Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Lecture   8   single subject designs i
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Lecture 8 single subject designs i

762

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
762
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. #8 Location In The Research Process Formulating Research Questions Previous Research Craft Knowledge Appropriate Design Appropriate Sampling Decisions Ensure Research Ethics Data Collection & Management Data Analysis Interpretation Dissemination Ongoing Research
  • 2. Basic Requirements Of All Single Subject Designs <ul><li>Continuous Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several observations of the target behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across all phases of the study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A minimum of three times during each phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baseline Assessment Of Functioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data about what expected performance would be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive function (control phase) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baseline Data Should Be Stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without trend and have little variability </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Internal and External Validity <ul><li>Internal Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which alternate explanations, beyond the variable of interest, can be ruled out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which results of an experiment can be generalized beyond the conditions of an experiment </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Internal and External Validity <ul><li>Internal validity addressed through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal or reversal with repeating phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing across multiple baselines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External validity addressed through replication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least four cases per study </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Two Types of Experimental Single Subject Designs <ul><li>AB designs are pre-experimental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing measurement accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detecting preliminary data trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot infer causality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ABAB Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are Experimental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal and Reversal take place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple Baseline Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are Experimental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target behavior changes when and only when an intervention is applied to that behavior </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>A first baseline phase describes and predicts the target </li></ul><ul><li>First intervention phase, when the intervention is applied and the target is measured </li></ul><ul><li>Next comes a second baseline phase, also known as a withdrawal phase, when the intervention is removed and the target is measured </li></ul><ul><li>Finishes with a second intervention phase, maintained as long as is needed, and then faded out </li></ul>ABAB Design - Implementing
  • 7. <ul><li>A stable first baseline phase </li></ul><ul><li>a marked change during the first intervention phase </li></ul><ul><li>A clear return to first baseline performance levels during the second baseline phase </li></ul><ul><li>Another marked change in the target during the second intervention phase </li></ul>ABAB Design - Analyzing
  • 8. ABAB Design - Analyzing
  • 9. <ul><li>Phases can be ordered differently within ABAB designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As long as there are at least two intervention phases and two baseline phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention and baseline phases are adjacent to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment comparisons can be made </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ABCABC design for example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ordering of treatments should be changed across replications </li></ul></ul>ABAB Design - Considerations
  • 10. Problems with ABAB designs <ul><li>Absence of reversal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The target doesn't return to first baseline levels during the second baseline phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Undesirability of reversing behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In some instances it is unethical to allow the client to worsen, even for a brief period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially if the behavior has a risk of harming anyone </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Multiple Baseline Designs <ul><li>Test causality </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrating that a target behavior changes when and only when an intervention is applied to that behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Require highly specified targets and interventions </li></ul>
  • 12. Multiple Baseline Designs Can Be Implemented <ul><li>Across behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least three different target behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Across participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a single intervention being compared across at least three participants who have the same target </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Across settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with a single intervention being applied to a single participant across at least three different settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Across Change Agents </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Collect baseline data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On at least three targets, participants, or settings/change agents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apply an intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To only one target, participant or setting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After change is demonstrated in the first target, participant or setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply an intervention to another single target, participant or setting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After change is demonstrated in the second target, participant or setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply an intervention to another single target, participant or setting </li></ul></ul>Multiple Baseline - Implementing
  • 14. Multiple Baseline Design - Analyzing
  • 15. Problems With Multiple Baseline Designs <ul><li>Interdependent baselines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When behaviors change before the intervention is applied to them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent intervention effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add ambiguity to conclusions about interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prolonged baselines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise clinical and ethical issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise the risk that a behavior may change before an intervention is applied </li></ul></ul>

×