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Lecture 6 measurement i

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  • 1. #6 Location In The Research Process Formulating Research Questions Previous Research Craft Knowledge Appropriate Design Appropriate Sampling Decisions Ensure Research Ethics Data Collection & Management Data Analysis Interpretation Dissemination Ongoing Research
  • 2. Levels of Measurement
    • Properties of Measurement
    • Properties of measurement are arranged hierarchically:
      • Discreet
      • Hierarchical
      • Equidistance
      • Absolute Zero
    • A measure must have the preceding property before one can assess if it has any subsequent properties.
  • 3. Levels of Measurement
    • Discreet
      • No overlapping categories
      • Events must fit into one and only one number or category
    • Hierarchy
      • Numbers or categories have a progression
      • An increase in number corresponds to an increase in the amount of a characteristic being measured
  • 4. Levels of Measurement
    • Equidistance
      • Distance between any two points in the continuum measured must correspond to an equal amount of difference for any other two points that are separated by the same numeric magnitude
      • The difference between one apple and two is one apple, the difference between 67 and 68 apples is still one apple
    • Absolute Zero
      • If the criteria for preceding properties are met
      • There can be an absolute absence of a characteristic or event being measured
  • 5. Levels of Measurement
    • Levels of measurement are also hierarchical
    • Levels of measurement include:
      • Nominal
      • Ordinal
      • Interval
      • Ratio
    • Must possess all of the properties of the previous level to be evaluated for being a higher level of measurement
    • The hierarchy in levels of measurement imply greater levels of precision
  • 6. Levels of Measurement
    • Nominal
      • Discreet
    • Ordinal
      • Discreet
      • Hierarchical
    • Interval
      • Discreet
      • Hierarchical
      • Equidistance
    • Ratio
      • Discreet
      • Hierarchical
      • Equidistance
      • Absolute Zero
  • 7. Levels of Measurement
  • 8. Discussion Question
    • What level of measurement do these variables possess?
      • A persons gender?
      • An answer to a single question on a 7 point scale?
      • A standardized score on the CBCL Aggressive Behavior subscale?
      • How often a client smokes a cigarette during a 24 hour time period?