. Iako vlada jeste smanjila korporativnu poreznu stopu sa 30% na 28% u 2008., sada raspravlja o kontraverznim predlozima da proširi domet poreza na inostrane filijale kojima upravljaju kompanije sa sedištem u Britaniji. 64
  • 65. 15. George Osborne, the shadow chancellor, says that he wants to tackle both tax and regulation to make Britain a more competitive proposition for companies. Džordž Ozborn, kancelar vlade u senci, kaže da želi da se izbori i sa porezom i sa propisima kako bi Britaniju učinio primamljivijom ponudom za kompanije. 16. For all the seductive talk of rebalancing the economy, of reviving manufacturing, of supporting the creative industries, high-tech start-ups or whatever, the best thing that any new government can do for enterprise is to restore the public finances and stop dominating the credit markets. Od svih primamljivih priča o rebalansiranju ekonomije, o ponovnom oživljavanju proizvodnje, o pružanju podrške kreativnim industrijama, visoko tehnološki preduzećima ili čemu već, najbolje što svaka vlada može da učini za preduzeće je da se vrati javnim finansijama i prestane da dominira kreditnim tržištem. 17. THERE is little dispute, going into the election, that the British economy needs a bit of rebalancing. Nije sporno da, idući ka izborima, britanska ekonomija treba malo da se rebalansira. 18. As the government retrenches, it will have to be the private sector that pulls the country out of the doldrums. Pošto se vlada povlači, privatni sector će morati da izvuče ekonomiju iz mrtve sezone. 19. Figures from the Bank of England show that bank lending to business, except for property lending, fell in the last nine months of 2009. 65
  • 66. Cifre iz Engleske banke pokazuju da su bankarski zajmovi poslovnom sketroru, osim zajmova za imovinu, opali u poslednjih devet meseci 2009. godine. 20. Though bankers insist that demand is not there, anecdotal evidence suggests the opposite, and business investment fell by 19% last year. Iako bankari insistiraju na tome da nema potražnje, anegdotski dokazi pokazuju suprotno i poslovne investicije su opale za 19% prošle godine. 21. Sir James Dyson, an entrepreneur and author of a report for the Tories on Britain’s exporting future, urges more tax breaks for research-intensive high-tech start-ups. Ser Džejms Dajson, preduzetnik i autor izveštaja za Totijevce o budućnosti izvoza Velike Britanije zahteva više poreskih olakšica za viskoko tehnološke firme foje se bave istraživanjem. 6th Article Daimler and Renault-Nissan join forces A big plan for small cars http://www.economist.com/business-finance/displaystory.cfm? story_id=15869484 22. The world’s drivers are increasingly turning to smaller, more efficient vehicles as environmental regulations bite harder and populations age in rich countries. Vozači u svetu se sve više okreću manjim, efikasnijim vozilima jer se ekološki propisi sve više nameću a sve je više starih ljudi u bogatim zemljama. 7th Article Japan's debt-ridden economy Crisis in slow motion http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15867844 66
  • 67. 23. Falling prices mean that nominal GDP, which last year hit its lowest level since 1991, is likely to remain in the deep freeze. Opadanje cena znači da će nominalni BDP (bruto domaći proizvod), koji je prošle godine bio na najnižem nivou od 1991., najverovatnije ostati zamrznut. 24. Some argue that this combination of deflation-sapped growth and high debt makes Japan next in line for a Greek-style debt crisis. Mnogi tvrde da ova kombinacija rasta izazvana deflacijom i velikog duga čine da Japan bude sledeći zahvaćen dužničkom krizom poput Grčke. 25. Other assets, such as land and shares, remain at paltry levels compared with their bubble-era peaks. Druge vrednosti poput zemlje i deonica ostaju na neznačajnom nivou u poređenju sa maksimumima iz perioda maksimuma. 26. The bank thinks the real problems are low productivity growth in Japan, which keeps wages low and suppresses demand for goods and services, and high public debt. Banke smatraju da su stvarni problem niska produktivnost u Japanu koja ne omogućava porast primanja i umanjuje potražnju za robom i uslugama kao i veliki javni dug. 27. But the tax system is hardly conducive to growth, with some of the highest corporate-tax rates and lowest consumption-tax rates in the rich world. 67
