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Lecture 5--Research Questions II
 

Lecture 5--Research Questions II

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    Lecture 5--Research Questions II Lecture 5--Research Questions II Presentation Transcript

    • #5 Location In The Research Process Formulating Research Questions Previous Research Craft Knowledge Appropriate Design Appropriate Sampling Decisions Ensure Research Ethics Data Collection & Management Data Analysis Interpretation Dissemination Ongoing Research
    • Concept to variable
      • In order for a concept (a mental image that symbolizes an idea) to be a variable it must meet three conditions.
      • It is comprised of more than one value (attribute), so it is capable of varying
      • It is chosen for investigation in a research study
      • It must be translated into observable terms
    • Operational Definitions
      • Describe your variables
      • Must be sufficiently clear to allow other researchers to replicate your study
      • Clearly describe the procedures that you used
      • **Clear operational definitions are essential to building a useful body of knowledge
    • Independent Variables
      • Believed to influence the outcome of a study
      • Controlled by the researcher through random assignment
      • Compared by the researcher through contrasted existing groups
      • An important predictor of an outcome in a correlational study
    • Dependent Variables
      • Influenced by changes in the independent variable
      • Outcome variables
        • Changes in Affect
        • Changes in Behavior
        • Changes in Cognition
      • Changes in the dependent variable depend on changes in the independent variable
    • Hypothesis and Variable Relationships
      • A hypothesis predicts the relationship between variables .
      • Positive Relationship- both independent and dependent variables move in the same direction as the independent variable is changed.
      • Negative Relationship (inverse)- The independent and dependent variables move in opposite directions. As the independent variable increases, the dependent variable decreases (and vice-versa).
      • Curvilinear Relationship-The nature of the relationship changes at certain levels of the variables (goes from positive to negative or negative to positive.)
    • Spurious Relationships
      • A relationship between variables that disappears when a third variable is controlled for, is said to be a Spurious Relationship.
      • We must be careful in our reporting of relationships we find in research.
      • eg. Ice Cream Sales Incidents of Sexual Assault
      • Relationship goes away when weather is controlled for.
    • Question 1
      • The local substance abuse agency wants to know if alcoholic clients are more likely to be clinically depressed than people in the general population.
      • What are the independent variables that might be used in this study?
      • What are the dependent variables that might be used in this study?
    • Ethical Questions
      • Are the benefits from the research to participants and society greater than the risks that the participants are exposed to?
      • Are the intended participants members of a vulnerable population?
      • What will I do to ensure that the participants rights are protected?