  • 68. Ali poreski sistem nije pogodan za razvoj jer ima neke od najviših poreznih korporativnih stopa i najmanje potrošačke porezne stope u razvijenom svetu. 28. To bureaucrats in the finance ministry, this suggests there is plenty of fiscal flexibility in Japan to deal with the debt problem. Birokratama iz Ministarstva finansija ovo nagoveštava da postoji veliki prostor za fiskalnu fleksibilnost u Japanu prilikom suočavanja sa problemom duga. 29. The IMF’s Mr Tokuoka reckons that as the population ages, savings will dwindle, which could reduce inflows to the government-bond market. Gospodin Takouka iz Međunarodnog monetarnog fonda samtra da će sa starenjem stanovništva štednja opasti što bi moglo da samnji priliv na tržište obveznica. 30. He calculates that even if the household savings rate remains at 2.2%, by 2015 gross public debt could exceed households’ financial assets, which might make domestic funding more difficult and lead Japan to rely more on foreigners. On proračunava da čak i ako stopa štednje domaćinstva ostane 2,2 % do 2015. bruto javni dug bi mogao da prevaziđe finansijska sredstva domaćinstva, što može otežati domaća finansiranja i dovesti Japan u položaj da se više oslanja na strane investitore. 31. Many observers agree that fiscal looseness is the best first step to faster nominal GDP growth. Mnogi posmatrači smatraju da je finansijska labavost najbolji prvi korak ka bržem rastu nominalnog BDP-a (bruto domaćeg proizvoda). 68
  • 69. 32. One of the biggest challenges in stimulating growth is to persuade households and firms to borrow again. Najveći izazov prilokom stimulisanja rasta je ubediti domaćinstva i firme da ponovo pozajmljuju. 8th Article India's mobile-telecoms auction Better late than never http://www.economist.com/business-finance/displaystory.cfm? story_id=15883062 33. INDIA is not known for the efficient management of its natural resources. India nije poznata po efikasnim upravljanjem svojim prirodnim resursima. 34. Many farmers cannot get the water they need to irrigate their crops; industrialists often struggle to buy land to build factories on; and power stations are sometimes unable to get enough coal to fire their turbines Mnogi farmeri ne mogu da dođu do vode koja im je neophodna za navodnjavanje useva, industrijalci se često bore da kupe zemlju na kojoj bi gradili fabrike a elektrane ponekad nisu u mogućnosti da dobiju dovoljno uglja da bi pokrenule turbine. 35. So a big auction of the country’s airwaves to its mobile-network operators, which began on April 9th and may last a couple of weeks, represents a welcome advance in economic governance. 69
  • 70. Tako da velika prodaja državnih frekvencija u mrežama mobilnih operatera koja je počela 9. aprila i može da traje nekoloko nedelja predstavlja dobrodošao napredak u ekonomskom upravljanju. 36. Space on the radio spectrum is the most valuable raw material in mobile telecoms, India’s most dynamic industry. Prostor na radio spektru je najvredniji sirovi material u mobilnom telekomunikacijama, najdinamičnijoj industriji u Indiji. 37. India now has over 560m mobile subscribers, having added over 18m in February alone. Indija trenutno ima preko 560 miliona pretplatnika, a samo je u februaru dodala preko 18 miliona. 38. The government is offering three or four blocks of spectrum in each of the 22 geographical “circles” that make up the Indian market. Vlada nudi tri ili četiri bloka spektra u svakom od 22 geografska okruga koji čine indijsko tržište. 39. The bidding is intended to start slowly and gather momentum at the auctioneer’s discretion. Planira se da ponude na licitaciji krenu polako i dostignu svoj maksimum po nahođenju akcionara. 70
  • 71. 40. The central government hopes to raise 350 billion rupees ($7.9 billion) from the auction to help it close a budget deficit that amounted to 4.14 trillion rupees (6.7% of GDP) in the last fiscal year. Centralna vlast se nada da će zaraditi 350 biliona rupuja (7,9 biliona dolara) na aukciji I doprineti smanjenju deficita u budžetu koji se popeo na 4, 14 triliona rupija (6,7 % BDP-a) u prošloj fiskalnoj godini. 41. By 2013 he thinks the country will have 60m 3G phone subscribers and another 29m using 3G networks through their laptops. In smatra da će do 2013. zemlja imati 60 miliona telefonskih pretplatnika na 3G mreži i dodatnih 29 miliona koji će koristiti 3G mreže preko laptopova. 42. Keeping these users happy will assume greater importance when India eventually introduces mobile-number portability, which will permit customers to switch operators without changing their telephone number Održavanje zadovoljnih korisnika će poprimiti veću važnost kad Indija konačno uvede prenosivost mobilnog broja, koja će dozvoliti kupcima da promene operatera i zadrže broj telefona. 9th Article Europe's Greek rescue plan: The skies brighten over Greece http://www.economist.com/node/15892064?page=2 43. That is a rate about midway between the punitive rates that markets have been demanding from Greece in recent days, and the interest rates being paid by the next weakest members of the euro-zone club, such as Portugal. Ova stopa je između kaznene stope koju su tržišta zahtevala od Grčke u skorije vreme i kamatnih stopa koje plaćaju ostali najslabiji članovi euro-zone, kao što je Portugal. 71
  • 72. 44. When and if (though it is surely a case of when) Greece seeks to activate the mechanism, the loans from the other 15 euro-zone members would be topped up by substantial funds, perhaps amounting to €15 billion, from the International Monetary Fund. Kada i ako (mada je zasigurno pitanje kada) Grčka bude nastojala da aktivira taj mehanizam, krediti od ostalih 15 članica euro zone bi se uvaćali do znaćajnih sredstava, možda čak dostigli i 15 miliona eura od međunarodnog monetarnog fonda. 45. The German government has also said that the country’s federal constitution outlaws any help that might undermine the strict rules created to ensure the stability of the single currency. Vlada Nemačke je takođe izjavila da njihov savezni ustav stavlja van zakona bilo kakvu pomoć koja bi mogla da ugrozi stroga pravila stvorena da obezbede stabilnost zajedničke monete. 46. The government needs to borrow about €11 billion by the end of May to roll over maturing debt and service interest charges. Vlada treba da pozajmi oko 11 biliona evra do kraja maja da bi se izvukla iz narastajućeg duga i naplate uslužnih kamata. SPECTATOR 10th Article The ultimate financial disappearing trick: Lehman Bros wasn’t a real business at all 72
  • 73. http://www.spectator.co.uk/business/5847653/the-ultimate-financial-disappearing-trick- lehman-bros-wasnt-a-real-business-at-all.thtml 47. I don’t mean businesses that habitually disguise or miscalculate the risks that they take, while designing their accounting systems in such a way as to justify maximum short-term rewards for executives at the expense of shareholders, clients, counterparties and the reputation of their market as a whole. Ne mislim na preduzeća koja po navici prikrivaju ili loše obračunaju risk koji preduzimaju, dok njihove računovodstvene sisteme podešavaju tako da opravdaju maksimalne kratkoročne naknade za rukovodioce na štetu interesnih grupa, klijenata, saradnika i reputacije njihovog tržišta kao celine. FINANCIAL TIMES 11th Article Asia warned of risk of forex intervention http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/1559f2c8-4613-11df-8769-00144feab49a.html 48. Asia’s developing countries are risking a renewed economic crisis by intervening extensively in foreign exchange markets, the Asian Development Bank warned in its annual regional review on Tuesday. Azijske zemlje u razvoju rizikuju da ponovo izazovu ekonomsku krizu time što pojačano učestvuju na deviznim tržištima, upozorila je Azijska razvojna banka u utorak u svom godišnjem regionalnom pregledu. 12th Article HK takes aggressive investment stance http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/6ed25220-46bb-11df-bb5a-00144feab49a.html 49. The Hong Kong Monetary Authority is managing its burgeoning reserves more aggressively by putting more money into higher risk, higher return investments such as hedge funds and private equity. 73
  • 74. Monetarna vlast u Hong Kongu agresivnije upravlja svojim pojačanim rezervama time što više novca ulaže u visokorizične, profitabilnije investicije kao što su hedž fondovi i privatni kapital. 13th Article Portuguese shares fall 4% amid growth fears http://www.ft.com/cms/s/d25e6e40-5f62-11df-978c- 00144feab49a,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com %2Fcms%2Fs%2F0%2Fd25e6e40-5f62-11df-978c-00144feab49a.html&_i_referer=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fuk%2Fglobal-economy 50. Portugal’s stock market fell more than 4 per cent on Friday amid fears that austerity measures to cut the country’s yawning budget deficit would hit economic growth. Berza u Portugaliji je opala za 4 procenta u petak usred bojazni da će mere štednje u cilju smanjenja ogromnog državnog deficita pogoditi ekonomski razvoj. 74